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John Chrysostom, d. A07. 

The homilies of S. John 

Chrysostom, Archbishop 


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This volume completes tlie series of S. Chrysostom^s 
Homilies on the New Testament. Translated a quarter of 
a century ago by the Rev. T. Keble Vicar of Bisley, and 
revised with great labour in the use of the then existing 
editions by his brother, the Vicar of Hursley, it was thought 
best to delay the pubhcation until Dr. Field had completed 
the long-delayed publication of the Greek Text. This ap- 
peared in 1862. 

The editing of the text of S. Chrysostom's Homilies 

is attended with peculiar difficulties. Written sermons % 

if ever preached in those days, were the exception. Those 

which have been preserved to us have been generally taken 

down by some hearer. S.Augustine afterwards revised 

his, when brought to him for the purpose. In the case of 

S. Chrysostom^s Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles, as 

well as of the present volume, there are two distinct texts 

still extant : that originally taken down by the short-hand 

writer, and another, when this had been polished and made 

neat at a subsequent time. Dr. Field's great labour then 

in the Greek text of the present volume had been to restore 

the older form of these Homilies. He had ample material, 

both in Greek MSS., in a Catena published not many years 

ago by our Dr. Cramee, Principal of New Inn Hall, which 

» See an animadversion of S. Cyril details of S. Augustine's preaching. 
Alex, on those who committed to Fleury remarks of Atticus, Arch- 
writing other people's sermons and bishop of Constantinople, in the be- 
thus preserved what might have been ginning of the fifth century, just after 
less deliberately uttered as though it S. Chrysostom's decease, " His ser- 
had been thoroughly well weighed. " mons were indifferent, so that no 
De Ador. viii. t. i. 267. See also the " one took the trouble to take them 
constantly-occurring expressions in " down in writing." Fleury, Eccles. 
S. Augustine which belong to the na- Hist. xxii. 9 p.l33 Oxford translation, 
tural extemporaneous delivery but The extract however which S. Cyril 
which would be untrue in the deli- has preserved of Atticus (de recta fide 
very of written sermons. The Preface ad Arcadiam Marinamque, repeated 
to the first volume of S. Augustine on in his Apol. adv. Episcopos Orientales 
S. John in this Library written by the cap. 4) is eloquent and pious. 
Rev. H. Browne contains interesting 


exhibit the older text (the former half of a second Catena^ 
compiled by Niketas ^ Ai^chbishop of Heraclea in Thrace in 
the eleventh century, and publisbed by the same Dr. Cramer 
appears to use both) ; and, of yet more importance, in Latin 

Cassiodorus, an Italian, who lived about 150 years after 
S. Chrysostom, in the earlier part of his treatise, de Insti- 
tutione Divinarum Litterarum cap. 8. (opp. t. ii. p. 543 ed. 
Rotom. 1679) in describing a volume of S. Paulas Epistles, 
in which 13 of the Epistles had a good commentary, goes 
on, " But in regard to the Epistle to the Hebrews whicb 
'' S. John Bishop of Constantinople treated of in Greek in 
'^ 34 homilies, we have caused Mutianus, a most eloquent 
" man, to translate them into Latin, that the order of the 
" Epistles might not be unduly broken off.^^ 

To Cassiodorus then we owe the Latin version of Mu- 
tianus which has come down to us, and which, translated 
from the older form of text, has been a great assistance in 
the editing. It is often quoted in the footnotes. In p. 167 
there is also given an extract from the 13th Homily by 
Facundus, an African Bishop, who lived about the same 
time with Mutianus, but who apparently translated the 
passage into Latin for himself. 

The short-hand writer, who took down these Homilies 
and thus preserved them to us, is not unknown to us. It is 
S. Chrysostom's dearly -loved friend the Priest Constantine 
or Constantius ^ For the title is. Homilies of 8. John Chrij- 
sostom ArchhisJwp of Constantinople on the E;pistle to the 
HehrewSyimhlished after his decease from notes hij Constantine 
Presbyter of Antioch. 

At the beginning of S. Chrysostom's exile in 404, when 
he was in Nicsea, in a Letter which he wrote to Constantius 
about a mission which he had set on foot at Phoenicia 
(Ep. 121 t. iii. pp. 721, 722 ed. Montf.), he begs him ^'not 

»> Dr. Cramer had published tins part inf.) 

from the l»aris MS. Cod. Rep^. 238 '^^ Montfaucon observe^ that the Ma- 

which contains the hrst half only: but nuscripts frequently interchange the 

the whole catena is extant in the Li- name, 
brary of S.Ambrose at Milan (E. 63 


''to cease having a care for tlie Churclies of Phoenicia and 
"Arabia and the east, and to write to'' S. Chrysostom "quite 
"often, and tell him how many Churches had been built 
"in a year and what holy men had gone into Phoenicia." 
Soon after, Constantius seems to have asked leave of 
S. Chrysostom to join him; for in his 13th letter to Olym- 
pias on arriving at Cocussus or Cucusus in Cappadocia, now 
Goksyn, his bitter place of exile, S. Chrysostom says, (ib, 
p. 594) " My Lord, the most pious priest Constantius, 
"would fain have been here long ago, for he wrote to me 
"begging that I would let him come.'' About this time, 
perhaps while Constantius was on his actual journey to Cu- 
cusus, S. Chrysostom writes to him (Ep. 225 p. 724), grieved 
at not having heard from him, and speaks of their great 
love for each other and of Constantius' goodness to the 
poor, the fatherless and widows : soon after he writes from 
Cucusus to Elpidius bishop of Laodicea (Ep. 114 p. 656), 
"the most reverend priests Constantius and Euethius are 
"here with us." There are extant two Letters of Con- 
stantius, one of them to his mother, written while he was 
companion of S. Chrysostom there (pp. 731 and 734). In 
the course of this banishment S. Chrysostom writes (Ep. 
123 pp. 663, 664) about this Phoenician mission to ''the 
"priests and monks in Phoenicia, who were instructing the 
"Gentiles there," encouraging them in their work, and 
saying that he had given orders that all their expenses 
" in clothing, shoes and support of the brethren should be 
"bountifully supplied," and adds that they will know about 
his affairs from Constantius' letter. In a letter to Gerontius 
(Ep. 54 p. 623) written during this exile about the mission 
in Phoenicia, S. Chrysostom says that he had intrusted 
Constantius to give Gerontius all he needed whether " for 
"building or for the needs of the brethren." 

To Constantius' piety we owe the preservation of these 
Homilies. One very special value of them lies in the pious 
fervent exhortation at the end of each, on Penitence, Alms- 
giving, or whatever S. Chrysostom had at the time chiefly 
in mind, breathing forth words from a heart, filled with the 
Love of God and that longed for his flock to partake it. 


Ho.M. I on sin and Almsgiving 

2 on high tlioughts and on poverty and wealth 

3 on God's gifts to eacli 

4 on lieathen practices at funerals 

5 on temptation 

6 on Heaven 

7 on old age 

8 on study of Scriptures 

9 on Penitence and confession of our sins 

10 on relieving distress 

11 on Almsgiving and giving to beggars 

12 on free-will and Penitence 

13 on not postponing Baptism and on a right life 

14 on Thought of God and earnest prayer 

15 on sin-enslavement and on untimely laughter 

16 on dwelling in Heaven 

17 on worthily receiving Holy Communion'^' 

18 on the Might of Poverty 

19 on the great Gain of loving one's neighbour 

20 on slavery to possessions and on Thankfulness 

21 on gossip 

22 on seeking God, on His Protection and enduring 


23 oii the loss of God 

24 on the acquirement of Virtue 

25 on not caring for things of the world nor partaking 

with the covetous 

26 on loyalty to God 

27 on the might of Prayer and on minding us that we 

are sinners 

28 value of Affliction and on simplicity of life and 

adornment of the soul 

29 on the Peril of Luxury 

30 on helping each other in way of salvation 

31 on Penitence and keeping in mind our sins 

32 on the Might of mercifulness to others 

33 on the value of affliction, trial, poverty, and on Thank- 

fulness ^ 

34 on using with intensity of mind and purpose, the 

Grace of the Spirit. 


After the publication of Dr. Field^s text (Bibliotlieca 
Patrum Ecclesiae Catbolicae Qui ante Orientis et Occidentis 
schisma floruerunt, torn vii. Oxonii 1862) the translation 
was again very carefully revised by that text by the Rev. 
Dr. Baeeow, Principal of S. Edmund Hall : he also wrote 
heads for the present Preface. The headings were given 
(as fa"r as could be done) in the MS. and many of them 
have been retained; others, fitting in less well with the 
printed page, seemed to need a little modification. For an 
occasional note enclosed in brackets, the son of the one re- 
maining Editor of the Library is responsible. 


OxEOED, May 1877. 

p. 182 margin /or Hab. ii. 14. correct Isa. xi. 9. and cancel note 1. 



Page I. 


Page 8. 

Heb. i. 1, 2. 
God, ivho at sundry times and in divers manners spahe in 
times past unto the fathers hy the Prophets, hath at the 
end of the days spoken unto us hy His 8on : whom He 
hath appointed heir of all things, hy ivhom also He made 
the ivorlds. 


Page 18. 

Heb. i. 3. 
Who heing the hrightness of His Glory and the express 
Image of His person, and upholding all things hy the 
ivord of His power ^ when He had hy Himself purged our 


Page 31. 

Heb. i. 6—8, 
And ivhen He again hringeth in the First-Begotten into the 
world, He saith, And let all the angels of God worship 
Him. And of the angels He saith, Who malceth His 
angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire. But 
unto the Son He saith, Thy throne, God, is for ever 
and ever. 



Page 47. 

Heb. ii. 5 — 7. 

For unto Angels He hath not imt in subjection the world to 
come, ivhereof we spealc. But one in a certain place tes- 
tified, saying, What is man that Thou art mindful of him., 
or the son of man that Thou visitest him ? Thou hast 
made hhn a little lower than the Angels. 


Page 63. 

Heb. ii. 16, 17. 

For verily He taheth not hold of Angels, hut of the seed, of 
Abraham He taheth hold. Wherefore in all things it 
behoved Him to be made like unto His brethren. 


Page 76. 

Heb. iii. 7 — 11. 

Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saitli, To-day if ye luill hear 
His voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation 
m the day of temptation in the wilderness, luhen your 
fathers tempted Me, proved Me, and saiv My icorhs forty 
years. Wherefore I luas grieved ivith that generation, and 
said. They do alway err in their heart, and they have 
not hnown My ways. So I sivare in My ivrath. If they 
shall enter into My rest. 


Page 87. 

Heb. iv. 11—13. 

Let us labour therefore to enter into that Rest, lest any 

man fall after the sani^ example of unbelief. For the 

■ word of God is quiclc [i. e. living] and poiverful, and 

sharper than any tiuo-edged sword, and pierceth even to 


the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints 
and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and in- 
tents of the heart, neither is there any creature that is 
not manifest in His sight, for all things are nalced and 
opened unto the eyes of Him luith Whom ive have to do. 


Page 100. 

Heb. v. 1—3. 

For every high jpriest talcen from among men, is ordained for 
men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both 
gifts and sacrifices for sins : %uho can have compassion on 
the ignorant and on them that are out of the way, for that 
he himself also is compassed with infirmity ; and by reason 
hereof he ought, as for the people so also for himself to 
offer for sins. 


, Page 114. 

Heb. vi. 1—3. 

Wherefore leaving the p>rinciples of the Doctrine of Christ, 
let us go on unto perfection, not laying again the founda- 
tion of repentance from dead works, and of faith towards 
God; of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of 
hands : and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal 
judgment. And this we ivill do, if God p>ermit. 


Page 127. 

Heb. vi. 1, 8. 

For the Earth which drinheth in the rain that cometh oft 

' upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom 

it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God. But if it bear 

thorns and briars it is rejected, and nigh unto cursing, 

whose end is to be burned. 

YOL. VII. b 



Page 138. 
Heb. vi. 13—16. 

For ivlien God made promise to Abraham., because He could 
swear by no greater, He sware by Himself, saying. Surely 
blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply 
thee. And so after he had ^patiently endured, he obtained 
the promise. For men verily swear by the greater, and an 
oath for confirmation is to them the end of all strife. 


Page 150. 

Heb. vii. 1 — 3. 

For this Melchisedec, King of Salem, Priest of the most 
High God, luho met Abraham as he was returning from 
the slaughter of the Kings, and blessed him : to ivhom also 
Abraham a tenth jp art of all; first being by inter- 
pretation King of Righteousness, and after that also King 
of Salem,, ivhich is. King of Peace, yjithout father, ivith- 
out mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning 
of days, nor end of life, but made like unto the Son of 
God, abideth a Priest continually. 


Page 160. 

Heb. vii. 11 — 14. 

Jf therefore perfection ivere by the Levitical jpriesthood (for 
under it the people have received the laivj ; what further 
owed was there, that another priest should arise after the 
order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of 
Aaron ? For the priesthood being changed, there is of 
necessity a change also of the laiv. For He of ivhom those 
tilings are spoken, pertained to another tribe, of which no 
ynan gave attendance at the altar. For it is evident that 
our Lord sprang out of Judah, of which tribe Moses spake 
nothing concerning priests. 



Page 174. 

Heb. viii. 1, 2. 

Now of the things ivhich ive have spoheyi this is the sum. 
We have such an High Priest; who is set down at the 
right hand of the throne of the majesty in the heavens : 
a minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle 
which the Lord 2^ itched, and not man. 


Page 187. 

Heb. ix. 1 — 5. 

Then verily the first [covenanf] had also ordinances of divine 
service, and a vwrldly Sanctuary. For there ivas a taber- 
nacle made.; the first, wherein was the Candlestick, and the 
Table, and the Shewbread; ivhich is called the Sanctuary. 
Ayid after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called 
the Holiest of all ; ivhich had the golden censer, and the 
Arh of the Covenant overlaid round about with gold, 
wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's 
rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant ; and over 
it the Cherubims of glory, shadowing the Mercy -seat, of 
which we cannot now speah particularly . 


Page 198. 

Heb. ix. 15 — 18. 

And for this cause He is the Mediator of the New Testament, 
that by means of death for the redemption of the trans- 
gressions that were under the first Testament, they which 
are called might receive the promise of an eternal inherit- 
ance. For where a testament is, there must also of ne- 
cessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is 
of force when men are dead, since it hath no force at all 
whilst the testator liveth. Whereupon neither was that 
first [testamenf] dedicated without blood. 



Page 207. 

Heb. ix. 24—26. 

For Christ is not entered into the holy places made ivith 
hands, which are the figures of the true, hut into Heaven 
itself, noiv to appear in the presence of God for us. Nor 
yet that He should offer Himself often, as the High Priest 
entereth into the Holy place every year with blood of others, 
for then must He often have suffered since the foundation 
of the world. But now, once, at the end of the world , 
hath He appeared to put away sin hy the sacrifice of 


Page 218. 

Heb. X. 8—18. 
Above luhen He said, Sacrifice and offh'i7ig, and burnt-offer- 
ings, and lofferingl for sin. Thou ivoiddest not, neither 
hadst pleasure [therein], which are offered hy the Law, then 
said He, Lo ! I come ta do Thy ivill, God. He taheth 
away the first, that He may establish the second. By the 
ivhich will we are sanctified', by the offering of the body 
of Jesus Christ, once for all. And every priest standeth 
daily ministering, and offering oftentimes the same sacri- 
fices, which can never take aiuay sins. But this [man] 
after He had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat 
down on the right hand of God, from henceforth expecting 
till His enemies be made His footstool. 


Page 226. 

Heb. X. 19—23. 
Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest 
by the blood o/ Jesus^ by a new and living way ivhich He 
hath consecrated for us, through the Veil, that is to say, 
His flesh, and having an High Priest over the house of God, 
let us d.raw near ivith^ true heart, in full assurance of 
Jadh, liavmg our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, 
and our bodies washed with pure ivater, let us hold fast 
the profession of our hope without wavering. 



Page 233. 

Heb. X. 26, 27. 
For if we sin wilfully , after we have received the knowledge 
of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, hut 
a c'ertain fearful looking for of judgment, and fiery indig- 
7iation luhich shall devour the adversaries. 


Page 243. 

Heb. X. 32—34. 

But call to remembrance the former days, in which after ye 
ivere illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions ; 
partly, whilst ye luere made a gazing stock both by re- 
joroaches and afflictions, and partly whilst ye became 
companions of them that were so used. For ye had com- 
passion on those icho were in bonds, and took joyfully the 
spoiling of your goods, knowing that ye have for yourselves 
in heaven a better and an enduring substance. 


Page 253. 

Heb. xi. 3, 4. 

Through faith ive understand that the worlds were framed 
by the word of God ; so that things which are seen ivere 
not made of things which do appear. By faith Abel 
offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by 
lohicli he obtained ivitness that he was righteous, God 
testifying of his gifts; amd by it he being dead yet 


Page 2(>1. 

Heb. xi. 7. 
By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as 
yet, moved loithfear, prepared an ark to the saving of his 
house; by the which he condemned the world, and became 
heir of the righteousness vjhich is by Faith. 



Page 275. 

Heb. xi. 13—16. 

These all died in faith, not having received the promises, 

hut having seen them afar off, and embraced them, and 

confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the 

earth. For they that say such things, declare plainly 

that they seeh a country. And truly if they had been 

mindful of that country from luhence they came out, they 

might have had opportunity to have returned. But now they 

desire a better country, that is, an heavenly ; wherefore 

God is not ashamed to be called Their God, for He hath 

for them a city . 


Page 285. 

Heb. xi. 17— 19. 

By faith [^Abrahani] ivhen he ivas tried offered np Isaac 

and he that had received the promises offered up his only- 

begotten son, of ivhom it was said, In Isaac shall thy seed 

be called : accounting that God was able to raise him up 

even from the dead; from whence also he received him in 

a figure. 


Page 296. 

Heb. xi. 20—22. 
By faith, concerning things to come Isaac blessed Jacob and 
Esau. By faith, Jacob tuhen he was a dying blessed each 
of the sons of Joseph, and worshipped leaning on the top 
of his staff. By faith, Joseph when he died made mention 
of the departing of the children of Israel, and gave com- 
mandment concerning his bones. 


Page 309. 

Heb. xi. 28—31. 
By faith, he hept the Passover and the spi'inlcling of blood, 
lest he that destroyed the first-born shoidd touch them. 
By faith, they passed through the Bed sea, as by dry land; 

CONTENTS. xxiii 

which the Egyptians assaying to do, were drowned. By 
faith, the walls of Jericho fell down, after they had heen 
compassed about for seven days. By faith, Bahah the 
harlot perished not ivith them that believed not, having 
received the spies with peace, 


Page 320. 

Heb. xi. 37, 38. 

They wandered about in sheep-shins, in goat-shins, being 
destitute, afflicted, tormented {of whom this world was 
not worth])) ; wandering in deserts, and mountains, and 
dens, and caves of the earth. 


Page 339. 

Heb. xii. 4 — 6. 

Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin. And 
ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaheth unto you 
as unto children. My son, despise not thou the chastening 
of the Lord, nor faint ivhen thozi art rebuked of Him. For 
whom the Lord loveth. He chasteneth : and scourgeth every 
son whom He receiveth. 


Page 349. 

Heb. xii. 11—13. 

No chastisement for the present seemeth to be joyous, but 
grievous, nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable 
fruit of righteousness to them ivhich have been exercised 
thereby. Wherefore lift up the hands which hang down, 
and the feeble hiees : and malce straight paths for your 
feet, lest that ivhich is lame be turned out of the ivay, but 
let it rather be healed. 



Page 357. 

Heb. xii. 14. 

Folloiv peace ivith all men, and holiness without ivhich 

no one shall see the Lord. 


Page 366. 

Heb. xii. 18—24. 

For ye are not come unto a fire that might be toucJied and 

that burned, and unto blachiess, and darlzness, and tempest, 

and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words, ivhich 

voice they that heard entreated that the word should not 

be spohen to them any more. {For they could not endure 

tliat which ivas commanded. And if so much as a beast 

touch the mountain, it shall be stoned. And, so terrible 

was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and 

quake.) But ye are come unto Mount 8ion, and unto the 

city of the Living God, the Heavenly Jerusalem ; and to 

myriads of Angels, in festive gathering, and to the Church 

of the first-born which have been enrolled in Heaven; and 

to God the Judge of all ; and to the spirits of just men made 

perfect: and to Jesus the Mediator of the New Covenant: 

and to the blood of sprinMing that spealceth better things 

than Abel. 


Page 376. 

Heb. xii. 28, 29. 
Wherefore we receiving a Kingdom that cannot be moved, let 
us have grace [or gratitudel, whereby we serve God ac- 
ceptably with reverence and godly fear. For our God is a 
consuming fire. 

Page 387. 

Heb. xiii. 17. 
Obey them that have the rfde over you, and submit yourselves. 
For they watch for your souls, as they that give ac- 
count, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief, 
for tJiis is unprofitable for you. 









[1.] The blessed Paul writing to the Romans, saith, (i) 
Inasmuch then as I am the Apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify Rom. xi. 
mine office ; if by any means I may provoke to jealousy them ^^» ^^• 
that are my flesh : and again, in another place, For He Gal. ii. 8. 
that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the 
circumcision, the same wrought effectually in me toward 
the Gentiles. If therefore he were the Apostle of the Gen- 
tiles (for also in the Acts, God saith to him. Depart ; for Actsxxii. 
/ will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles), what had he * 
to do with the Hebrews ? and why did he also write an 
Epistle to them ? 

And especially as besides, they were evil-disposed towards 
him ; as is often from many places to be seen. For hear 
what James saith to him, Thou seest, brother, how many ib. xxi. 
thousands of Jews there are ivhich have believed .... and 2^' ^^* 
these all have been informed of thee that thou teachest 
men to- forsake the Law. And oftentimes he had many 
disputings concerning this. 

Thus (a person might enquire) considering that he was so 



2 Why should the Apostle of Gentiles 

learned in the Law (for he was instructed in the Law at 
the feet of Gamaliel, and his zeal in the cause thereof was 
great), and that herein he was particularly able to confound 

them ; why did not God send him to the Jews ? Because 

on this very account they had been made more vehement 

Acts xx'ii. in their enmity against him. Foi* they will not endure thee, 

^^'^^* saith God unto him. But, Depart far off to the Gentiles^ 

inasmuch as they ivill not receive thy testimony concerning 

lb. 19, Me. Whereupon he himself saith, Yea, Lord, they know that 

20- I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue them that believed 

on Thee ; and when the blood of Thy martyr Stephen was 

shed, I also was standing and consenting unto his death, and 

kept the raiment of them that slew him. 

And this is the very thing which he says is a sign and 
argument of their not believing him. For thus it is: when 
^ iOvovs a man starts off from any sort of people ^, if he be one of the 
least and of those who are nothing worth, he doth not much 
vex those from whom he is departed. But if he be among 
the distinguished or very earnest partizans, or those who 
sympathise with them, he exceedingly grieves and vexes 
them beyond measure; in that he especially overthrows 
their system, in the judgment of the many. 

And besides this, there was something else in addition. 
What now might this be ? That Peter and the others were 
with Christ, and also saw signs and wonders ; but he having 
enjoyed none of these advantages, but being with Jews, all 
at once deserted, and became one of them. Which thing 
especially promoted our cause. For while they seemed to 
bear witness from mere favour, and a person might have 
said that in loving regret for their master, they testify these 
things : the special witness of the resurrection was of all 
lb. ix. 4, men this man, who heard a voice only. For this cause thou 
^^^^' ' seest them waging passionate war with him, and practis- 
ing all for no other purpose than to slay him and raising 

The unbelievers then on this account listened to him 
with evil dispositions, but the believers, what was their 
motive? Because in^reaching to the Gentiles he was con- 
strained to preach Christianity purely. And if haply he 
were found [doing it] even in Judeea, he cared not. For 

write to the Jews, 3 j 

Peter indeed and they that were with him, inasmuch as Heb. 
they had to preach in Jerusalem, where men^s zeal was i 

great, of necessity bade them keep the Law : whereas this 
man was quite at liberty. The converts too from the Gen- 
tiles were more in number than the Jews, inasmuch as they 
were without ^. And this enfeebled the Law, and they had ' ! 

no longer so great reverence for it, although he preached ^ | 

all things purely. At least it is with respect to this i 

that they seem to shame him by numbers, saying. Thou Actsxxi. j 

seest, brother, how many ten thousands of Jews there are 
which are come together. On this account they hated 
him and turned away from him, because they have been in- lb. 21. 
formed, it ^m^, concerning thee, that thou teachest men to 
forsake the Law. 

[2.] Why then, not being a teacher of the Jews, doth he 
send an Epistle to them ? (And where abode those to 
whom he sent it ? As it seems to me, in Jerusalem and j 

Palestine.) How then doth he send them an Epistle ? | 

Just as he baptized, though to baptize was not his assigned \ 

duty. For (saith he) Iivas not sent to baptize: not however, i cor. i. 
that he was forbidden, but he doth it, as somewhat over ^^• 
and above his work. 

And how could he fail to write to these, for whom he Rom. ix. 
was willing even to become accursed? Accordingly he * 
said^. Know ye that our brother Timothy is set at liberty ; Infra ■ 

with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you, ''"*' ' , 

(For as yet he was not seized and imprisoned. Two 
years then he passed in prison at Rome. After this he was 
set free. Then having gone into the parts of Spain, he also 
perhaps saw the Jews. And then he returned to Rome, 
and then was slain by Nero. The Epistle to Timothy then 
was later' than this Epistle. For there he saith. For /2Tim.iv. ^ : 
am now ready to be offered, and there also he saith. In my j^^ jg, i 

first answer no man stood with me.) \ 

» The chosen people being- /<?wer his history and the relative date of the ^ ; 

than all people, encircled on all sides Epistles, 

by the heathen : see Mic. v. 7, 8. "^ irp^a^vripa. the word is elsewhere 

b S. Chrys. introduces this as an used in this sense by S. Chrysostom. i 

instance of S.Paul's interest in the See Mr. Field's notes. S. Chrys. often j 

Hebrews : that he not only wrote to points out that the Ep. ii. to Timothy | 

them, but also intended to visit them: is the last of all S. Paul's Epistles. , 

and on that digresses to the events of [Ben.] 

B 2 i 

4 Instances of his desire to benefit them. 

abgument. The reason is that in many places they [the Hebrews] 

had to contend'^ [with persecution], as also he says in an 

1 Thess. Epistle to the Thessalonians, Ye became folloivers of the 

"• ^^' Churches of Juclea : and writing to these very persons he 

Infra x. says, Ye took joyfully the spoiling of your goods. Thou 

*3^- seest that they had to contend? And if men had thus 

treated the Apostles, not in Judea only, but also wherever 

they were among the Gentiles, what would they not have 

done to the believers ? 

For this cause, thou seest, he was very full of care for 
Rom. XV. them. Thus, when he saith, I go to minister to the saints 
^^' which are in Jerusalem : and again, when he exhorts the 

2Cor.viii. Corinthians to beneficence, and says that the Macedonians 
ICor X i ^^^ already made their contribution, saying too. If it be 
4. meet that I go [&c], this is what he means. 

Gal. ii. And when he saith. Only that ive should remember the poor, 
^^' ivhich thing Iivas also forward to do — this is what he means, 

lb. 9. And when he saith. They gave to me and Barnabas the 

right hands of fellowship, that we should [^o] to the Gentiles, 
and they to the Circumcision, — this is what he means. 

But this [was] not [done] with regard to the poor also 
who were there : but [it was ordered] so that in that respect 
we might be partakers in the doing kindness [to them]. 
For [we did] not so [apportion] the care for the poor, as 
we apportioned the preaching to each other, and that we 
indeed should [gol to the Gentiles, and they to the circum- 
cision. And every where thou seest him using great care for 
them : as might be expected. 

For in the other nations indeed, where there were both 
Jews and Greeks, no such thing took place. But there, 
inasmuch as they seemed still to have authority and inde- 
pendence, and to order many things by their own peculiar 
laws, the government not yet being established, nor entirely 
brought under the Romans, they, as might have been ex- 
pected, exercised much tyrannical power. For if in other 
Actsxviii. cities, as namely in Corinth, they beat the Ruler of the 
synagogue before the Deputy's judgment seat, and Gallio 
cared for none of thes^things, yet it was not so in Judea ^. 

*• i^6\r)ffav, see &d\'n<nu Heb. x. 32. ed,not through the indifference of the 
« i.e. in .Judea, they beat and sconrg*- judge, but by their own authority. 

The Epistle contains topics of consolation, 5 

You see at any rate that while in other cities they bring Heb. 
them to the magistrates, and need assistance from them (2) 
and from the Gentiles : here, they took no care of this, 
but themselves assemble a council and put to death whom- 
ever they choose. 

In this way for instance they put Stephen to death, in 
this way they scourged the Apostles, not leading them before 
any rulers. In this way also they were about to put Paul 
to death, unless the chief captain had thrown himself upon 
them. For this took place while the priesthood was yet 
standing, as also the temple, the service, the sacrifices. 
Behold for example Paul himself on his trial before the 
High Priest, and saying, / wist not that there is an High Acts 
Priest, and this in the presence of the Ruler ^. For at that 5^^ ' 
time they possessed great power. Consider then what^i-e. be- 
sufFerings they were likely to undergo, who dwelt in Jeru- gjas, 
salem and Judea. 

[3.] He then who prays to become accursed for those 
who were not yet believers, and who so ministers to the 
faithful, as to journey himself, if occasion required, and 
who every where took exceeding care of them ; let us not 
wonder if he encourage and console them by letters also, 
and if when they are tottering and fallen he set them up- 
right. For they were in one word worn down ^ by their 
manifold afflictions, and reduced to despair. And this he 
signifies near the end, saying. Wherefore lift up the hands infra xii. 
that hang down, and the feeble knees. And again: Yet 0'\l\ 37 
little while, he that shall come will come, and will not tarry ; 
and again. If ye be ivithout chastisement, .... then are ye ib. xii. 8. 
bastards and not sons. 

For inasmuch as they were Jews, and (as others) were 
constantly told by their fathers, that they must expect both 
their good and their evil immediately and must live ac- 
cordingly, whereas then the contrary took place, their good 
things being in hope and to come after death, their evils 
in hand ; it was probable that although they had resolutely 
endured much, not a few of them would be fainthearted ; 
— he discourses hereon. 

'having lost their freshness and Mr. Field's note on S. Chrys. on I Cor. 
vigour like salted fish. See many in- Horn, xxviii. (p 255. A.) [see p. 390 
stances of its use in this sense in O.T.] 

6 The Epistle contains topics of consolation 

Argument. These things howevcr we will unfold at a fit opportunity. 
But at present we say that he could not choose but write 
to those, for whom he was used to take such anxious 
thought, the reason too being manifest, why he was not 
sent as an apostle to them; he was not hindered from 

Now that they were becoming faint-hearted, he signifies 

Infra xii. saying. Lift up the hands that hang down and the feeble 

Ib.'vi. 10. ^^^^^i ^^d make straight paths. And again. For God is not 
unrighteous, to forget your work and your love. For the 
soul being overtaken by many trials, was turned aside also 

lb. ii. 1. from the Faith. Wherefore he exhorts them to give heed 
to the things which they have heard, and that there should 

Ib.iii.l2. not be an evil heart of unbelief . On this account also, in 
this Epistle particularly, he discourses much concerning 
Faith, and at the end after many [arguments] shews that 
to them [of old] also He promised their good things in 
hand, and yet gave nothing. 

And beside these things, that they might not think 
themselves forsaken, he establishes two points, the one 
that they should bear nobly whatever befals them ; the 
other, that they should assuredly expect their recompense. 
For surely He will not leave unrewarded Abel and the line 
of righteous persons following him. 

And he draws his consolation from three arguments. 
First, from the sufferings of Christ : as He Himself also 

S.John saith. The servant is not greater than his Lord, Next, 
from the good things laid up for them that believe. 
Thirdly, from the evils ; and this point he enforces not from 
the future only (which would not be so persuasive), but 
also from what was past and had befallen their fathers. 
This Christ also doth, saying at one time. The servant is 

Ih.Kiv. 2. not greater than his Lord: and again. There are many 
mansions ivith My Father. He also denounces woes in- 
numerable on them that believe not. 

And he makes much discourse both of the New and the 
Old Covenant. For ii^eed this same topic was very useful 
to him for the proof of the Resurrection. I mean lest 
they should utterly disbelieve Christ's resurrection, through 
His sufferings, he confirms it from the Prophets, and points 

and contrast of the two Dispensations. 7 

out also^ that the Jewish rites are not the really sacred ones, Heb. 
but ours. For the temple was still standing, and the sacri- 
ficial rites ; therefore he saith. Wherefore let us go forth Heb. xUi. 
without, bearing His reproach. And this also was alleged 
against him : „If these things are a shadow, if these things 
„are an image, how is it that they have not given place, 
„or been withdrawn when the truth appeared — but these 
„ [ancient rites] still flourish?" With respect to this also, 
he quietly and in a figure intimated that it would happen 
at the time that was close at hand. 

Moreover, that they had been for a long time in the Faith 
and in afflictions he declared, saying, When for the time ye ib. v. 12. 
ought to be teachers, and. Lest there be ever in any of you Ib.iii. 12. 
an evil heart of unbelief, and. Ye became followers of them 12. 
who through patience inherit the promises. 

^ptRTY C, 


Heb. i. 1, 2. 

Goc? «^^o at sundry times and in divers manners spake in 
time past unto the fathers by the P7'ophets, hath at the 
end of the days^ spoken unto us by His Son: whom He 
hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made 
the worlds. 

(1) [1.] Truly, where sin abounded, grace did much more 
Rom. V. abound. This at least the blessed Paul intimates here also, 
in the very beginning of his Epistle to the Hebrews. For 
inasmuch as it was likely that they, afflicted, worn out as 
they had been by their evils, and judging of things thereby, 
would think themselves worse off than all other men, — he 
shews that herein they had rather been made partakers of 
greater grace, even very exceeding ; arousing the hearer at 
the very opening of his discourse. Wherefore he saith, 
God who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in 
times past unto the fathers by the Prophets, hath at the end 
of the days spoken unto us by His Son. 

Why did he [Paul] not oppose himself to the prophets ? 
Certainly, he was much greater than they, inasmuch as a 
greater trust was committed to him. Yet he doth not so. 
What could be the reason ? First, to avoid speaking great 
things concerning himself. Secondly, because his hearers 


" ia-xdrov rS)v rjixepwv. icrxd-Tuip t. ing of the Sacred Text. It is through- 

7}. (in tixese last days) Sav. Ben. here out the reading of S. Chrys. as is clear 

and throughout the Homily. The for- from his argumeut. 
mer is considered to be the true read- 

The Preeminence of the Sox. The last Days. 9 

were not yet perfect. And thirdly, because he rather Heb.j. i. 
wished to exalt them, and to shew that their superiority 
was great. As if he had said. What so great matter is it 
that He sent prophets to our fathers ? For to us [He has 
sent] His own only-begotten Son Himself. 

And well did he begin thus, At sundry times and in divers 
manner^, for he points out that not even the prophets them- 
selves saw God ; nevertheless, the Son saw Him. For the 
expressions, at sundry times and in divers manners are the 
same as "in different ways." For I (saith He) have multiplied Hos. xii. 
visions, and used similitudes by the ministry of the Prophets. ' 
Wherefore the excellency consists not in this alone, that 
to them indeed prophets ^re sent, but to us the Son; but 
in that from among them no one saw God, but the Only- 
begotten Son saw Him. He doth not indeed at once assert 
this, but by what he saith afterwards he establishes it, when 
he speaks concerning His human nature; For to which of yer. 5. 
the Angels said He, Thou art My Son, and. Sit thou on ver. 13. 
My right hand ? 

And look thou on his great wisdom. First he shews this 
superiority from the prophets. Then having maintained 
this as an acknowledged truth, he declares that to them 
indeed He spake by the prophets, but to us by the Only- 
begotten. Then [He spake] to them by Angels, and this again 
he establishes, with good reason (for it is true that angels 
also held converse with the Jews) : yet even herein we have 
the superiority, inasmuch as the Master [spake] to us, but 
to them the servants, and prophets the fellow-servants. 

[2.] Well also said he, at the end of the days, for by this 
also he stirs them up and encourages them in their utter 
despondency. For as he saith also in another place. The Phil. iv. 
Lord is at hand, be careful for nothing, and again. For now Rom.xUi. 
is our salvation nearer than ivhen we believed : so also here. H- 
What then is it which he saith ? That whoever has been 
exhausted in the conflict, when he hears of the end thereof, 
recovers his breath a little, knowing that it is the end in- 
deed of his labours, but the beginning of his rest. 

Hath in the end of the days spoken unto us in His Son. 
Behold again he uses the saying, in [las'] Son ^, for through ^ «'" ^'^v 
the Son ^, against those who assert that this phrase is ^ f'^ '^oO 

10 Now His Divine, now His Human Nature spoken of, 

HoM. 1. proper to the Spirit ^. Dost thou see that the [word] in 
is through ? 

And the expression again, Jn times past, and this. In the 
end of the days, has some other hidden meaning. That 
when a long time had intervened, when we were on the 
edge of punishment, when the Gifts had failed, when there 
was no expectation of deliverance, when we were expecting 
to have less than all — then we have had more. 

And see with what consideration he hath spoken it. 
For he said not, Christ spake (albeit it was He who did 
speak), but inasmuch as their souls were weak, and they 
were not yet able to hear the things concerning Christ, he 
saith, God hath spoken by Him. What meanest thou ? did 
God speak through the Son? Yes. What then? Is it 
thus thou shewest the superiority? for here thou hast but 
pointed out that both the New and the Old [Covenants] 
are of One and the same : and that this superiority is not 
great. Wherefore he henceforth follows on upon this 
argument, saying, He spake unto us by His Son. 

(Note, how Paul expresses it generally, and puts himself 
on a level with the disciples, saying. He spake to us : and 
yet He did not speak to him, but to the Apostles, and 
through them to the many. But he is lifting them [the 
Hebrews] up, declaring that He sj^ake also to them. And 
as yet he doth not at all reflect on the Jews. For almost 
all to whom the prophets spake, were a kind of evil and 
polluted persons. But as yet the discourse is not of these : 
but hitherto of the gifts derived from God.) 

Whom He appointed, saith he, heir of all. What means 

this whom He appointed heir of all F He is speaking here 

of the flesh [the human nature]. As He also saith in the 

Ps. ii. 8. second Psalm, Ask of Me, and I will give Thee nations, for 

Deut. Thine inheritance. For no longer is Jacob the portion of 

xxxii. 9. ^^g Lord, nor Israel His inheritance, but all men : that is 

*» That is, the Macedonians or Pneu- Thu'd Person especially, was the only 

matomachi, who about the year 373 proper form. This gave occasion to 

found great fault with S. Basil for S. Basil's writing his Tract De Spiritu 

using indifferently the two forms of Sancto, in which he refutes them at 

doxoiogy, sometimes juera rov^'Ttov large, proving among otherthings that 

(Tvv T(J5 Tlvdviiari rep 'Ayicp, sometimes iv is in Scripture often equivalent to 

Sm Tov Ttov iv r^ UuevixaTi, rep 'Ayicf. (Tvv. C. 25. t. iii. 49. That 4v is put for 

They said that the latter, by which hia is also said by S. Chrys. Hom. on 

they meant to imply inferiority in the 1 Cor. i. 4 (p. 13 O.T.) and elsewhere. 

Teaching higher or lowlier as we can bear it. 1 1 

to say, He hath made Him Lord of all : which thing He. i. 2-4. 
Peter also said in the Acts, God hath made Him both ^^^^ "' 
Lord and Christ. But he has used the name Heir, thereby 
declaring two things : His proper sonship ^ and His inde- i rhyvi]. 
feasible sovereiffntv. ffiovTns 

Heir of all, that is, of all the world. 

[3.] Then again he brings back his discourse to what 
had gone before. By whom also He made the luorlds [the 
ages'] ^. (Where are those who say, There was [a time] (2) 
when He was not?) 

Then, using degrees of ascent, he uttered that which is 
far greater than all this, saying, 

ver. 3, 4. Who being the brightness of His glory, and the 
compress image of His person, and upholding all things by the 
word of His power, when He had by Himself pm^ged our 
sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high ; 
being made so much better than the Angels as He hath by 
inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. 

O ! the wisdom of the Apostle ! or rather, not the wis- 
dom of Paul, but the grace of the Spirit is the thing to 
wonder at. For he uttered not these things surely of his 
own mind, and in that way find his wisdom. (For whence 
could it be ? From the knife, and the skins, or the work- 
shop ?) But it was of a divine energy. For his own un- 
derstanding did not give birth to these thoughts, which 
was at the time we speak of so mean and slender as in no 
wise to surpass the baser sort ; (for how could it, seeing it 
spent itself wholly on bargains and skins?) but the grace of 
the Spirit shews forth Its strength by whomsoever It will. 

For just as one, wishing to lead up a little child to some \ 
lofty place, [a place] reaching up even to the top of Heaven^ ) 
does this gently and by degrees, leading him upwards by 
the steps from below, — then when he has set him on high, 
and bidden him to gaze downwards, and sees him turning 
giddy and confused, and dizzy, taking hold of him, he leads 
him down to the lower stand, managing for him to take 
breath, then when he hath recovered it, leads him up again, 
and again brings him down; — ^just so did the blessed Paul 
likewise, both with the Hebrews and every where, having 

«^ rovs alSovas " the ages," " duration beyond time." 

12 Teaching higher or loivlier as we can bear it. 

HoM. 1. learnt it from his Master. For even He also did thus ; 
sometimes He led His hearers up on high, and sometimes 
He brought them down, not generally allowing them to 
remain long. 

See him, for example in this case too — -by how many 
steps he had led them up, and placed them near the very 
summit of Religion, and then or ever they grow giddy, and 
dizziness seize them, how he leads them again lower down, 
and permitting them to take breath, says. He spake unto 
us by His Son, ivhom He appointed Heir of all things ^. For 
the name of Son is so far common. For where it is under- 
^yvi)(Tios stood of a true natural^ [Son], He is far above all things: 
But however that may be, for the present he establishes by 
argument, that He is from above. 

And see in what manner he says it: Who7n He appointed, 
saith he, heir of all things. The phrase. He appointed Heir, 
is humble. Then he placed them on the higher step, sub- 
joining, by whom also He made the worlds. Then on that 
which is higher still, and after which there is not another, 
who being the brightness of His glory, and the express image 
of His person. Truly he has led them to unapproachable 
light, to the very brightness itself. And before the [dizzy] 
darkness came over them, see how again he gently leads 
them down, saying, and upholding all things by the word 
of His power, when He had by Himself effected the purify- 
ing of our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty. 
He does not simply say. He sat down, but after the 
purifyhig, He sat down, for he hath touched on the In- 
carnation, and his utterance is again lowly. 

Then again having said some little by the way (for he 
saith, on the right hand of the Majesty on high), [he turns] 
again to what is lowly ; being made so much better than the 
angels, as He hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent 
name than they. Henceforward then he treats in this pas- 
sage of that which has respect to the flesh, since the phrase 
being made better doth not express His essence in respect 

'' That is for the moment^. Paul but condescending to the weakness of 

does not argue the dignity of Christ his hearers, at first uses the word in 

from the title " Son" — from His being a general sense, arid establishes His 

the true Son of God, and therefore God, Divinity by other considerations. 

The Human Nature made higher than the Angels. 13 

of the Spirit ^ (for that was begotten not made) but in respect HFB.i.3,4. 
of the flesh : for this was made. 

Nevertheless the discourse here is not about the manner^ 
of existence. But just like John saying, He that cometh S.Jolmi. 
after me, is come to he before me, that is, higher in honour ^^' 
and esteem; so also in this place, being made so much better 
than the^ angels — that is, higher in esteem and better and 
more glorious. 

By how much He hath obtained by inheritance a more 
excellent name than they. Seest thou that he is speaking of 
that which is according to the flesh ? For this Name », God 
the Word ever had. He did not afterwards obtain it by 
inheritance, nor did He afterwards become better than the 
Angels, when He had made purification of our sins; but He 
was ever better, and better without all comparison ^. For ' «<^«0'- 
this is spoken of Him according to the flesh. «pT«s 

So at least it is our way also, when we talk of man, to 
speak things both high and low. Thus, when we say, 
" Man is nothing," " Man is earth," " Man is ashes," we 
denominate the whole from the worse part. But when we 
say, " Man is an immortal animal," and " Man is rational, 
and of kin to those on high," we denominate again the 
whole from the better part. So also, in the case of Christ, 
sometimes Paul discourseth from the less and sometimes 
from the better; willing both to establish the economy, 
and also to give instruction about the incorruptible nature. 

[4.] Since then He hath made purification of our sins, (3) 
let us continue pure ; and let us admit no stain, but pre- 
serve the beauty which He hath implanted in us, and His 

comeliness undefiled and pure, not having spot or wrinkle Eph. v. 


^ Kara rb Trvevfj-a is the reading" lation of S. Athanasius against the 

adopted by Mr. Field, following herein Arians,p. 196 d. [SeealsoinTertiJlian, 

an ancient Catena [compiled by Nike- O.T. note H pp. 322 sqq.] . 

tas Arch-Bishop of Heraclea in Thrace ^ qvcnctio-ecas, " communication of Be- 

who flourished in the 11th century] ing."cf.inlCor.Hom.v.§4.p.560xf.Tr. 

which has preserved it : Kara rhu s That is the Name Son. The pas- 

irarepa is found in all other Mss. and sage is thus rightly pointed by Mr. 

Editions, and was probably the read- Field in accordance with the addition 

ing in Mutianus' text, who translates of the explanatory word " Son " in 

"essentice paternse." Of the use of [Niketas'] Catena (Supp). According 

-irvev/jia for the Divine Nature of the to the pointing of the other editions, 

Son, see many instances brought to- the translation would be, "For this 

gether in the note to theOxfordTrans- Name, (Iod the Word, He ever had.'* 

14 The ill of evil-speaking rebounds on the speaker. 

HoM. 1. or any such thing. Even the smaller among sins are a spot 
and a wrinkle, such a thing, I mean, as Reproach, Insult, 

Nay, rather not even are these small, but on the contrary- 
very great : yea so great as to deprive a man of the very 
S. Matt, kingdom of Heaven. How, and in what manner ? He that 
^' ' calleth his brother fool, is in danger (it saith) of hell-fire. 
But if he be so, who calls a man fool, which seems to be 
of all things the slightest, and rather mere children's talk ; 
what sentence of punishment Avill not he incur, who calleth 
him malignant and crafty and envious, and casteth at him 
10,000 other reproaches? What more thrilling to think of 
than this ? 

Now endure, I beseech you, what 1 say ^. For if he that 
lb. XXV. doeth aught to one of the least, doeth it to Him, and he that 

1?' .r doeth it not to one of the least doeth it not to Him, how is it 
lb. 45. *' , . 

not the same also in the matter of good or evil speaking ? 

He that reviles his brother, reviles God: and he that 

(4) honours his brother, honours God. Train we therefore 

Ps.xxxiv. our tongue to speak good words. For refrain, it is said, 
thy tongue from evil. For God gave it not to this end, that 
we should speak evil, that we should revile, that we should 
calumniate one another ; but to sing hymns to God withal, 

Eph. iv. to speak those things which give grace to the hearers, 
things for edification, things for profit. 

Hast thou spoken evil of such a man ? what is thy gain, 
entangling thyself in mischief together with him ? for thou 
hast obtained the character of a slanderer. For there is 
not any, no not any evil, which stops at him that suffers 
it, but it includes the doer also. As for instance, the envious 
person seems indeed to plot against another, but himself 
first reaps the fruit of his sin, wasting and wearing himself 
away, and being hated of all men. The cheat deprives 
another of his money ; yea and himself too of men's good 
will : and causes himself to be evil spoken of by all men. 
Now a reputation is much better than money, for the one 
it is not easy to wash out, whereas it is easy to gain pos- 
session of the other. ^ Or rather, the absence of the one 

'' comp. Heb. xiii. 22. It seems as if the hearers were shewing themselves 
surprised at the severity of what he was saying. 

The inconceivahleness of the pains of Hell. 15 

doth no hurt to him that wanteth it ; but the absence of HEB.i.3,4. 
the other makes you reproached and ridiculed, and an 
object of enmity and warfare to all. 

The passionate man again first punishes and tears himself 
in pieces, and then him with whom he is angry. 

Just so the evil speaker disgraces first himself and then 
him who is evil-spoken of: or, it may be, even this hath 
proved beyond his power, and while he departs with the 
credit of a foul and detestable kind of person, he doth but 
procure for the other more abundant love. For when a man 
having a bad name given him, doth not requite the giver in 
the same kind, but with praise and admiration, he doth not 
in effect praise the other, but himself. For I before ob- 
served that, as calumnies against our neighbours first touch 
those who devdse the mischief, so also good works done 
towards our neighbours, gladden those who do them, before 
those to whom they are done, the parent either of good, or 
evil, justly reaping the fruit of it first himself. And just 
as water, whether it be brackish or sweet, whilst it fills the 
vessels of those who resort to it, at the same time lessens 
not the fountain itself which sends it forth ; so surely also, 
both wickedness and virtue, from whatever person they 
proceed, prove either his joy or his ruin. 

So far as to the things of this world. But the things of 
that world what speech may recount, either the goods or the 
evils ? there is none. For as to the blessings, they surpass 
all thought, not speech only. For their opposites, they are 
indeed expressed in terms familiar to us. For fire, we read, is 
there, and darkness, and bonds, and a worm that never dieth. 

But this represents not only the very things which are 
spoken of, but other too more intolerable. And to con- 
vince thee, consider at once this first : I mean, if it be fire, 
how is it also darkness ? seest thou how that fire is more 
intolerable than this ? for it hath no light. If it be fire, 
how is it for ever burning ? Seest thou how it is more in- 
tolerable than this fire ? for it is not quenched. Yea, there- 
fore is it called unquenchable. Let us then consider how 
great a misery it must be, to be for ever burning, and to be 
in darkness, and to utter unnumbered groanings, and to 
gnash the teeth, and not even to be heard. For if here any 

16 Make friends of the mammon of unrighteousness. 

HoM.i. one of those ingenuously brought up, should he be cast into 
prison, speaks of the mere ill savour, and the being laid in 
darkness, and the being bound with murderers, as more in- 
tolerable than any death : think what it is when we are 
burning with all the murderers of the whole world, neither 
seeing nor being seen, but in so vast a multitude thinking 
that we are alone. For the darkness and gloom doth not 
allow our distinguishing even those who are near to us, but 
each will feel as if he were the only person thus suffering. 
Moreover, if darkness of itself afflicteth and terrifieth our 
souls, how then will it be when together with the darkness 
there are likewise so great pains and burnings ? 

Wherefore I entreat you to be ever revolving these things 
with yourselves, and to submit to the pain of the words^ 
that we may not have the things to undergo as our punish- 
ment. For assuredly, all these things shall be, and those 
whose doings have deserved those chambers of torture no 

Ps. xlix. man shall rescue, not father, nor mother, nor brother. For 

7 LXX. ^ brother redeemeth not, it saith, shall a man redeem ? 
though he have much confidence, though he have great 
power w^ith God, since it is He Himself who rewards every 
one according to his works, and upon these depends our 
chance of salvation or punishment. 

S. Luke Let us make then to ourselves friends of the mammon of 
unrighteousness, that is : Let us do works of mercy ; let us 
exhaust our possessions upon them, that so we may exhaust 
that fire : that we may quench it, that we may have bold- 
ness there. For there also it is not they who receive us, 
but our own work : for that it is not simply our having 
them for friends which can save us, we may learn from what 
is added. For why did He not say. Make to yourselves 
friends, that they may receive you into their everlasting 
habitations, but. added also the manner ? in that, when He 
saith, of the mammon of unrighteousness. He points out that 
we must make friends of them by means of our possessions, 
shewing that friendship as such will not protect us, unless 
we have good works, unless we spend righteously the wealth 
unrighteously gathered. 

Moreover, this our discourse, of Almsgiving I mean, will 
be suitable not for the rich only, but also for the needy. 

xvi. 9. 

xxi. 2. 

The least gifts from a good disposition avail. 17 

Yea even if there be any person who supporteth himself HEB.i.3,4. 
by begging, even to him this word appertains. For there is 
no one, so poverty-stricken, however exceeding poor he may 
be, as not to be able to provide tivo mites. It is therefore S. Luke 
possible that a person giving a small sum from small means, 
should surpass those who have large possessions and give 
more ; as that widow did. For not by the measure of what 
is given, but by the means and willingness of the givers is 
the extent of the Alms-deed estimated. In all cases the 
will is needed, in all, a right disposition ; in all love towards 
God. If with this we do all things, though having little 
we give little, God will not turn away His face, but will 
receive it as great and admirable : for He regards the will, 
not the gifts : and if He see that to be great. He assigneth 
His votes and judges accordingly, and maketh them par- 
takers of His everlasting benefits. 

Which may God grant us all to obtain, by the grace and 
mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the Father 
together with the Holy Ghost, be glory, power, honour, 
now and for ever, and world without end Amen. 

VOL. vii. 


Heb. i. 3. 

Who being the brightness of His Glory and the express 
Image of His person, and upholding all things by the 
word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our 


oZs Sav. 

in both 
^ 6 vovs 

Phil. iv. 


1 Cor. ii. 



' rr)V 

rhv xS-yov 
Sav. Ben. 

^ SiV 

^ I^OOVfXfU 

[1.] Everywhere indeed a reverential mind is re- 
quisite^ but especially when we say or hear anything of 
God : Since neither can tongue speak nor thought ^ hear 
anything suitable to our God. And why speak I of tongue 
or thought^ ? For not even the understanding ^ which 
far excels these, will be able to comprehend anything ac- 
curately, when we desire to utter aught concerning God. 
For if the peace of God swyasseth all understanding, and 
the things which are prepared for them that love Him have 
not come up into the heart of man ; much more He Himself, 
the God of peace, the Creator of all things, doth by a wide 
interval exceed our power of estimating. We ought there- 
fore to receive all things with faith and reverence, and 
when our discourse^ fails through weakness, arid is not 
able to set forth with accuracy the things which are spoken, 
then especially to glorify God, for that we have such a 
God, surpassing both our thought and our conception ^ For 
many of our conceptions ^ about God, we are unable to 
express, as also many things we express, but have not 
strength to conceive of them. As for instance : — That God 
is everywhere, we know; but how, we no longer under- 
stand ^. That there is a certain incorporeal power the cause 
of all our good things, we know : but how it is or what it 
is, we know not. Lo ! we speak, and do not understand. 
I said, That He is everywhere, but I do not understand it. 
I said. That He is without beginning, but I do not under- 

Expressions of Divine truths in human language inadequate, 19 

stand it. I said, That He begat from Himself, and again Heb. i. 3. 
I know not how I shall understand it. And some things 
there are which we may not even speak — as for instance, 
my thought conceives ^ but cannot utter. z'llvoia 

And to shew thee that even Paul is weak and doth not 
put out his illustrations with exactness ; and to make thee 
tremble and refrain from searching too far, hear what he 
says, having named Him Son and Creator, Who being the 
brightness of His Glory, and the express image of His 

This we must receive with reverence and clear of all in- 
congruities. The brightness of His glory, saith he. But 
observe in what reference he understands this, and so do 
thou receive it : — that One is of the Other ^ : that This is 
without passion : that the Other is not made either the 
greater, or the less, since there are some, who from the 
illustration derive certain strange things. For, say they, 
the briqhtness is not substantial ^, but hath its being: in ^ ^'''"'^'^- 
another. Now do not thou, O man, so interpret it, neither 
be thou sick of the disease of Marcellus ^ and Photinus ^, 
For he hath a remedy for thee close at hand, that thou fall 
not into that imagination, nor doth he leave thee to be 
hurried down into that fatal malady. And what saith he ? 

And the express image of His person [or subsistence ^'] : 
that is, just as He [the Father] is personally subsisting, 
and is in need of nothing ^, so also the Son. For he saith ^ Sav. 
this here, indicatinoj the undeviatino^ similitude * and the ^T* f'^f 
peculiar Impress of the Prototype, that He [the Son] is in o-roo-tj/ 
subsistence by Himself. \ aTrapdx- 

For he who said above, that by Him He made all things 
here assigns to Him absolute authority. For what doth 

* (Jrt e| avrov, that He [Christ] is and carried his theory out, maintain- 

of Him [the Father] . ing our Lord to have had no distinct 

^ Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra lapsed existence before His Birth of Mary, 
towards Sabellianism, holding, as it Socr. E.H. 2. 29. His doctrine too was 
seems, virtually at least, that our Lord condemned at Constantinople, ubi sup. 
is not a Person eternally distinct from '^ viroaTaa^us. S.Chrys. understands 
the Father, but, a Manifestation of the the word to mean here neither " sub- 
Father, lasting from the Incarnation stance" nor " Person," but, if we may 
to the Judgment. His views are ana- use such a word, "substantiality," or 
thematised in 1 Cone. Constantinop. " substantive existence," which in 
Canon 1. speaking de Divinis we call " Person- 

«= Photinus Bp. of Sirmium, who ality." see below page 22 note h. 
had been Deacon under Marcellus, 

c 2 

20 S. Paul guards one illustration by means of another. 

HoM. 2. he add ? And upholding all things by the word of His 
power; that we might hereby infer not merely His being 
the express image of His Person, but also His governing 
all things with authority. 

See then, how he applies to the Son that which is proper 
to the Father. For for this cause he did not say simply, and 
upholding all things, nor did he say, by His power, but, by 
the word of His power. For much as just now we saw him 
gradually ascend and descend ; so also now, as by steps, 
he goes up on high, then again descends, and saith, by 
ivhom also He made the worlds. 

Behold how here also he goes on two paths, by the one 
leading us away from Sabellius, by the other from Arius, 
yea and on another (so to say), that He [Christ] should not 
be accounted unoriginated % which he does also throughout, 
nor yet alien from God. For if, even after so many [argu- 
ments], there are some who assert that He is alien, and 
assign to Him another father, and say that He is at variance 
with Him ; — had Paul not declared these things, what would 
they not have uttered ? 

How then does he this ? When he is compelled to heal, 
then is he compelled also to utter lowly things : as for 
Supra instance. He appointed Him (saith he) heir of all things, 
ver. 2. and by Him He made the ivorlds: But that He might not 
be in another way dishonoured, he brings Him up again 
to absolute authority and declares Him to be of equal 
honour with the Father, yea, so equal, that many thought 
the Father to be the same [with the Son] . 

And observe thou his great wisdom. First he lays down 
the former point and secures it with accuracy. And when 
this is demonstrated, that He is the Son of God, and not 
alien from Him, he thereafter speaks out securely all the 
high sayings, as many as he will. I mean, because any high 
speech concerning Him, led many into the notion just 
mentioned, he first sets down what is humiliating and then 
securely mounts up as high as he pleases. And having said, 

" &vapxov. On tliis third heresy re- and Arianism. See also Bp. Bull, Def. 

spectinffthe Holy Trinity, se^S. Greg. Fid. N. iv. 1. 8. The mention of this 

Naz. Orat. ii. 37 ; xx. 6 ; in both which is not found in the Common text, in 

places it is, as here, mentioned as the which the whole passage is recast, 
third form of error with Sabellianisra 

The Son not a mere instrument in Creation. 21 ' 

whom He appointed heir of all things, and that by Him He Heb.j. 3. ! 

made the worlds, he then adds, and upholding all things by j 

the word of His power. For He that by a word only governs j 

all things, could not be in need of any one, for the pro- - 

ducing all things. ' 

[2.] And to prove this, mark how again going forward, (2) 
and laying aside the by whom, he assigns to Him absolute 
power. For after he had effected what he wished by the i 

use of it, thenceforward leaving it, what saith he ? Thou Infra 
Lord in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth, ^^^' \ 

and the heavens are the works of Thine hands. Nowhere | 

is there the saying by whom, or that by Him He made the \ 

worlds. What then ? were they not made by Him ? Yes, 
but not, as thou sayest or imaginest, ^ as by an instrument :' 
nor as though He would not have made them unless the 
Father had reached out a hand to Him. For just as He 
judgeth no man, and is said to judge by the Son, in that He S. John 
begat Him to be judge ; so also, to create by Him, in that * * j 

He begat Him [to be] Creator. And if the Father be the i 

original cause of Him, in that He is Father, much more of 
the things which have been made by Him. When there- j 

fore he would shew that He is of Him, he speaks of ] 

necessity in that lowly strain. But when he would utter j 

high things, Marcellus takes a handle, and Sabellius; avoid- 
ing however the excess of both, he holds on a middle [way]. • 
For neither does he dwell on the humiliation, lest Paul J 
of Samosata should obtain a standing place ; nor yet does j 
he for ever abide in the high sayings, and shew on the ] 
contrary His abundant nearness ; lest Sabellius rush in ; 
upon him. He names Him Son, and immediately Paul of 
Samosata comes on him, saying that He is a son, as men 
in general are. But he gives him a fatal wound, by calling 
Him Heir. Still, with Arius, he is importunate. For the \ 
saying, He appointed Him heir, they both keep hold of : the 
former one simply saying, it comes of weakness ; the other | 
still presses objections, endeavouring to support himself j 
by the clause which follows. For by saying, by Whom 
also He made the worlds, he strikes backwards the impudent 
Samosatene : while Arius still seems to be strong. Never- 
theless see how he again smites him likewise, saying again. 

22 The Son Express Image of the Father's Personality, 

HoM. 2. y,}jf) i)emg the brightness of His glory. But behold! again 
springs on us Sabellius, with Marcellus, and Photinus : but 
on all these also he inflicts one blow,, saying, and the ex- 
press image of His person and upholding all things by the 
word of His power. Here again he wounds Marcion too^; 
not very severely, but however he doth wound him, yea, 
through the whole of this Epistle he is fighting against 

But the very thing which he said, the brightness of the 

S.John glory, hear thou Christ Himself saying, I am the Light of 

^^' * the world. And with this intent does he [the Apostle] use 
the word brightness, pointing out how that also was said 
in this sense as Light of Light. Nor is it this alone which 
he points out, but also that Hie hath enlightened our souls^ 
and hath Himself notified the Father. By the brightness 
too he indicated the nearness of the Being [of the Father 
and the Son?]. Observe the subtlety of his expressions. 
He hath taken one essence and subsistence to indicate two 
subsistences. Which thing he also doth in regard to the 

1 Cf. for- knowledge of the Spirit ^ ; for as he saith that the know- 

1 Cor. ii. ledge of the Father is one with that of the Spirit, as being 
10,.. 12. indeed one, and in nought varying from itself: so in this 

place also he hath taken hold of one certain [thing] whereby 
to express the subsistence of the Two ^. 

And he adds that He is the express Image. For the 

2 ii.\\os express Image [of any thing] is in one sense Another ^, 

compared with its Prototype : howbeit not Another in all 
respects, but as to having separate subsistence. Since 
here also the term, express image, indicates there being no 
variation from that whereof it is the express image; its 
similarity in all respects. When therefore he calls Him both 
6 ™'be* ^^^'"^ ^' ^^^ express Image, what can they say ? ^- Yea, saith 
low.*^ ^' he, man is also called an Image of God ^." What then ! is 



^.^wy 'Because Marcion, holding the ^ ds t))v rwv Zvh vrr6(rra(nv. Sav. 

Ben ' Creation to be evil, denied the Son's and Ben. read e. t. t. 5. vTroarixc^uv 

elK^v. preserving Power. ^ ^\u}(^lv, " whereby to shew the two 

(only) / ««| 8ia ToD d7rou7aa-jUaTos TTjy ou- Subsistencies." Mr. Field says that 

Sav. J,'"^ '^^^ iyyuTTjTaJdei^eu. Sav. and the old translation of Mutianus in 

Ben. read Sta Se tov a. rh '((Toi^ia-fiiJ.ave some degree confirms this latter read- 

T^s ovcTias, Koi T7JJ/ vphs rhv iraripa Ing, which is easier. The word vtt6- 

eyyvT-nra. " By &c. he indicated the araaiv in the singular is used in the 

equality of His Substance and His sense of " Personality," as above p. 

nearness to the Father." 19 note d. 

No word expy^essive of The substance of God. 23 

he so [an image of Him] as the Son is ? No (saith he) but Heb. i. 3. 
because the term, image, doth not shew resemblance. And 
yet, in that man is called an Image, it sheweth resemblance, 
as in man. For what God is in Heaven, that man is on 
earth, I mean as to dominion. And as he hath power over 
all things on earth, so also hath God power over all things 
which are in heaven and which are on earth. But other- 
wise, man is not called Expy^ess image, he is not called 
Form : which kind of phrase declares the substance or 
rather substance and similarity in substance. Therefore 
just as the form of a slave expresses no other thing than a ^^-^^- "• 
man without variation^ [from human nature], so also the ^^niapaK- 
form of God expresses no other thing than God. \aKTov 

Who being (saith he) the brightness of His glory. See 
thou what Paul is doing. Having said. Who being the bright- 
ness of His glory, he added again. He sat down on the right 
hand of the Majesty : what names he hath used, no where 
finding a name for the Substance. For neither the Majesty, 
nor the Glory setteth forth the Name, Which he wishes to 
say, but is not able to find a name. For this is what I said 
at the beginning, that oftentimes we think some things, and supra p. 
are not able to express [them] : since not even the word 
God is a name of substance, nor is it at all possible to find 
a name of that Substance. 

And what marvel, if it be so in respect of God, inasmuch 
as not even in respect of an Angel, could any one find a 
name expressive of his substance ? Perhaps too, neither in 
respect of the soul. For this name [soul] doth not seem to 
me to be significative of the substance thereof, but of breath- 
ing. For one may see that the same [thing] is called both 
Soul and Heart and Mind : for, saith he. Create in me a Ps. li. lo. 
clean heart, O God, and one may often see that it [the 
soul] is called spirit. 

And upholding all things by the word of His poiver. 
Tell me, God said (it is written), Let there be light: "the Gen. 1.3. 
Father, saith one^, commanded, and the Son obeyed?" y^) 
But behold here He also makes by [His] Word. For 
(saith he). And upholding all things — that is, governing; 

• This is an lieretical objection, as is expressed by the reading in the editions 
of Sav. and Ben. 


24 The Son sustains all things by His word. 

HoM. 2. He holds together what [otherwise] would fall to pieces ; 
For, to hold the world together, is no less a thing than 
making it, but rather yet greater (if one must say what is 
even wonderful). For the one is to bring forward something 
out of non-existence: but the other, when things which 
have been made are about to fall back into non-existence, 
to hold and fasten them together, utterly at variance as 
they are with each other : this is indeed great and wonder- 
ful, and a certain proof of exceeding power. 

Then shewing the easiness, he said, upholding : (he did 
«^^«p- not say, governing ^, from the figure of those who simply 
with their finger move any thing, and cause it to go round.) 
Here he shews both the mass of the creation to be great, 
and that this greatness is nothing to Him. Then again he 
shews [that] the [work is] without labour, saying. By the 
word of His power. Well said he. By the word. For since, 
wath us, a word is accounted to be [somewhat] naked and 
bare, he shews that with God it is not so. But, in what way 
He upholdeth by [His'] word, he hath not further added: 
for neither is it possible to know. Then he added concern- 

S. John 'j^g jjjg niajesty: for thus John also did: having said that 
He is God, he brought in the handy- work of the Creation. 
For the same thing which the one indirectly expressed, 

lb. 1, 3. saying. In the beginning was the Word, and All things ivere 
made by Him, this did the other also declare by the Word, 
and in saying by ivhom also He made the worlds. Thus he 
also sets Him forth both as a Creator, and as being before 
all ages. What then ? when concerning the Father the 

Ps. xc. 2. prophet saith. Thou art from everlasting and to everlasting, 
and concerning the Son, that He is before all worlds [ages], 
and the maker of them all — what can they say? Nay rather, 
when the very thing which was spoken of the Father, — He 
ivhich was before the worlds, — this one may see spoken of the 

S. John Son also? And that which one saith. He was life, pointing 
out that whereby He preserves His creation, that Himself 
is the Life of all things, — so also saith this oih^v, and up- 
holding all things by the ivord of His power : not as the 
Greeks [do], depriving Him, as much as in them lies, both 
of Creation itself, shutting up His power, and of Providence 
to reach only as far as to the Moon. 

Christ created and by Himself cleanses us from sin. 25 

By His own self (saith he) having made purification of our Heb. i. 3. 
sins. Having spoken concei'ning those marvellous and great 
matters, those which are most above us, he proceeds to 
speak also afterwards concerning His solicitude for men. 
For it is true indeed that the former expression also was 
universal, viz. and upholding all things : nevertheless this is 
much gi:eater, for it is also universal : for, for His part, all 
men believed. As John also, having said, He ivas life, and so 
pointed out His providence, saith again, and He was light. 

By Himself, saith he, having purged our sins, He sat down 
on the right hand of the Majesty on high. He here setteth 
down two very great proofs of His solicitude for us, first 
the cleansing us from our sins, then the doing it by His own 
self. And in many places, thou seest him making very much 
of this, I mean, not only of our reconciliation with God, 
but also of its being accomplished through the Son. For 
the gift which was truly great, was made even greater by 
being through the Son. 

For ^ in saying. He sat on the right hand, and, having by ^ 7«p on»- 
Himself purged our sins, — though he had put us in mind of * 
the Cross, he quickly added the mention of the resurrec- 
tion and ascension. And see thou his unspeakable wisdom : 
he said not, " He was commanded to sit down " but He 
sat down. Then again, lest thou shouldest think that He 
standeth, he subjoins. For to which of the angels said He 
at any time, Sit thou on My right hand. 

He sat (saith he) on the right hand of the Majesty on 
high. What is this on high ? Doth he enclose God in place ? 
Away with such a thought ! but just as, when he saith, 07i the 
right handfhe described Him not as having figure, but [only] 
shewed His equality of dignity with the Father; so, in 
saying on high, he did not enclose Him there, but expressed 
the being higher than all things, and having ascended up 
above all things. That is. He attained even unto the very 
throne of the Father : as therefore the Father is on high, 
so also is He. For the sitting together implies nothing 
but equality of dignity. But if they say, that He said, 
Sit Thou, we may ask them. What then ? did He say [this] 
to Him standing? Moreover, he said not that He com- 
manded, nor that He enjoined, but that He said : for no 

26 His being called to sit on the Right Hand, j^^er?^a/ Sonship. 

HoM. 2. other reason, than to hinder thee from thinking Him with- 
out origin and without cause. For that this is why he said 
it, is evident from the place of His sitting. For had he 
intended to signify inferiority, he would not have said, on 
the right hand, but on the left hand. 

ver. 4. Being made, saith he, so much better than the 
angels, as He hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent 
name than they. The being made, here, is instead of being 
declared, as one may say. Then also from what does he 
reason confidently ? From the Name. Seest thou that the 
name Son is wont to declare true and proper relationship ? 
And indeed if He had not been a true Son (and "true'^ is 
nothing else than " of Him^^), how were it that he reasons 
confidently from this? For if He be Son only by grace, 
He not only is not more excellent than the angels, but is 
even less than they. How ? Because righteous men too were 
called sons ; and the name son, if it be not a genuine son, 
doth not avail to shew the ^^ excellency." When too he 
would point out that there is a certain difference between 
creatures and their maker, hear what he saith : 

ver. 5. For to which of the Angels said He at any time. 
Thou art My Son, to-day have I begotten thee. And again, 
I will be to Him a Father, and He shall be to Me a So?i P 
For these things indeed are spoken with reference also to 
the flesh : [viz.] this, / will be to Him a Father, and He 
shall be to Me a Son — while this ^, Thou art My Son, this 
day have I begotten Thee, expresses nothing else than " from 
1 i)v [the time] that God is." For just as He is said to be^, from 
the time present (for this befits Him more than any other), 
so also the [word] To-day seems to me to be used in this 
place with reference to the flesh. For when He hath taken 
hold of it, thenceforth he speaks out all boldly. For indeed 
the flesh partakes of the high things, just as the Godhead 
of the lowly. I^or He who disdained not to become man, 
and. did not decline the reality, how should He have de- 
clined the expressions ? 

^ Sav. and Ben. omit the words trrj- else than that He is of Him. And just 

fifpov — (Te, and for e| ov iarux^ OeSs. as &c." . . The corrector seems to have 

w(nr€p7aphave e| avToviaTiu-iioG-Trep Sc, misapprehended the meaning of e| ov 

so that the passage runs ; " but this, in this place. 
' Thou art My Son,' expresses nothing 

Be not proud of goods spiritual or temporal. 27 ' 

Seeing then that we know these things, let us be ashamed Heb.j. 5. 
of nothing, nor have any high thoughts. For if He Himself (4) j 

being God and Lord and Son of God, did not decline to j 

take the form of a slave, much more ought we to do all | 

things, though they be lowly. For tell me, O man, whence ^ 

hast thou high thoughts ? from things of this life? but these I 

or ever they appear, run by. Or, from things spiritual? 1 

nay, this is itself one spiritual excellency, — to have no high ] 

thoughts. i 

Wherefore then dost thou cherish high thoughts ? be- 
cause thou goest on aright ? hear Christ saying, When ye s. Luke 
have done all things, say, loe are unprofitable servants, for ^^"' ^^* 
we have done that which it luas our duty to do. - 

Or because of thy wealth hast thou high thoughts ? Dost J 

thou not see those before thee, how they departed naked 
and desolate ? did we not come naked into life, and naked 
also shall depart? who hath high thoughts on having | 

what is another's ? for they who will use it to their own j 

enjoyment alone, are deprived of it however unwillingly, I 

often before death, and at death certainly. But (saith one) 
while we live we use them as we will. First of all, one ^ 

doth not lightly see any man using what he hath as he will. 
Next, if a man do even use things as he will, neither is this ^ 

a great matter: for the present time is short compared ■ 

with the ages without end. Art thou high-minded, O man, 
because thou art rich ? on what account ? for what cause? j 

for this befalleth also robbers, and thieves, and man-slayers, j 

and effeminate, and whoremongers, and all sorts of wicked ; 

men. Wherefore then art thou high-minded ? Since if thou 
hast made meet use of it, thou must not be high-minded, 
lest thou profane the commandment : but if unmeet, this 
should make thee above all shrink into thyself, for having 
become a slave of money and goods, and being overcome ! 

by them. For tell me, if any man sick of a fever should \ 

drink off much water, which for a short space indeed quench- j 

eth his thirst, but afterwards kindleth the flame, ought he ' 

to be high-minded ? And what, if any man have many 
cares without cause, ought he therefore to be high-minded ? ; 

tell me, wherefore ? because thou hast many masters ? be- 
cause thou hast ten thousand cares ? because many will 

28 The Rich less independent than the Poor. 

HoM. 2. flatter thee ? [Surely not.] For thou art even their slave. 
And to prove that to thee, hear this. The other affections 
which are within us, are in some cases useful. For instance, 
Ecclus. i. Anger is often useful. For (saith he) unjust wrath shall 
22* not be innocent : wherefore it is possible for one to be justly 

S. Matt ^" wrath. And again. He that is angry with his brother 
V. 22. without cause, shall be in danger of hell. Again for in- 
stance, emulation, desire, [are useful] : the one when it 
hath reference to the procreation of children, the other 
when he directs his emulation to excellent things. As Paul 
Gal. iv. also saith, It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing 
J^' .. alwaij, and, Covet earnestly the best gifts. Both therefore 
31. are useful : but an insolent spirit is in no case good, but is 

always an unprofitable and hurtful thing. 

However, if a man must be proud, [let it be] for poverty, 
not for wealth. Wherefore ? Because he who can live upon 
(5) a little, is far greater and better than he who cannot. For 
tell me, supposing certain persons called to the Imperial 
City, if some of them should need neither beasts, nor slaves, 
nor umbrellas, nor lodging-places, nor sandals, nor vessels, 
but it should quite suffice them to have bread, and to take 
water from the wells, — while others of them should say, 
^unless ye give us conveyances, and a soft bed, we cannot 
' come ; unless also we have many followers, unless we may 
' be allowed continually to rest ourselves, we cannot come, 
^ nor unless we have the use of beasts, unless too we may 
' travel but a small portion of the day — and we have need 
' of many other things also :' whom should we admire? those 
or these? plainly, these who require nothing. So also in 
this case : some need many things for their journey through 
this life ; others, nothing. So that if it were at all right to 
be proud, those who are so for poverty would have the 
better right. 

" But the poor man (saith one) is ever despicable." Not 
he, but those who despise him. For why do not I [in my 
turn] despise those who know not how to admire what they 
ought ? Why, if a person be a painter, he will laugh to 
scorn all who jeer at hi«m, so long as they are uninstructed ; 
nor doth he regard the things which they say, but is con- 
tent with his own testimony. And shall we hang ourselves 

The spiritual advantages of Poverty, 29 

on the opinion of the many ? Therefore, we are despicable Heb.j. 5. 
when men despise us for our poverty^ and we despise them 
not, nor call them miserable. 

And I say not how many sins are produced by wealth, 
and how many good things by poverty. But rather, neither 
wealth nor poverty is excellent in itself, but through those 
who use. it. The Christian shines out approved, in poverty 
rather than in riches. How ? He will be less arrogant, 
more sober-minded, graver, more equitable, more consi- 
derate : but he that is in wealth, hath many impediments to 
these things. Let us see then what are the doings of the 
rich man, or rather, of him who useth his wealth amiss. Such 
an one practiseth rapine, fraud, violence. Men's unseemly 
loves, unholy unions, witchcrafts, poisonings, all their other 
horrors, — wilt thou not find them produced by wealth ? 
Seest thou, that in poverty rather than in wealth the pursuit 
of virtue is less laborious ? For do not, I beseech thee, imagine, 
that because rich men suffer not punishment here, therefore 
they do nothing amiss. Since if it were easy for a rich 
man to suffer punishment, thou wouldest surely have found 
the prisons filled with them. But among its other evils, 
wealth hath this also, that he who possesseth it, transgress- 
ing in unpunished wickedness, will never be stayed from 
doing so, but will receive wounds without remedies, and no 
man will put a bridle on him. 

Moreover if a man please he will find that even for plea- 
sure, the means which poverty affords us are more abun- 
dant. How ? Because it is freed from cares, from hatred, 
fighting, contention, strife, from evils out of number. 

Therefore let us not follow after wealth, nor be for ever 
envying those whose possessions are great. But let those 
of us who have wealth, use it aright ; and those who have 
not, let us not therefore be vexed, but for all things give 
thanks unto God, because He enableth us to receive with 
little labour the same return with the rich, or even (if we 
will) a greater : and from small means we shall have great 
gains. For so he that brought the two talents, was admired 
and honoured equally with him who brought the five. 
Now why? Because he was entrusted with [but] two talents, 
yet he accomplished all his own part, and brought in what 

30 Seek not the responsibility of wealth. 

HoM.2. was entrusted to him, double. Why then do we make 
haste to have much entrusted to us, when we may By a little 
reap the same fruits, or even greater? when the labour 
indeed is less, but the reward much more abundant ? For 
more easily will a poor man part with his own, than a 
rich man who hath many and great possessions. What, 
know ye not, that the more things a man hath in his grasp, 
the more he setteth his love upon ? Therefore, lest this 
befal us, seek we not after wealth, nor let us be impatient 
of poverty, nor make haste to be rich : and let those of us 
1 Cor. vii. who have [riches] so use them as Paul commanded. (Theij 
29, 31. fjiat have, saith he, as though they had not, and they that use 
this world as not abusing it:) that we may obtain the good 
things promised. And may it be granted to us all to obtain 
them, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
with whom to the Father together with the Holy Ghost, 
be glory, power, honour, now, and for ever, and world 
without end. Amen. 


Heb. i. 6—8. ! 

And when He again bringeth i?i the First-Begotten into the 
world, He saith, And let all the angels of God ivorship 
Him. And of the angels He saith, Who maketh His i 

angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire. But | 

unto the Son He saith, Thy throne, God, is for ever 
and ever. 

[1.] Our Lord Jesus Christ calls His coming in the (1) ' 

flesh, an [exodus or] going out : as for instance when He 
saith, The soiver loent out to sow. And again, / went out s. Matt. 
from the Father, and am come. And in many places one ^"^- ^• 
may see this. But Paul calls it an [eisodus or] coming in, xvi. 28. ! 

saying, And when again He bringeth in the First-Begotten 1 

into the world, meaning by this Bringing in, His taking on j 

Him our flesh. 

Now why have they ordered their expressions thus ? 
The things signified [thereby] are manifest, and in what 
respect it is [thus] said. For Christ on His part calls it ■ 

a Going out, and justly ; for we were out from God. For i 

just as in royal palaces, prisoners and those who have j 

offended the king, stand without, and he who desires to : 

reconcile them, does not bring them in, but himself going 
out discourses with them, until having made them meet 
for the king's presence, he may bring them in, so also 
Christ hath done. Having come out to us, that is, having 
taken flesh, and having discoursed to us of the King's 
messages, so He brought us in, having cleansed us from { 

our sins, and reconciled us. For this cause he calls it a . I 

Going out. 

But Paul names it a Coming in, from the metaphor of ^ 

those who come to an inheritance and receive any portion 

32 Relation of Christ to Angels : as God and as Man, 

HoM. 3. or possession. ' For his sayings but when again He bringeth 
in the First-Begotten into the world, means this, ^when he 
putteth the world into His hand.' For He then obtained 
possession of the whole thereof, when also He was made 
known. He saith not these things concerning God The 
Word, but concerning that which is according to the 
S. John i. flesh. For if according to John, He was in the world, and 
^^' the world was made by Him : how is He brought in, other- 

wise than in the flesh ? 

And, saith he, let all the angels of God worship Him, 
Whereas he is about to say something great and lofty, he 
prepares it beforehand, and makes it acceptable, in that 
he represents the Father as bringing in the Son. He had 
said above, that He spake to us not by prophets but by 
His Son; that the Son is superior to angels; yea and he 
establishes this from the name [Son]. And here, in what 
follows, from another fact also. What then may this be ? 
From worship. And he shews how much greater He is, 
as much as is a Master than a slave ; just as any person 
introducing another into a house straightway commands 
those who have the care thereof to do him reverence ; [so] 
saying in regard to that which is after the Flesh, And let 
all the Angels of God vjorship Him. 

Is it then Angels only? No; for hear what follows 
next: And of His Angels He saith, Which maheth His angels 
spirits, and His ministers aflame of fire : but of the Son, 
Thy Throne, God, is for ever and ever. 

Behold, the very greatest difference! that they are 
created, but He uncreated. While of His angels He saith. 
Who maketh ; wherefore of the Son did he not say "Who 
maketh ?" 

And if you mark it, he might have expressed the differ- 
ence as follows : Of His Angels He saith, Who maketh His 
Prov. Angels Spirits, but of the Son, ' The Lord created Me :' ' God 
Acts^f.' ^^^^ made Him Lord and Christ.^ But neither was that 
36. first word spoken concerning the Son, nor this latter con- 

cerning God The Word, but concerning that which is 
after the flesh. Forsvhen he desired to express the true 
difference, he no longer included angels only^ but the whole 
ministering power which is above. Seest thou how he 

Different heresies guarded against by S, Paul's words, 33 

distinguishes, and with how great clearness, between crea- Heb. i.i 
tures and Creator, ministers and Lord, the Heir and true 
Son, and slaves ? 

[2.] But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, God, is 
for ever and ever. Behold a symbol of Regal Dominion. 
A sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of Thy kingdom. 
Behold again another symbol of Royalty. 

Then again with respect to His human nature (ver. 9) 
Thou hast loved righteousness and hated unrighteousness, 
wherefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee. 

What is, Thy God? Why, after that he hath uttered a 
great word, he again qualifieth it. Here both Jews, and 
the followers of Paul of Samosata, and the Arians, and 
Marcellus, and Sabellius, and Marcion receive a blow from 
him. How ? The Jews, by his indicating two Persons and 
God and Man ^ ; the other Jews ^ I mean the followers 
of Paul of Samosata, by thus discoursing concerning His 
eternal existence, and uncreated essence : for by way of 
distinction, against the word. He made, he set. Thy throne, 
O God, is for ever and ever. Against the Arians there is 
both this same again, and also that He is not a slave ; but 
if a creature. He is a slave. And against Marcellus and the 
others, that these are two Persons, distinguished in refer- 
ence to their subsistence ^. And against the Marcionites, 
that the Godhead is not anointed, but only the Manhood. 

Next he saith. Above Thy fellows. But who are these 
His felloivs other than men ? that is Christ received not the s. John 
Spirit by measure. Seest thou how with the doctrine con- ^\^^' 
cerning His uncreated nature he always joins also that of 
the Economy ? what can be clearer than this ? Didst thou 
see how that what is created and what is begotten are not 
the same ? For otherwise he would not have made the dis- 
tinction, nor in contrast to the word. He made [&c], have 
added. But of the Son He said, Thy throne, O God, is for 

^ Sub 'trp6<ToiTra SeiKviis, Koi Qehu Kal "shewing" the same [Person] to be 

&j/epa}irov. That is both two distinct two, both God and man." 

Persons in the Godhead, and also the '' Sav. and Ben. omit 'lovSaiovs. 

Divine and human natures of the The teaching of Paul of Samosata was 

Christ. The Corrector would seem regarded as closely connected with 

to have understood it " two Persons, Judaism, and he and his followers 

both God and man"; the common texts were called Jews, 

read dvh rhv avrhu d^iKvvs, k. 6. k. a. '^ Karar^u inr6(rTa(riv,%eeahove,'p. 19, 

34 The world created and to be transformed by Christ. 
HoM. 3. ever and ever. Nor would he have called the name. Son, a 

more excellent Name, if it is a sign of the same thing. For 
where is the excellence ? for if that which is created, and 
that which is begotten be the same, and they [the Angels] 
were made, what is there [in Him] more excellent ? 

Lo ! again 6 ©eo?, God, with the Article '^. 

[3.] And again he saith : (ver. 10-12) Thou Lord in the 
beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth, and the 
heavens are the ivorks of Thine hands. They shall perish, 
but Thou shall endure, and they all shall wax old as a gar- 
ment, and as a vesture shall Thou fold them up, and they 
shall be changed; but Thou art the same and Thy years shall 
not fail. 

Lest when thou hearest the words, and when He bringeth 
in the First-Begotten into the world; thou shouldest think it 
to be as it were a Gift afterwards super-added to Him ; this 
he both corrected above by anticipation, and again further 
corrects, saying, in the beginning: not now, but from the 
very first. 

See again he inflicts a mortal wound both on Paul of 
Samosata and also on Arius, in applying to the Son the 
things which relate to the Father. And withal he has also 
intimated another thing by the way, greater even than this. 
For surely it is the transfiguration of the world which he 
hath incidentally pointed out, saying, they shall wax old as 
a garment, and as a vesture Thou shall fold them up and they 
shall be changed. Which thing also he saith in the Epistle 
see Rom. to the Romans, that He shall transfigure the world. And 
viii. 21. sinewing the facility thereof, he adds, as if a man should fold 
up a garment so shall He both fold up and change it. But 
if He with so much ease works the transfiguration and the 
creation to what is better and morei perfect, needed He an- 
other for the inferior creation ? How far doth your shame- 
lessness go ? At the same time too this is a very great 
consolation, to know that things will not be as they are, but 
they all shall receive change, and all shall be altered, but 
He Himself remaineth ever existing, and living infinitely : 
and Thy years, he sai^, shall not fail. 

•> The Ben. editor observes that it Father, and that-S. Chrys. here as in 
had been said that b Qe6s with the ar- other places argues that it is used of 
tide is used in Scripture only of the the Son. 

Honour to the Son our duty. Angels minister to us. 35 

[4] ver. 13. But to which of the Angels said He at any time, HEB.i.i4. 
Sit thou on My right hand until I shall have made thine 
enemies thy footstool ? Behold^ again he encourages them, 
inasmuch as their enemies were to be worsted, and their 
enemies are the same also with Christ's. 

This again belongs to Sovereignty, to Equal Dignity, 
to Hono.ur and not weakness, that the Father should be 
angry for the things done to the Son. This belongs to His 
great Love, and honour towards the Son, as of a father 
towards a son. For He that is angry in His behalf how is 
He a stranger to Him ? Which very thing he saith also in 
the second Psalm, He that dwelleth in heaven shall laugh Ps.ii.4,5. 
them to scorn, and the Lord shall have them in derision. 
Then shall He speak unto them in His ivrath, and vex them 
in His sore displeasure. And again He Himself saith. Those g. Luke 
that would not that 1 should reign over them, bring hither ^^'^'^' 
beforeMe, and slay them. For that they are His own words, 
hear also what He saith in another place, Hoiv often would I ib. xiU. 
have gathered thy children together, and ye would not ! Be- ^^^ ^^• 
hold, your house is left desolate. And again. The kingdom s. Matt. 
shall be taken from you, and shall be given to a nation bring- '^^^' ^^' 
ing forth the fruits thereof. And again, He that falleth upon ib. 44. 
that stone shall be broken, but on ivhomsoever It shall fall. 
It will grind him to 'powder. And besides. He who is to be 
their Judge in that world, much more did He Himself 
repay them in this. So that the words Till I make thine 
enemies thy footstool are expressive of nothing but honour 
towards the Son. 

ver. 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to 
minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation ? What 
marvel (saith he) if they minister to the Son, when they 
minister even to our salvation ? See how he lifts up their 
minds, and shews that the honour which God has for us is 
great, inasmuch as He has assigned to Angels who are above 
us this ministration on our behalf. As if one should say, 
for this purpose (saith he) He employs them ; this is the 
office of Angels, to minister to God for our salvation. This 
therefore is an angelical work, to do all for the salvation of 
the brethren : or rather it is the work of Christ Himself, 
for He indeed saves as Lord, but they as servants. And we 


36 Angels wait on us, the Son took flesh for us. 

HoM.3. though servants are yet Angels' fellow-servants. Why 
gaze ye so earnestly on the Angels (saith he ) ? they are 
servants of the Son of God, and are sent many ways for 
our sakes, and minister to our salvation. And so they are 
partners in service with us. 

Consider ye how he ascribes no great difference to the 
kinds of creatures. And yet the space between angels and 
men is great ; nevertheless he brings them down near to 
us, all but saying. For us they labour, for our sake they 
run to and fro : on us, as one might say, they wait. This 
is their ministry, for our sake to be sent every way. 
(3) And of these examples as the Old [Testament] is full, 
so also is the New. For when Angels bring glad tidings 
to the shepherds, or to Mary, or to Joseph ; when they 
sit at the sepulchre, when they are sent to say to the dis- 

Acts i. ciples, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into 
heaven, when they release Peter out of the prison, when 
they discourse with Philip, consider how great the honour 
is ; when God sends His Angels for ministers as to friends, 
when to Cornelius [an Angel] appears, when [an Angel] 

lb. V. 20. brings forth all the apostles from the prison, and says. Go, 
stand and speak in the temple to the people the words of 
this life ; and to Paul himself also an Angel appears. Dost 
thou see that they minister to us on God's behalf, and that 
they minister to us in the greatest matters ? wherefore Paul 

1 Cor. iii. saith. All things are yours, whether life or death, or the 
world, or things present, or things to come. 

Well then the Son also was sent, but not as a minister, 
nor as one discharging a task, but as a Son, Only-Begotten, 
and having the same will with the Father. Rather indeed. 
He was not sent: for He did not pass from place to place, 
but took on Him flesh : whereas these change their places, 
and leaving those in which they were before, come there- 
after to others in which they were not. 

And by this again he incidentally encourages them, 
saying. What fear ye ? to us Angels are ministering. 

[5.] And now having spoken concerning the Son, both 
what related to the EfTonomy, and to His power as Creator, 
and to His sovereignty, and having pointed out His co-equal 
dignity, and that as absolute Master He ruleth not men 

Danger greater in neglecting the Gospel than the Law. 37 

only but also the powers above, he next gives them exhor- Heb.u.b . 
tation, having made out his argument, that we ought to 
give heed to the things which have been heard, ch. ii. 1. 
Wherefore we ought to give more earnest heed to the things 
lohich we have heard. Why more earnest ? Here he meant 
more earnest than to the Law: but he suppressed the actual 
expression of it, and yet makes it plain in the course of 
reasoning, not in the way of counsel, nor of exhortation. 
For so it was better. 

ver. 2, 3. For if the word spoken by Angels (saith he) ivas 
stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received 
a just recompense of reward; how shall ive escape if we 
neglect so great salvation, which at the first began to be 
spoken to us by the Lord, and ivas confirmed unto us by 
them that heard Him ? 

Why ought we to give more earnest heed to the things 
which we have heard? were not those former things of 
God, as well as these? Either then he meaneth more 
earnest than [to] the Law, or very earnest; not making 
comparison, God forbid. For since, on account of the 
long space of time, they had a great opinion of the Old 
Covenant, but these things had been despised as yet new, 
he proves (more than his argument required) that we 
ought to give attention to these rather. How ? By saying 
in effect. Both these and those are of God, but not in a 
like manner. And this he shews us afterwards : but for 
the present he treats it somewhat superficially, but after- 
wards more clearly, saying; For if that first covenant ^«c? infra vUi. 
been faultless, and many other such things: for that which j* ,„ 
decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away. But as 
yet he ventures not to say any such thing in the beginning 
of his discourse, nor until he shall have first occuj^ied and 
possessed his hearer by his fuller [arguments.] 

Why then ought we to give more earnest heed ? Lest at 
any time, saith he, ive should leak away — that is, lest at 
any time we should perish, lest we should fall off*. And 
here he points out the grievousness of this falling off*, in 
that it is a difficult thing for that which hath leaked out 
to return again, inasmuch as it hath happened through 
wilful negligence. And he took this form of speech from 

38 Our greater peril. In ivhat senses ivas the word 

HoM. 3. the Proverbs. For, saith he, my son [take heed] lest thou 
2wVx ^^^^ away, shewing both the easiness of the fall, and the 
grievousness of the ruin. That is, our disobedience is not 
without danger. And while by his mode of reasoning he 
points out that the chastisement is greater, yet again he 
leaves it in the form of a question, and not in his conclu- 
sion. For indeed this is to make one^s discourse inoffen- 
sive, when one does not in every case of one's own self 
infer the judgment, but leaves it in the power of the hearer 
to give his own sentence: and this would render them 
more open to conviction. And both the prophet Nathan 
doth it in the Old [Testament], and in Matthew Christ, 
S. Matt, saying. What will He do to the husbandmen of that vine- 
XXI. 40. y^j, J p g^ compelling them to give out their sentence them- 
selves : for this is the most complete victory. 

Next, when he had said, For if the word ivhich was 
spoken by Angels was stedfast — he did not add, much more 
that by Christ : but letting this pass, he said what is less. 
How shall we escape, if toe neglect so great salvation? And 
see how he makes the comparison. For if the word which 
was spoken by Angels, saith he. There, hy Angels, here, 
by the Lord — and there a word, but here, salvation. 

Then lest any man should say. Thy sayings, O Paul, are 
they Christ's ? he proves their credibility, both from his 
having heard it all of Him, and from its being now spoken 
by God ; since not merely a voice is wafted, as in the case 
of Moses, but signs are done, and facts bear witness. 
(4) [6.] But what is this. For if the word spoken by Angels 

was stedfast? For in the Epistle to the Galatians also he 
Gal. iu. saith to this effect. Being ordained by angels in the hand of 
Acts vii. tt Mediator. And again, Ye received a law by the disposition 
^^' of Angels, and have not kept it. And in every place, he 

saith it was given by angels. Some indeed say that Moses 
is signified; but it is not reasonable. For here he says 
Angels in the plural : and the Angels too which here he 
speaks of, are those in Heaven. What then is it ? Either 
Exod. he means the Decalog;ue only (for there Moses spake, and 
God answered him), — or that angels were present, God dis- 
posing them in order, — or that he speaks tltus in regard of 
all things said and done in the old Covenant, as if Angels 

spoken by Angels. 39 

had been partakers in them. But how is it said in another Heb.jj.S. 
place, The Laiv was given by Moses, and here by Angels ? s. John i. 
For it is said, And God came down in thick darkness^. ^^^^ 

For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast. What is xix. 16, 
was stedfast? True, as one may say; and faithful in its * 
proper season ; and all the things which had been spoken 
came to. pass. Either this is his meaning, or that they 
prevailed, and the threatenings were coming to be accom- 
plished. Or by the word he means injunctions. For apart 
from the Law^ Angels sent from God enjoined many things : 
for instance at Bochim, in the Judges, in [the history of] Judg. ii. 
SampsoUc For this is the cause why he said not '^the Law" ^* ^^' ^' 
but the word. And he seems to me haply rather to mean 
this, viz., those things which are committed to the manage- 
ment of angels. What shall we say then ? The angels 
who were entrusted with the charge of the nation were then 
present, and they themselves made the trumpets, and the Exod. 
other things, the fire, the thick darkness. 

And every transgression and disobedience, saith he. Not 
this one and that one, but every one. Nothing (saith he) 
remained unavenged, but received a just recompence of 
reward, i.e. punishment. Why now spake he thus ? Such 
is the manner of Paul, not to make much account of his 
phrases, but indifferently to put down words of evil sound, 
even in matters of good meaning. As also in another 
place he saith. Bringing into captivity every thought to the 2 Cor. x. 
obedience of Christ ^ And again he hath put the recompence ^' 
for punishment ^, as here he calleth punishment reward. ^ Rom. i. 
If it be a righteous thing, saith he, with God to recompense 2 xhess. 
tribulation to them that trouble you, and to you who are i- 6, 7. 
troubled rest. That is, justice was in no degree violated, 
but God went forth in its behalf, and caused the penalty 
to come round on them that had sinned, though not all 
their sins are made manifest, but only where the express 
ordinances were trangressed. 

How then shall we, saith he, escape if we neglect so great 

« This last clause seems unconnected words IVIiat shall we say, down to 

as it stands here. If there were MS. tJiick darkness. 

authority one should be glad to transfer ^See S. Chrys. on the passage, 2 Cor. 

it a few lines lower, after,The manage- x. 5 [p. 242 O.T.]. The expression 

ment of Angels : ra Sia rwv ayyiXicu fff/)^/t'«7^ was the "word of evil sound." 
oiKovoixr}B4uTa, or to place here the 

40 The greatness of our salvation. Attested by God. 

HoM. 3. salvation! Hereby he signified, that that other salvation 
was no great thing. Well too did he add the word So great. 
For not from wars (saith he) will He now rescue us, nor 
bestow on us the earth and the good things that are in the 
earth, but it will be the dissolution of death, the destruction 
of the Devil, the kingdom of Heaven, everlasting life. For 
all these things he hath briefly expressed, by saying, if we 
neglect so great salvation. 

[7.] Then he subjoins what makes it all credible. Which 
at the first began to be spoken by the Lord : that is, had its 
beginning from the very fountain itself. It was not a man 
who brought it over ^ into the earth, nor any created power, 
but the Only-Begotten Himself. 

And was confirmed unto us by them that heard [Him^ . 
What is confirmed ? It was believed '^^ or, it came to pass. 
For (saith he) we have the earnest ^ ; that is, it hath not 
been extinguished, it hath not ceased, but it is strong and 
prevaileth. And the cause is, the Divine power works 
therein. It means they who heard from the Lord, them- 
selves confirmed us. This is a great thing and trustworthy : 
s. Luke which also Luke saith in the beginning of his Gospel, As 
they delivered unto us, which from the beginning were eye- 
witnesses and mhiisters of the Word. 

How then was it confirmed? what if those that heard 
were forgers ? saith some one. This objection then he over- 
throws, and shews that the grace was not human. If they 
had been forgers, God would not have borne witness to 
them; for he subjoined (ver. 4.) God also bearing witness 
with them. They indeed also bear witness, and God beareth 
witness too. How doth He bear witness? not by word or by 
voice (though this also would have been worthy of belief) : 
but how ? By signs, and wonders, and divers miracles. 

s Yit, ferried it over : Sie7rop0jU€U(rej/, dary order towards that loftier height* 

the word is specially applied to messages and moving those of the first order to 

between earth and Heaven, by Pseudo- come forth in the way of sympathy 

Dionys. Areop. de Celesti Hierarchia, and care for their inferiors." 

c. 15. 6. "The Angelsare called Winds, ^iiriaTf^vQ-f]. Dmiaeus suggested eVto-- 

to express their rapid power of making rdsQr), it was accredited, but there is 

things, how it reaches almost to all no MS. authority for the change, 

things without time; and thehkmotion ' S. Chrys. seems to have had in 

in the manner of those who ferry over, view 2 Cor. i. 2 1 , 22, where " confirm- 

from above downwards, and again ing" is connected .with "the earnest 

from the lower parts up the steep, of the Spirit." 
both drawing out the things of secon- 


Miraculous and ot he?' gifts various according to God' swill. 41 - 

(Well said he, divers miracles, declaring the abundance of HEB.ii.4. 

the gifts : which was not so in the former dispensation, 

neither so great signs and so various.) That is, we did not i 

believe them simply, but through signs and wonders : i 

wherefore we believe not them, but God Himself. ^ 

And bij portionings of the Holy Ghost, according to His 
oivn will. ' 

What then, if wizards also do signs, and the Jews said 
that He cast out devils through Beelzebub ? But they do not s. Luke 
such kind of signs : therefore said he divers miracles : for ^^* ^^' \ 

those others were not miracles, [or powers ^], but weakness ^ Suj/a^ets j 

and fancy, and things altogether vain. Wherefore he said, 
by portionings of the Holy Ghost according to His own will. 

[8.] Here he seems to me to intimate another thing (5) \ 

also. For it is likely there were not many there who had 
gifts, but that these had failed, upon their becoming rather 
slothful. In order then that herein also he might comfort > 

them, and not leave them utterly to fall, he referred all to i 

the will of God. He knows (he says) what is expedient, and 
for whom, and apportions His grace accordingly. Which 
kind of thing also he does in the Epistle to the Corinth- j 

ians, saying, God hath placed every one of us, as He willed. iCor.xii. i 

And again. The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every l^' - ! 

man to profit ivithal. i 

According to His will. He intimates that the gift is ] 

according to the will of the Father. But oftentimes on 
account of their unclean and slothful life many have not i 

received a gift, and sometimes also those whose life is good 
and pure have not received one. Why, I pray you ? Lest 
they might be made haughty, that they might not be 
puffed up, that they might not grow more negligent, that 
they might not be more excited. For if even without any 
gift, the mere consciousness of a pure life be sufficient to 
lift a man up, much more when the grace is added also. i 

Wherefore to the humble, to the simple, it was rather ] 

given, and especially to the simple : for it is said, in simpli- Acts ii. , 

city and gladness of heart. Yea, and hereby also he rather '^^' I 

urged them on, and gave them a spur, if they were growing 
negligent. Inasmuch as the humble man, and he who 

42 Why ive should be content without higher gifts. 

HoM. 3. imagines no great things concerning himself, becomes more 
earnest when he has received a gift, in that he has obtained 
what is beyond his deserts, and thinks that he is not worthy 
thereof. But he who thinks he hath done anything very 
well, reckoning the matter to be his due, is even puffed up. 
Wherefore God dispenseth this for [men's] good : which 
one may see taking place also in the Church : for one man 
hath the word of teaching, another hath not power so much 
as to open his mouth. Let not this man (he says) be 
1 Cor. grieved because of this. For to every man the manifesta- 
'"** tion of the Spirit is given to profit withal. For if a man 

that is an householder knoweth what he will entrust, and 
to whom, much more God, who is acquainted with the 
Hist.Sus. mind of v[\Qn,who knoweth all things or ever they come into 
being. One thing only is worthy to be grieved for, Sin: 
there is nothing else. 

Say not thou, Wherefore have I not riches? or. If I had, 
I would give to the poor. Thou knowest not, if thou hadst 
them, whether thou wouldest not be more covetous. For 
now indeed thou sayest these things, but being put to the 
trial thou wouldest be different. Since also when v/e have 
satisfied ourselves, we think that we are able to fast ; but 
when we have gone without a little space, other thoughts 
come into us. Again, when we are out of the way of 
drunkenness we think ourselves able to master our appetite, 
but no longer so, when we are caught by it. 

Say not thou. Wherefore had I not the gift of teaching ? 
or. If I had had it, I should have edified innumerable souls. 
Thou knowest not, if thou hadst it, whether it would not 
be to thy condemnation, — whether envy, whether indolence 
would not have disposed thee to hide thy talent. Well 
then, thou art now free from all these, and though thou 
S. Luke give not the portion of meat, thou art not called to account : 
xii. 42. 1^^^ then, thou wouldest have been responsible for souls 

[9.] And besides, neither now art thou without God's 

gift. Shew thou in that which is little, what manner of 

person thou wouldst nave been, if thou hadst had the 

lb. xvi. other. For if (saith he) ye prove not faithful in that lohich 

is little, how shall atiy one give you that which is great ? 

We should use well whatever gifts we have. 43 

Give such proof as did the widow ; she had two farthings ^, HEB.ii.4. 
and she cast in all^ whatsoever she was possessed of. o^oxovs 

Dost thou seek riches ? shew that thou art above minding 
the few things, that I may trust thee also concerning the 
many things. But if thou art not even above these, much 
less wilt thou be above the other. 

Again, in speech, shew that thou canst use as may be 
requisite exhortation and counsel. Thou hast not external 
eloquence, thou hast not store of thoughts : but neverthe- 
less these common things thou knowest. Thou hast a 
child, thou hast a neighbour, thou hast a friend, thou hast 
a brother, thou hast kinsmen. And though publickly before 
the Church, thou art not able to draw out a long discourse, 
to these thou canst give exhortation in private. Here, 
there is no need of rhetoric, nor of discourses long drawn 
out : shew thou in these, that if thou hadst skill of speech, 
thou wouldest not have neglected it. But if in the small 
matter thou art not in earnest, how shall I trust thee 
concerning the great ? 

For, to prove that this is what every man can do, hear 
what Paul saith, how even to lay people he hath committed 
this charge; Edify, saith he, each one of you the other, as i Thess. 
also ye do. And, Comfort ye one another with these words. ^' V* 
God knoweth how He should distribute to every man. Art 
thou better than Moses ? hear how he shrinks from the 
hardship. Am I, saith he, able to bear them ? for Thou Num. xi. 
saidst to me, Take them up, as a nursing -father would take ^^' 
up the sucking -child. What then did God ? He took of 
his spirit and gave unto the others, shewing that neither 
when he bare them was the gift his own, but of the Spirit. 
If thou hadst had the gift, thou wouldst perchance ^ have 
been lifted up, perchance wouldst thou have been turned 
out of the way. Thou knowest not thyself as God knoweth 
thee. Let us not say, To what end is that? on what 
account is this ? When God dispenseth, let us not call Him 
to account : for this [is] of the uttermost impiety and folly. 
We are slaves, and slaves far apart from our Master, know- 
ing not even the things which are before us. 

[10.] Let us not then busy ourselves about the counsel 

^ TtoKXaKis see Mr. Field's note. 

44 Charity the highest gift ; 

HoM. 3. of God, but whatsoever He hath given, this let us guard, 
though it be small, though the very last, and we shall be 
altogether approved. Or rather, none of the gifts of God 
is small : art thou grieved because thou hast not the gift 
of teaching ? Then tell me, whether, thinkest thou, is the 
greater, to have the gift of teaching, or the gift of driving 
away diseases ? doubtless this latter. But what? tell me; 
doth it not seem to thee a greater thing to give eyes to the 
blind than even to drive away diseases ? But what ? tell 
me; doth it not seem to thee a greater thing to raise the 
dead than to give eyes to the blind ? What again, tell me ; 
doth it not seem to thee a greater thing to effect this by 
shadows and napkins, than to do it by a word ? Tell me 
then, which wouldst thou? raise the dead with, shadows 
and napkins, or have the gift of teaching ? Doubtless thou 
wilt say the former, to raise the dead with shadows and 
(6) If then I should shew to thee, that there is another gift 

far greater than this, and that thou dost not receive it when 
it is in thy power to receive it, art not thou justly deprived 
of those others ? Yea and this gift not one or two, but all 
may have. I know that ye open wide your mouths and are 
amazed, at being to hear that it is in your power to have 
a greater gift than raising the dead, and giving eyes to the 
blind, doing the same things which were done in the time 
of the Apostles. And haply it appears to you even past 

What then is this gift ? charity. Nay, believe me ; for 
the word is not mine, but Christ's, speaking by Paul. For 
1 Cor. what saith he ? Covet earnestly the best gifts : and yet shew 
^^' ^^' I unto you a more excellent ivay. What is this, yet more 
excellent ? What he meaneth is of this kind. Some Corin- 
thians were inclined to have high thoughts about their 
gifts, and they who had tongues, the least gift, were puffed 
up against the rest. He saith therefore. Do ye by all means 
desire gifts ? I shew unto you a way of gifts not merely 
Ib.xiii. 1, excelling but far more excellent. Then he saith. Though I 
^' speak with the tongues q)^ Angels, and have not charity, I am 

nothing. And though I have faith so as to remove moun- 
tains, and have not charity, I am nothing. 

attainable by all, 45 

Hast thou seen the gift? Covet earnestly this gift. This HEB.ii.4. 
is greater than raising the dead. This is far better than 
all the rest together. And that it is so, hear what Christ 
Himself saith, discoursing with His disciples. Hereby shall S. John 
all men knoiv that ye are My disciples. And shewing in what ^^"* 
respect. He mentioned not the miracles, but what ? If ye 
have lone one ivith another. And again He saith to the 
Father, Hereby shall they know that Thou hast sent Me, ifih. xvH. 
they be one. And He said Himself to His disciples, A new ?,^* ... 
commandment I give to you, that ye love one another. Such 34. 
an one therefore is more venerable and glorious than those 
who raise the dead ; with reason. For that indeed is wholly 
of God^s grace, but this, of thine own earnestness also. 
This is of one who is a Christian indeed : this shews the 
disciple of Christ, the crucified, the man that hath nothing 
common with earth. Without this, not even martyrdom 
can be of any avail. 

And as a proof, see this plainly. The blessed Paul took 
two of the topmost virtues, or rather three ; namely those 
which consist in miracles, those in knowledge, those in life. 
And without this those, he said, are nothing. And how 
these are nothing, I will say. Though I give my goods to l Cor. 
feed the poor, saith he, and have not charity, I am nothing. ^"^* ^' 
For it is possible not to be charitable even when one feeds 
the poor and exhausts one's means. 

[11.] And indeed these things have been sufficiently de- 
clared by us, in the place concerning Charity ^ : and thither 
we refer the readers. Meanwhile, as I was saying, let us 
zealously seek the Gift, let us love one another : and we 
shall need nothing else for the perfect acquisition of virtue, 
but all will be easy to us without violent labours and we 
shall do all perfectly with much diligence. 

'But see, even now,' it is said, 'we love one another. For 
one man hath two friends, and another three.' But this is 
not to love for God's sake, but for the sake of being be- 
loved. But to love for God's sake hath not this as its 
principle of Love; but such an one will be disposed towards 
all men as towards brethren ; loving those that are of the 
same faith as being genuine brothers ; Heretics and Hea- 
1 His Homily on 1 Cor. xiii. 3. [pp. 444 sqq. O.T.] is referred to. 

46 By loving those not Christians we imitate God. 

HoM. 3. then and Jews, brothers indeed by nature, but vile and 
unprofitable, pitying and wearing himself out for them and 
shedding tears. Herein we shall be like unto God if we 
love all men, even our enemies ; not, if we work miracles. 
For even God we regard with admiration when He worketh 
wonders, yet much more, when He sheweth love towards 
man, when He is long-suffering. If then even in God that 
Love is worthy of much admiration, much more in men is 
it evident that this rendereth us admirable. 

This then let us zealously seek after: and though we 
may be not able to drive away a fever, we shall be no way 
inferior to Paul and Peter and those who have raised in- 
numerable dead. But without this Love, though we should 
work greater miracles even than the Apostles themselves, 
though we should expose ourselves for the faith to dangers 
innumerable : there will be to us no profit from any. And 
these things not I say, but he, the very nursling of Charity, 
knoweth these things. To him then let us be obedient; 
for thus we shall be able to attain to the good things pro- 
mised, of which may we all be made partakers, by the grace 
and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the 
Father and also to the Holy Ghost, be the glory, now and 
for ever and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. ii. 5 — 7. 

For unto Angels He hath not put in subjection the world to 
come, whereof we speak. But one in a certain place tes- 
tified, saying, What is man that Thou art mindful of him, 
or the S071 of man that Thou visitest him ? Thou hast 
made him a little lower than the Angels. 

[1.] I COULD have wished to know for certain whether 
any of you hear with suitable attention the things that are 
said, whether we are not casting the seeds by the way-side : 
for in that case I should have made my instructions with 
more cheerfulness. For we shall speak, though no one hear, 
for the fear which is laid on us by our Saviour. For, saith 
He, testify thou to this people ; even if they hear not, thou see Ezek. 
shalt thyself be guiltless. If however I had been persuaded "^' ^^' 
of your earnestness, I should have spoken not for fear only, 
but should have done it with pleasure also. For now in- 
deed, even if no man hear, even if my work, so long as I 
fulfil my own part, brings no danger, still the trouble [I 
take] is not attended with pleasure. For what profit is 
it, when though I be not myself open to blame, no one is 
benefited? If on the other hand any were likely to be 
attentive, the advantage we shall receive, will not be so 
much from avoiding punishment ourselves as from your 

How then shall I know this ? Having taken notice of 
some of you, those [I mean] who are not very attentive, I 
shall question them privately, when I meet them. And if 
I find that they retain any of the things that have been 
spoken (I say not all, for this would not be very easy for 

48 Will examine Ms hearers as to what he has told thera, 

HoM. 4. you), but even if [they retain] a few things out of many, it is 
plain I should have no further doubts about the rest. And 
indeed we ought, without giving notice beforehand, to have 
attacked you when off your guard. However it will be 
pretty well, even if in this way I should be able to attain my 
purpose. Nay rather, even as it is, I can attack you when 
you are off your guard. For that I shall question you, I 
have forewarned you ; but when I shall question you I do 
not as yet make evident. For perhaps it may be to-day ; 
perhaps to-morrow, perhaps after twenty or thirty days, 
perhaps after fewer, perhaps after more. Thus has God 
also made uncertain the day of our death. Nor hath He 
allowed it to be clear to us, whether it shall befal us to-day, 
or to-morrow, or after a whole year, or after many years ; 
that through the uncertainty of the expectation we may 
through all time keep ourselves firm in virtue. And that 
we shall indeed depart. He hath said, — but when, He hath 
not yet said. Thus too I have said that I shall question 
you, but I have not added when, wishing you always to be 

And let no man say, I heard these things four or five 
weeks ago, or more, and I cannot retain them. For I wish 
the hearer to retain them in such a way as to have his 
recollection perpetual and not apt to fade, nor yet that he 
should reject with scorn what is spoken. For I wish you 
to retain them, not, in order to tell them to me, but to 
have profit yourselves ; and this is that which is to me the 
matter of serious interest. Let no one then say this. 

[2.] However, I must now begin with what follows in the 

epistle. What then is set before us to speak on to-day ? 

For not to angels, saith he, did He put in subjection the 

^ r^v fi^^- woi'ld to come^, to hereof we speak. Is he then discoursing 

concerning some other world ? no ; but concerning this. 

For, on this account he added whereof we speak, that he 

might not allow the mind to wander away in search of some 

other. In what sense then does he call it the wo7'ld to 

Rom. V. come ? Exactly as he also says in another place. Who is 

^toO €A the figure of him thatlvas to be ^ when he is speaking about 

Aoj/Tos Adam and Christ in the Epistle to the Romans; calling 

Christ according to the flesh Him that was to be in respect 

All things subjected to man, i. e. to Christ. 49 

of the times of Adam (for [then] He was to be). So now Heb.jj.s. 
also, since he had said, hut when He hringeth in the First- 
begotten into the world: that thou mightest not suppose 
that he is speaking of another world, it is made certain from 
many other considerations and from the very fact itself of 
his saying to come* For the world was to be, but the Son 
of God ever was. This world then which was about to 
exist, He put in subjection not to Angels but to Christ. 
For that this is said with reference to the Son (he means) 
is evident : for surely no one would assert the other alter- 
native, that it was said in reference to Angels. 

Then he brings forward another testimony also and says, 
but one in a certain place testified, saying. Wherefore did 
he not mention the name of the prophet, but concealed it ? 
Yea, and in other testimonies also he doth this : as when 
he saith, but when He bringeth in again the First-Begotten supra i. 6, 
into the world, He saith, And let all the angels of God wor- ' ' 
ship Him. And again, I will be to Him a Father, And of 
the Angels He saith. Who maketh His angels spirits. And, 
Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the 
earth : — so also here he saith, but one in a certain place 
testified saying. And this very thing (I conceive) is the act 
of one that conceals himself, and shews that they were well 
acquainted with the Scriptures ; his not setting down [I 
mean] the name of him who uttered the testimony, but 
introducing it as familiar and obvious. 

What is man that Thou art mindful of him, or the son of 
man that Thou visitest him ? Thou madest him a little loiver 
than the angels: Thou crownedst him with glory and honour^, 
(ver. 8.) Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. 

Now although these things were spoken of human nature (2) 
generally, they would nevertheless apply more properly to 
Christ according to the flesh. For this. Thou hast put all 
things in subjection under his feet, belongs to Him rather 
than to us. For the Son of God visited us when we were 
nothing : and after having assumed what was derived from 
us ^ and united it to Himself, He became higher than all. JjJ' 


a S. B. add Kol Karea-Tr^a-as ahrhv kid by Critical editors of the New Testa- 
ret ep7o rQv x^^poSf (tov. This clause ment, and is not commented on by 
is omitted from the text of the Epistle S. Chrysostom. 


50 Consolation in the sufferings 0/ Christ. 

HoM. 4. For, saith he, in that He hath put all things in subjection 
under Him, He left nothing not put under Him : but now we 
see not yet all things put under Him. 

What he means is to this effect. Since he had said, 
Supra i. Until I have made Thine enemies Thy footstool — and it was 
likely that they would still be grieved, so then after this 
having inserted a few things parenthetically, he added this 
testimony in confirmation of the former. For that they 
might not say, How is it that He hath put His enemies 
under His feet, when we have suffered so much ? he suf- 
ficiently hinted at it in the former place indeed (for the 
word until shewed, not what should take place immiediately, 
but in course of time) but here he followeth it up. For 
do not suppose (saith he) that because they have not yet 
been made subject, they are not being made subject : for 
that they must be made subject, is evident ; for, for this 
cause was the prophecy spoken. For, he says, in that 
He hath put all thijigs under Him, He left nothing not put 
under Him, How then is it that all things have not been 
put under Him ? Because they are hereafter to be put 
under Him. 

If then all things must be made subject to Him, but have 
not yet been made subject, do not vex^ nor trouble thyself. 
If indeed when the end were come, and all things were made 
subject, thou wert still suffering these things, with reason 
wouldst thou repine : But now we see not yet all things put 
under Him, The King has not yet clearly gained the mas- 
tery. Why then art thou troubled when suffering affliction ? 
the preaching [of the Gospel] hath not yet prevailed over 
all; it is not yet time that they should be altogether made 

[3.] Then again there is another consolation ; if indeed 
He who is hereafter to have all put in subjection under Him, 
hath Himself also died and submitted to sufferings innu- 
merable. (ver.9.) But, saith he, we see Him who was made 
2 or, for a little 2 lower than the angels, even Jesus, for the suffering 
\hnT^ 0/ death — then [come] the good things again, — crowned 
ivith glory and honour^ Seest thou, how all things apply to 
Him? For the [expression], a little [lower], would rather 
suit Him, who was only three days in Hades, but not our- 

The Cross His glory : He tastes death for all. 51 

selves who are for a long time in corruption. Likewise HEB.ii.9. 
also the [expression] with glory and honour will suit Him 
much more than us. 

Again, he puts them in mind of the Cross, thereby effecting 
two things; shewing His solicitude [for them] and persuading 
them to bear all things nobly, looking to their Master. For 
(he would say) if He who is worshipped of Angels, for thy 
sake endured to have a little less than the Angels, much 
more oughtest thou who art inferior to the angels, to bear 
all things for His sake. Then he shews that the Cross is 
glory and honour, just as He Himself also always calls it 
saying. That the Son of Man should be glorified; and, the S.John 
Son of Man is glorified. If then He calls what [He suffered] j j- ^•.. 
for His servants' sakegloiy, much more shouldest thou what 23. 
[thou sufferest] for thy Lord. 

Seest thou the fruit of the Cross, how great it is ? fear 
not the matter : for it seemeth to thee indeed to be dismal, 
but it brings forth good things innumerable. From these 
considerations he shews the benefit of trials. Then he says. 
That He by the grace of God should taste death for every 

That by the grace of God, saith he. And He indeed 
because of the grace of God towards us suffered these things. 
He who spared not His Own Son, he saith, but delivered Him Rom.vlii. 
up for us all. Wherefore ? He did not owe us this, but has ^^* 
done it of grace. And again in the Epistle to the Romans 
he saith. Much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace lb. v. 15. 
which is of one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto the 

That by the grace of God He should taste death for every 
man, not for the faithful only, but even for the whole world : 
for He Himself indeed died for all ; But what if all have 
not believed ? He hath fulfilled His own [part.] 

Moreover he said in strict propriety of expression taste 
death for every man, he did not say die. For as if He really 
was tasting it, when He had spent a little time therein. He 
immediately arose. 

By saying then /or the suffering of death, he signified real 
death, by saying that [He was made] superior to angels, he 
declared the resurrection. For just as a physician though 

E 2 

52 Our Captain perfected by suffering ; toe too shall be. 

HoM.4. noways obliged to taste the victuals prepared for the sick 
man, yet in his solicitude for him tastes first himself, that 
he may persuade the sick man with confidence to venture 
on the food, so since all men were afraid of death, in per- 
suading them to take courage against death, He tasted it 
S. John also Himself though He was not obliged. For, saith He, 
the prince of this world cometh and findeth nothing in Me* 
So both the words by grace and should taste death for every 
man, establish this. 

[4.] ver. 10. For it became Him, for whom are all things, 

and by whom are all things, in bringing mariy sons unto 

glory, to make the Captain of their salvation perfect through 

(3) sufferings. In this place he is speaking of the Father. 

^ 5t' oSsee Seest thou how again he applies the [expression] by whom ^ 

note b ^^ ^vciv ? which he would not have done, had it been [an 

P- 10. expression] of inferiority, and only applicable to the Son. 

And what he says is to this effect. He has done what 

is worthy of His love towards mankind, in shewing His 

First-born to be more glorious than all, and in setting Him 

forth as an example to the others, like some noble wrestler 

that surpasses the rest. 

The Captain of their salvation, that is, the Cause of their 

salvation. Seest thou how great is the space between? 

He also is a Son, and we are sons; but He saves, we 

are saved. Seest thou how He both brings us together and 

then separates us ; bringing, saith he, many sons unto glory : 

here he brings us together, — the Captain of their salvation, 

again he separates. 

* effects^ T'o make perfect through sufferings. It follows then that 

and sufferings are a perfecting, and a cause of salvation. Seest 

sanation ^^^^^ ^^^^ *^ Suffer affliction is not the portion of those who 

are utterly forsaken ; if indeed it was by this that God first 

honoured His Son, by leading Him through sufferings ? 

And in very deed His having taken on Him our flesh and 

suffered what He did suffer, is a far greater thing than 

making the world, and bringing it out of non-existence. 

This indeed also is [a token] of His lovingkindness to man, 

but the other is a fa?^greater. And [the Apostle] himself 

Eph.ii.7. also pointing out this very thing, says. That in the ages to 

come He might shew forth the exceeding riches of His good- 

Profit of suffering, Christ our Brother. 53 

ness, He both raised us up together, and made us sit together HE.ii.ii. 
iti the heavenly places in Christ Jesus. ^ ^' "' * 

For, saith he^ it became Him for whom are all things and 
hi) whom are all things in bringing many sons to glory, to 
make the Captain of their salvation perfect through suffer- 
ings. For (he means) it became Him who taketh tender care 
[of all], and brought all things into being, to give up [His] 
Son for the salvation of the rest, the One for the many. 
However he did not express himself thus, but, to make per- 
fect through sufferings, shewing that he who suffers for any- 
one, not merely profits him, but himself also becomes more 
glorious and more perfect. Yea, and this too he says in re- 
ference to the faithful, giving them encouragement by the 
way : for even Christ was glorified at the time when He 
suffered. But when I say, He was glorified, do not thou 
suppose that an acquisition of glory was made by Him : for 
that He ever had, even that of [His] nature, and acquired 
nothing in addition. 

[5.] For, saith he, both He that sanctifieth, and they who 
are sanctified, are alt of one, for ivhich cause He is not 
ashamed to call them brethren. Behold again how he brings 
[them] together, honouring them and comforting them, and 
making them brethren of Christ, in this respect that they 
are of one ^. Then again carefully guarding himself and ^^ 
shewing that he is speaking of that which is according to 
the flesh, he introduces. For He who sanctifieth, [i.e.] 
Christ, and they who are sanctified, ourselves. Dost thou 
see how great is the space that intervenes ^ ? He sanctifies, ^ '^^ Ate- 
we are sanctified. And above he said, the Captain of 
their salvation. For there is one God, of whom are all i Cor. 
things^. ^"'•^• 

For which cause He is not ashamed to call them brethren. 
Seest thou how again he shews the superiority ? For by 
saying, He is not ashamed, he shews that the whole comes 
not of the nature of the thing, but of the loving affection 
of Him who was not ashamed, [yea] of His great humility. 
For though we be of one, yet He sanctifieth and we are sanc- 
tified : and great is the space between ^. Moreover He is ^ rh ixiaov 

^ This citation is to be connected with they arc of one, the intervening- 
words "Then again . . . salvation," being introduced parenthetically. 

54 Christ our Brother^ took real flesh, the deviPs death. 

HoM.4. of the Father, as a genuine Son, that is, of His substance ; 

we, as created, that is, brought out of non-existence, so that 

the space between us is great. Wherefore he says. He is not 

Ps. xxii. ashamed to call them brethren, (ver. 12) saying, I will declare 

^^' Thy name unto My brethren. For when He clothed Himself 

with flesh, He clothed Himself also with the brotherhood, 

and at the same time came in the brotherhood therewith. 

This however he brings forward naturally. But this 

2 Sam. other, (v. 13) / will put my trust in Him, what does it 

xxu. 3. j^g^j^ } fQj. what follows this is also [introduced] naturally. 

Is. viii. Behold, I and the children which God hath given Me. For 

^^' as here He shews Himself a Father, so before, a Brother. 

/ will declare Thy name unto My brethren. He saith. 

And again he indicates the superiority and the great 

interval [between us], by what follows: (ver. 14) Since 

then the children, he saith, are partakers of flesh and blood 

(4) (thou seest where he saith the likeness is ? in reference 

to the flesh), in like manner He also Himself took part of 

^\ the same. Let all the Heretics be ashamed, let those hide 

S. Iren. tt • *. 

pp. 450, their faces who say that He is come m appearance and not 

482,497 ^^ reality. For he did not say. He took part of these only, 
and then say no more ; and yet even had he said thus, it 
would have been sufficient, but he asserted something else 
which is greater, by adding the [words] in like manner, 
not in appearance, he means, or by an image (since in that 
case in like manner is not preserved) but in reality; shewing 
[thereby] the brotherhood. 

M.e. the ["g "j ]N^ext he scts down also the cause of the economy ^. 

nation That through death, he saith. He might destroy him that had 
the power of death, that is, the Devil. 

In these words he points out the wonderful circumstance, 
that by that whereby the devil prevailed, by this same was 
he overcome, ,and the very thing which was his strong 
weapon against the world, [namely]. Death, by this Christ 
smote him. In this he exhibits the greatness of the con- 
queror's power. Thou seest how great good death hath 

ver. 15. And should deliver them, saith he, ivho through 
fear of death were all their life-time subject to bondage. 
Wherefore (he means) do ye shudder ? why do you fear 

TVe are freed /rom bondage of fear of death. 55 

him that hath been brought to nought ? No longer is he . 
terrible^ but has been trodden under foot, hath been utterly \q^' ** 
despised ; vile he is and of no account. 

But what is through fear of death were all their life-time 
subject to bondage ? He either means this, that he that is 
afraid of death is a slave, and submits to all things rather 
than die.. Or this, that all men were slaves of death and 
were held under his power, because he had not yet been done 
away. Or that men spent their lives in continual terror, 
ever expecting that they should die ; and being afraid of 
death, could have no sense of pleasure, while this terror 
was present with them. For this he hinted at in saying, All 
their life-time. In these words, he shews that those that 
are afflicted, that are harassed, that are persecuted, that are 
deprived of country and of substance and of all other things, 
spend their lives more sweetly and more like free-men 
than they of old time who were in luxury, who suffered 
no such afflictions, who were in continual prosperity, if 
indeed these all their life-time were under this fear and were 
slaves ; while the others have been freed from this terror, 
and laugh at that which they shudder at. For in fact it is 
just the same thing as if, when a captive was on the point 
of being led away to death, and in continual expectation of 
it, one should feed him up with abundant dainties (some- 
thing such as this was Death of old). But now as if some 
one taking away that fear together with the dainties were 
to promise that the man should wrestle [for a prize], and 
propose the combat on such conditions as to lead him no 
longer to death, but to a kingdom. Of which number 
wouldst thou have wished to be — those who whilst they 
are fed up in the prison-house, are every day looking for 
their sentence, or those who contend much and labour will- 
ingly, that they may crown themselves with the diadem 
of the kingdom? Seest thou how he has raised up their 
soul, and made them elated ? He shews too, that not death 
alone has been put an end to, but that thereby he also who 
is ever shewing that war against us in which there is no 
truce, I mean the Devil, hath been brought to nought; 
since he that fears not death is out of reach of the Devil's 
power. For if skin for skin, yea all things a man would give Job ii. 4. 

56 Who fem^s not death, free. Heathenish practice 

HoM.4. for his life — when any one has determined to disregard even 
this, of what henceforward will he be the slave ? He fears 
no one, he is in terror of no one, he is higher than all, and 
more like a freeman than all. For he that disregards his own 
life, much more [doth he disregard] all other things. And 
when the Devil finds a soul such as this, he will not be able 
to accomplish in it any of his works. For what ? tell me, 
shall he threaten the loss of property, and degradation, and 
banishment from one^s country ? But these are small mat- 
Acts XX. -tgpg -^Q \^\x^ -who counteth not even his life dear unto him, 
24. , 

according to the [pattern of the] blessed Paul. Thou seest 

that in casting out the tyrannical power of death, he at the 

same time overthrew also the strength of the Devil. For he 

who has learnt to dwell on innumerable deep truths con- 

/*"p'« cerning the resurrection ^, how should he fear death ? how 

<f €?y should he shudder any more ? 

[7.] Wherefore be ye not grieved, saying, why do we suffer 

such and such things ? for in this war the victory becomes 

more glorious. And it would not have been glorious, unless 

by death He had destroyed death ; but the most admirable 

thing is this, that He conquered him by the very means by 

which he was strong, shewing in every point the abundance 

of His means, and the excellence of His contrivances. Let 

us not then give up the gift which has been bestowed on 

Rom.viii. US. For we, he saith, have received not a spirit of cowardice, 

2 Tim. i. ^^^ ^ spirit of power, and of love, and of a sound mind. Let 

7. us stand then nobly, laughing death to scorn. 

(5) But [I pause] for it comes over me to groan bitterly [at 

the thought of] what Christ hath raised us up to, and to 
what we have brought ourselves down. For when I behold 
the wailings in the public places, the groanings over them 
which depart out of [this] life, the bowlings, all the other 
unseemly behaviour, believe me, I am ashamed before those 
heathen, and Jews, and heretics who see it, yea, and indeed 
before all who for this cause laugh us to scorn. For what- 
ever I may afterwards say, I shall talk to no purpose, when 
philosophizing concerning the resurrection. Why, I ask? 
because the heathen do not attend to what is said by me, 
but to what is done by you. For they will say at once. 

of wailing at Christian funerals, contradicts Services, 57 

^when will any of these [fellows] be able to despise death, HE.ii.i5. 
^when he is not able even to see another dead?' 

Beautiful are the things spoken by Paul, beautiful and 
worthy of Heaven, and of the love of God to man. For what 
does he say ? And He shall deliver them loho through fear 
of death were ail their life-time subject to bondage. But ye 
do not allow these things to be believed, contending against 
them by your deeds. And yet God had caused many things 
to be done, building a wall [as it were] against this [error], 
that He might take away this evil custom. For tell me, 
what mean the bright torches ? do we not attend them forth 
as [victorious] champions ? and what [mean] the hymns ? 
do we not glorify God, and give thanks that at last He has 
crowned the departed one, that He has freed him from his 
laboursj that He has taken him out of uncertainty, and has 
him with Himself ? is it not for this that there are Hymns ? 
is it not for this that there is Psalmody ? all these are the 
acts of persons that are in joy. For, it is said, is any merry ? S. James 
let him sing psalms. But to these things the heathen give ^* " 
no heed. For (one will say) do not tell me of him who is 
philosophical*^ when he is out of the affliction, for this is 
nothing great or surprising ; — shew me a man who in the 
very affliction itself is philosophical, and then I will believe 
the resurrection. 

And indeed, that women engaged in the affairs of this 
life ^ should act thus is no ways surprising. And yet indeed ' ^'WTi^as 
this too is sad ; for from them also is the same philosophy 
required. For which cause Paul also says. But concerning i Thess. 
them, which are asleep, I ivould not have you ignorant, that ^^* ^^' 
ye sorroio not even as the rest who have no hope. He wrote 
not this to solitaries, nor to those [who had resolved to 
remain] in perpetual virginity, but to women and men 
engaged in the world ^. But however this is not so sad. " «;f o-^t- 
But when any man or woman, professing to be crucified koctixikoIs 
to the world, in the one case tears his hair, in the other 
shrieks violently — what can be more unseemly than this ? 

Believe me when I say if things were done as they ought 
to have- been, such persons must needs be excluded for a 

c The word includes the ideas of being patient, as well as of thinking and 
speaking deep things. 

58 Sorrow yet joy. Who hire wailing ivomen 

HoM.4. long time from the thresholds of the Church. For those 

who are indeed worthy of being grieved for^ are these who 
are still in fear of death and shudder at it, who have no 
faith at all in the resurrection. 

^But I do not disbelieve the resurrection (saith one) but I 
'long after his society.' Why then, tell me, when he goes 
from home, and that for a long absence, dost not thou do 
the same ? ' Yea, but I do weep then also (she says) and 
'mourn as I long after him.' But that is the conduct of 
those that really long after their associates, this that of one 
who despairs of his return. 

Ps. cxvi. Think, what thou singest on that occasion. Return unto 
thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with 

lb. xxiii. thee. And again, Iivillfear no evils, for Thou art with me. 

lb. xxxii. -^i^<i S'g^iii? Thou art my refuge from the affliction ivhich 

^' encompasseth me. Think what these Psalms mean. But 

thou dost not give heed, but art become drunken from thy 

Consider carefully the funeral lamentations of others at 
least, that thou mayest have a remedy in thine own case. 
Return, my soul, to thy rest, for the Lord hath dealt boun- 
tifully with thee. Tell me, sayest thou that the Lord hath 
dealt bountifully with thee, and weepest? Is not this a 
play? is it not mere acting? For if indeed thou really 
believest the things thou sayest, thy sorrow is superfluous : 
but if thou art in sport and acting a part, and thinkest 
them to be fables, why dost thou also sing psalms ? why 
dost thou even endure the persons that present them- 
selves ? why dost thou not drive away the singers ? But 
this would be the act of madmen. And yet the other is 
much more [so] . 

For the present, then, I advise you : but as time goes on, 
I shall treat thp matter more seriously : for indeed I am 
greatly afraid that by this practice some grievous disease 
may also make its way into the Church. 

The case of the wailings then we will hereafter correct. 
And meanwhile I charge and testify, both to rich and poor, 
both to women and m^. 

May God indeed grant that you all depart out of life 
unwailed, and according to the fitting rule fathers now 

shall be excommunicated, they punished. 59 

grown old may be attended to their graves by sons, and HE.ii.i5. 
mothers by daughters, and grand-children, and great grand- 
children, in a green old age, and that untimely death may 
in no case occur. May this then be, and this I pray my- 
self, and I exhort the prelates and all of you to beseech 
God for each other, and to make this prayer in common. 
But if (which God forbid, and may it never happen) any 
bitter death should occur, bitter, I mean, not in its nature 
(for henceforth there is no bitter death, for it differs not 
at all from sleep), but bitter in regard of your disposition, 
if it should happen, and any should hire these mourning 
women, believe me when I say (I speak not without mean- 
ing ^ but as I have resolved, let him who will, be angry), ^ «a\«5 
that person we will exclude from the Church for a long 
time, as we do the idolater. For if Paul calls the covetous Epli.v.5. 
man an idolater, much more [would he so call] him who 
brings in the practices of the idolaters over a believer. 

For, tell me, for what cause dost thou invite presbyters, 
and the singers ? Is it not to afford consolation ? is it not 
to honour the departed ? Why then dost thou insult him ? 
and why dost thou make him a public show ? and why 
dost thou make game as in a play ? We come, discoursing 
of the things concerning the resurrection, instructing all, 
even those who have not yet been smitten, by the honour 
shewn to him, to bear it nobly if any such thing should 
befal themselves : and dost thou bring those who overthrow 
our [teachings] as much as in them lieth ? What can be iq\ 
worse than this ridicule and mockery ? what more grievous 
than this inconsistency ? 

[8.] Be ye influenced by shame and reverence : but if ye 
will not, we cannot endure the bringing in upon the Church 
of practices so destructive. For, it is said, them that sin i Tim. v. 
rebuke before all. And as to those miserable and wretched ^' 
women, we through you forbid them*^ ever to introduce 
themselves into the funerals of the faithful, lest we should 
oblige them in good earnest to wail over their own evils, and 
teach them not to do these things in the ills of others, but 
rather to weep for their own misfortunes. For an affec- 

d The hired wailers were heathens and not present ; S. Chrj's. hints at 
having some corporal punishment inflicted on them. 

60 The power and effect of church censures : 

HoM.4. tionate father too, when he has a disorderly son, not only 
advises him not to draw near to the wicked, but puts them 
in fear also. Behold then, I advise you, and those Avomen 
through you, that you do not invite such persons, and that 
they do not present themselves. And may God grant that 
my words may produce some effect, and that my threat 
may avail. But if (which God forbid) we should be disre- 
garded, we have no choice henceforward but to put our 
threat into execution, chastising you by the laws of the 
Church, and those women as befits them. 

Now if any man is obstinate and contemptuous, let 
S. Matt, him hear Christ saying even now. If any one trespass 
xviu. 15. fj^gg^i^gf thee, go, tell him his fault betiveen thee and him 
lb. 16. alone; but if he will not be persuaded, take with thee one 
lb. 17. or two. But if even so he speak contrary, tell it to the 
Church, but if he shall also refuse to hear the Church, let 
him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican. Now 
if when a man trespasses against me, and will not be per- 
suaded, [the Lord] commands me thus to turn away from 
him, judge ye in what light I ought to hold him who tres- 
passes against himself, and against God. For do not you 
yourselves condemn us when we come down so gently upon 
you ? 

If however any man disregard the bonds which we inflict, 
lb. 18. let Christ again instruct him, saying. Whatsoever ye shall 
bind on earth shall be bound in heaven ; and ivhatsoever ye 
shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. For though 
we ourselves be miserable and good for nothing and worthy 
to be despised, as indeed we are ; yet are we not aveng- 
ing ourselves nor shielding ourselves from anger, but are 
anxious for your salvation. 

Be influenced by reverence, I beseech you, and respect. 
For if a man bear with a friend when he attacks him more 
vehemently than is right, ascertaining his object, and that 
he does it with kind intention, and not out of insolence; 
much more [should he bear with] a teacher when rebuking 
him, and a teacher who does not even himself say these 
things as of authority^tior as one in the position of a ruler, 
but in that of a kindly guardian. For we do not say these 
things as wishing to exhibit our authority, (for how could 

longed only to loose ; bonds if bursty God angered. 61 

we^ we who pray that we may never come to the actual HE.ii.i5. 
trial of them ?) but grieving and lamenting for you. 

Forgive me then, and let no man disregard the bonds of 
the Church. For it is not a mere man who binds, but 
Christ who has given unto us this authority, and makes 
men lords of this so great dignity. For ourselves indeed 
wish to have largely used this power for loosing ; or rather, 
we wish to have no need even of that, for we wish that 
there should not be any bound among us — we are not so 
miserable and wretched [as that] even though we be ex- 
treme good-for-nothings. If however we be compelled [so 
to act], forgive us. For it is not of our own accord, nor 
wishing it, but rather out of sorrow for you that are bound 
that we put these chains around you. But if any man 
despise these chains, the time of judgement will come 
quickly, which shall teach him. And what comes after I 
do not wish to speak of, lest I should wound your minds. 
For in the first place indeed we do not wish to be brought 
into this necessity ; but if we are so brought, we fulfil our 
own part, we cast the chains around the sinners. And if 
any man burst through them, I have done my part, and am 
henceforth free from blame, and thou wilt have to give 
account to Him who commanded me to bind. 

For neither, when a king is sitting in public, if any of 
the guard who stand beside him be commanded to bind one 
of the attendants, and to put the chains around [him], and 
he should not only thrust this man away, but also break 
the bonds in pieces, is it the guard who suffers the insult, 
and not much more the King who gave the order. For if 
He claim as His own, the things which are done to the 
faithful, much more will He feel as though He were Him- 
self insulted when he is insulted who has been appointed 
to teach. 

But God grant that none of those who are over this 
Church should be driven to the necessity of [inflicting] 
these bonds. For as it is an excellent thing not to do 
amiss, so is it profitable to endure reproof. Let us then 
endure "to be rebuked, and earnestly endeavour not to do 
amiss ; and if we should do amiss let us bear to be reproved. 
For as it is an excellent thing not to be wounded, but, if 

62 Trusts reproofs will be borne and suffice. 

HoM.4. this should happen, to apply the remedy to the wound, so 
also in this case. 

But God forbid that any man should need such remedies 
Infra vi. as these. But we are persuaded better things of you, and 
^' things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak. We 

have however discoursed more vehemently for the sake of 
greater security. For it is better that I should be sus- 
pected by you of being a harsh and severe, and self-willed 
person, than that you should do things not approved of 
God. But we trust in God, that this reproof will not be 
unserviceable to you, but that ye will be so changed, that 
these discourses of mine may be devoted to encomiums on 
you and in praises : that we may all be counted worthy to 
attain to those good things, which God hath promised to 
them that love Him in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom 
to the Father and also to the Holy Ghost be glory, might 
honour now and for ever and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. ii. 16, 17. 

For verily He taketh not hold of Angels, but of the seed of 

Abraham He taketh hold ^. Wherefore in all things it l,™^ ^' ^^ 
behoved Him to be made like unto His brethren, 

[1.] Paul wishing to shew the great kindness of God (1) 
towards man, and the Love which He had for the human 
race, after saying : Forasmuch then as the children were Supra 
partakers of blood and jiesh, He also Himself likeivise took 
part of the same — follows up the subject in this passage. 
For do not thou regard carelessly what is spoken, nor think 
this to be merely a slight [matter]. His taking on Him 
the flesh derived from us. He granted not this favour to 
Angels ; For verily He taketh not hold of Angels, but of the 
seed of Abraham. What is it that he saith? He took not on 
Him an Angel's nature but man's. But what is He taketh 
hold of? He did not (he means) grasp that other nature, 
that of angels, but our's. But why did he not say, ^ He took 
on Him', but used this expression. He taketh hold of? It is 
derived from the figure of persons pursuing those who turn 
away from them, and doing every thing to overtake them 
as they flee, and to take hold of them as they are bounding 
away. For when human nature was fleeing from Him, and 
fleeing far away i^for we lu ere far off), He pursued after and Eph. ii. 
overtook us. He shewed that He has done this only out ^^' 
of kindness for man, and love, and tender solicitude. As 
then when he saith. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent Supra i. 
fojHh to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation — ^^' 
he shews His extreme interest in behalf of human nature. 

64 Christ in all things made like unto His brethren, 

HoM. 5. and that God makes great account of it^ so also in this place 
he sets forth the far higher degree of it by a comparison. 
For he saith. He taketh not hold of angels. For in very- 
deed it is a great and a wonderful thing, and full of amaze- 
ment that the flesh [derived] from us should sit on high, 
and be adored by Angels and Archangels, by the Cherubim 
and the Seraphim. For myself having oftentimes thought 
upon this, I am amazed at it, and imagine to myself great 
things concerning the human race. For I see that the in- 
troductions are great and splendid, and that the earnest 
care which God has on behalf of our nature, is large. 

Moreover he said not "of men (simply) He taketh hold," 
but being desirous to exalt them [the Hebrews] and to 
shew that their race is great and honourable, he says, but 
of the seed of Abraham He taketh hold. 

Wherefore it behoved [Him'\ in all things to be made like 
unto His brethren. What is this, in all things ? He was 
born (he means) was brought up, grew, suffered all things 
which it was necessary [He should suffer], at last He died. 
This is, in all things to be made like unto His brethren. 
For after he had discoursed much concerning His majesty 
and the glory on high, he then begins to discourse con- 
cerning the dispensation. And consider with how great 
power [he doth this]. How he represents Him as having 
a very earnest desire to be made like unto us : which was a 
sign of much solicitude. For having said above. Inasmuch 
then as the children were partakers of flesh and bloody He also 
Himself in like manner took part of the same; in this place 
also he says, in all things to be made like unto His brethren. 
Which is all but saying. He that is so great. He that is the 
brightness of His glory, He that is the express image of His 
person, He that made the worlds, He that sitteth oti the 
right hand of tlie Father, even He was willing and earnestly 
desirous to become our brother in all things, and for this 
cause did He leave the angels and the other powers, and 
come down to us, and took hold of us, and wrought innu- 
merable good things. He destroyed Death, He cast out 
the devil from his f^rannical power, He freed us from 
slavery : not by brotherhood alone did He Jionour us, but 
also in other ways beyond number. For He was willing 

A faithful High Priest : suffering and tempted, 65 

also to become our High Priest with the Father : for he HE.ii.i8 . 

[2.] That He might become a merciful and faithful High 
Priest in things pertaining to God. For this cause (he 
means) He took on Him our flesh, only for Love to man, 
that He might have mercy upon us. For neither is there 
any other cause of the economy, but this alone. He saw 
us, I mean, cast on the ground, perishing, tyrannized over 
by Death, and He had compassion on us. To make recon- 
ciliatio7i, he saith,/br the sins of the people. 

That He might he a merciful and faithful High Priest. 

What is [the meaning of] faithful? True, Able. For 
the Son is a faithful High Priest, able to deliver from their 
sins those whose High Priest He is. In order then that 
He might offer a sacrifice which should be able to purify 
us, for this cause He has become man. 

Accordingly he added, in things pertaining to God, — that 
is, for the sake of things in relation to God. We were be- 
come altogether enemies to God, (he would say) condemned, 
degraded, there was none who should offer sacrifice for us. 
He saw us when we were in this condition, and He had 
compassion on us, not appointing an High Priest for us, 
but Himself becoming a High Priest. In what sense He 
was faithful, he added [viz.], to make 7'e conciliation for the 
sins of the people. 

ver. 18. For, he saith, in that He hath suffered Him- (2) 
self being tempted. He is able to succour them that are 
tempted. This is altogether low and mean, and unworthy 
of God. For in that He hath suffered Himself, saith he. 
It is of Him who was made flesh that he is speaking in 
this place, and it was said for the full assurance of the 
hearers, and on account of their weakness. That is (he 
would say) He went through the very experience of the 
things which we have suffered; now He is not ignorant 
of our sufferings ; not only does He know them as God, 
but as man also He has become acquainted with them, by 
the trial wherewith He was tried; He suffered much. He 
knows how to sympathize with those that suffer. And 
yet God is incapable of suffering : but in this place he is 
relating what belongs to the Incarnation, as if he had said, 


66 The seed of Abraham honoured by Incarnation, 

HoM.5. Even the very flesh of Christ suffered many terrible things. 
He knows what tribulation is ; He knows what temptation 
is^ not less than we who have suffered, for He Himself also 
has suffered. 

(What then is this, He is able to succour them that are 
tempted F It is as if one should say, He will stretch forth 
His hand with great eagerness, He will be sympathizing.) 
[3.] For inasmuch as they wished for something great, 
and to have an advantage over the [converts] from the 
Gentiles, he points out that they have an advantage in this 
respect, in doing which he was not hurting those from the 
Gentiles at all. In what respect now is this ? Because of 
them is the salvation, because He took hold of them first, 
because from that race He assumed flesh. For, he saith. 
He taketh not hold of angels, but of the seed of Abraham 
He taketh hold. Hereby he both gives honour to the Pa- 
triarch, and shews also what the seed of Abraham is. He 
reminds them of the promise which was made to him, which 
Gen. xiii. saith, To thee and to thy seed will I give this land ; shew- 
^^' ing the nearness [of the relationship] by the very least 

thing, in that they were all of one. But that nearness was 
not great : [so] he comes back to this other, and thence- 
forward dwells upon the dispensation which was after the 
flesh, and says. Even the mere willing to become man was 
a proof of great solicitude and love ; but now it is not this 
alone, but there are also the undying benefits which are 
bestowed on us through Him, for, he saith, to make re- 
conciliation for the sins of the people. 

Wherefore said he not, of the world, instead of the peo- 
ple ? for He bare away the sins of all. Because thus far his 
discourse was concerning [the Hebrews] themselves. Since 
S. Matt, the Angel also said to Joseph, Thoii. shall call His name 
*• 2^- Jesus, /br He shall save His people. For this too ought to 
have taken place first, and for this purpose He came, to save 
them and then through them the rest, although the con- 
trary came to pass. This also the Apostles said at the first, 
Acts iii. To you [God] having raised up His Son, sent [Him'] to bless 
IJ*- ... you: and again. To yo^ ivas the iv or d of this Salvation sent. 
26. Here he shews the noble birth of the Jews, in saying, to 

make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For a while 

The superiority of Christ to Moses. 67 

he speaks in this way. For that it is He Himself who HEB.m.3 . 
forgives the sins of all men^ He declared both in the case 
of the paralytic, saying, Thy sins are forgiven; and also in S. Mark 
that of Baptism : for He saith to the disciples. Go ye and g* ?; 
make disciples of all the nations^ baptizing them in the Name xxviii.i9. 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

[4.] But when Paul has once begun to treat of the flesh, 
he proceeds to utter all the lowly things, without any fear : 
for see what he says next : 

Ch. iii. 1, 2. Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of a hea- 
venly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our con- 
fession, J ^^v^ Christ, luho is faithful to Him that appointed 
[or made'] Him, as also Moses \iv as faithful] in all His house. 

Being about to place Him before Moses in comparison, 
he directed his discourse to the law of the high-priesthood ; 
for they all had a high esteem for Moses : moreover, he is 
already before-hand casting down the seeds of the supe- 
riority. Well then he begins from the flesh, and goes up to 
the Godhead, where there was no longer any comparison. 
He began by assuming for a time their equality from the 
flesh [from His Human nature], and says, as also Moses in 
a II His house : nor does he at the beginning shew His su- 
p eriority lest the hearer should start away, and straightway 
stop his ears. For although they were believers, yet never- 
theless they still had strong feeling of conscience as to 
Moses. Who loas faithful, saith he, to Him that made 
Him — made [Him] what ? Ajjostle and High-priest. He 
is not speaking at all in this place of His Essence, nor of 
His Godhead ; but so far concerning human dignities [only] . 

As also Moses in all His house, that is, either among the 
people, or in the temple. In this place however he uses 
the expression in His house, just as one might say, concern- 
ing those in the household; even as some guardian and 
steward of a household, so was Moses to the people. For 
in that by house he means the people, he added, whose mira, 
house we are; that is, we are in His creation. Then [comes] ^®^* ^' 
the superiority. 

ver.- 3. For this man ivas counted worthy of greater glory 
than Moses, (Again [he is speaking] of the Flesh,) inas- i ^„^„_ 
much as he who constructed ^ [the house] hath more honour <rK€va- 


68 The superiority of Christ to Moses. 

HoM.5. than the house ; [Moses] himself also (he means) was of 
(3) the house. (Moreover he did not say. For this one was a 
servant, but the Other a master, but he covertly intimated 
it.) If the people were the house and himself again was 
of the people, it follows that he also was of the household. 
For so also we are accustomed to say, such an one is of such 
an one's house [or household]. For here he is speaking 
of a house, not of the temple, for the temple was not con- 
structed by God but by men. But He that made ' him [is] 
God. Moses he means. And see how he covertly shews 
the superiority. Faithful, he says, in all His house, being 
himself also of the house, that is, of the people. The 
builder has more honour than the house, yet he did not say 
" the artificer hath more honour than his works," but he 
that constructed the house, than the house, ver. 4. But he 
that constructed all things is God. Thou seest that he is 
speaking not about the temple but about the whole people. 

ver. 5. And Moses indeed [leas'] faithful in all His house, 
as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to 
he spoken. Here is also another point of superiority, that 
[which is derived] from the Son and the servants. You 
see again that by the appellation of The Son, he intimates 
genuineness of relationship, (ver. 6.) But Christ as a Son 
over His own house. Perceivest thou how he separates the 
thing made and the maker, the servant and the son ? More- 
over He indeed enters into His Father's property as an 
owner, but the other as a servant. 

Whose house are we [i. e.], God's [house], if we hold 
fast the confidence and the glorying of the hope firm unto 
the end. In this place again he encourages them to stand 
nobly, and not to fall : for we shall be the house of God (he 
saith), as Moses was, if we holdfast our confidence and our 
glorying firm unto the end. He however (he would say) 
that is distressed in his trials, and who falls, doth not 
glory : he that is ashamed, he that hideth himself, does 
not have confidence, he that is perplexed doth not glory. 

And then he also commends them ?>2iymg,if we holdfast 
the confidence and the glorying of the hope firm unto the end, 

« iroi-fiffas. Referring to what is implied in ver. 2. that Moses was faithful 
to Him that made liim. 

Human affections attributed to God. 69 

implying that they had even made a beginning ; but that HEB.iii.5. 
there is need of the end ; and [it is necessary for them] 
not simply to stand, but to have their hope firm in full as- 
surance of faith f without being shaken from their position 
by their trials. 

[5.] And be not thou astonished, that the [words] Him- supra 
selfheing tempted are spoken more after the manner of men. ^^' i^- 
For if of the Father, who was not made flesh, the Scripture 
saith. The Lord looked down from heaven, and beheld all the Ps. xiv. 
sons of men, that is, accurately acquainted Himself with all ^' 
things ; and again, / icill go down, and see whether they do Gen. 
altogether according to the cry of them ; and again, God ^^^^ ' 
cannot endure the evil ways of men, [saith] the divine Scrip- 5 (?) 
ture, shewing forth the greatness of His wrath : much more 
of Christ, who even suffered in the flesh, are these things 
said. For inasmuch as many men consider experience 
more to be relied on than any thing else for [the attainment 
of] knowledge, he wishes to point out that He that has 
suffered knows what human nature suffers. 

fVhence ^ holy brethren (he saith whence instead of " for ' <^0ej/ 
this oxm^q''), partakers of an heavenly calling — (seek nothing 
here, if ye have been called yonder — yonder is the reward, 
yonder the recompence. What then?) Consider the Apostle 
and High Priest of our coyifession, Christ Jesus, who ivas 
faithful to Hljn that made Him, as also Moses [was faithful] 
in all His house. (What is who ivas faithful to Him that 
made Him? it is, well disposed towards Him, protecting 
what belongs to Him, not allowing them to be lightly 
carried away, as also Moses in all His house) that is, know 
who your High Priest is, and how great He is, and ye will 
need no other consolation nor encouragement. Now he 
calls Him Apostle, on account of His having been sent, and 
high priest of our confession, that is of the Faith. This One 
also was entrusted with a people, as the other with the com- 
mand and guardianship of a people, but a greater one, and 
upon higher grounds. 

For a testimony of those things which shall be spoken. 
What meanest thou? Doth God receive the witness of 
man ? Yes, certainly. For if He call to witness heaven and 
earth and hills (saying by the prophet. Hear, O heaven, and Is. i. 2. 

70 The blessings promised us are objects of Hope, 

HoM. 5. give ear, O earth, for the Lord hath spoken, and Hear ye 
Mic. VI. ravines ^, foundations of the earth, for the Lord hath a con- 
troversy with His people) much more men ; that is, that they 
may be witnesses, when [these] themselves [the Jews] are 

ver. 6. But Christ as a Son. The one takes care of the 
property of another, but this One of His own. And the 
glorying of the hope. Well said he of the hope. For since 
the good things were all in hope, and yet we ought so to 
hold it fast, as even now to glory as for things which had 
already come to pass : for this cause he says, the glorying of 
the hope. 
Rom.^'iii. And adds, hold it, firm unto the end. For by hope ive 
^.^' have been saved ; if therefore we have been saved by hope, 

lb. 25. and «re waiting with patience, let us not be grieved at the 
things that are present, nor seek already those that have 
been promised afterwards ; For (saith he) hope which is seen 
is not hope. For since the good things are great, we can- 
not receive them here in this transitory life. With what ob- 
ject then did He even tell us of them beforehand, when 
He was not about to give them here ? In order that by the 
promise He might refresh our souls, that by the engage- 
ment He might strengthen our zeal, that He might anoint 
[preparing us for our contests] and stir up our mind. For 
this cause then all these things were done. 

(4) [6.] Let us not then be disturbed, let no man be dis- 
turbed, when he seeth the wicked prospering. The recom- 
pence is not here, either of wickedness or of virtue ; and if 
in any instance there be [here arecompence] of wickedness 
or of virtue, yet is it not according to desert, but merely as 
it were a taste of the judgment, that they who believe not 
the resurrection may yet even by things that hapj)en here 
be brought to their senses. When then we see a wicked 
man abounding in wealth, let us not be cast down ; when 
we see a good man in affliction, let us not be troubled. 
For yonder are the crowns, yonder the punishments. 

f S. Chrys. had mention^ hills " Hear ye hills" (^ovuol) according to 

()3oui/ol) as called to witness by God: the Alexandrine MSS. of the LXX. or 

in the verse preceding- this (Micah vi. " ye mountains" (uprj according to the 

1) occur the words, " let the hills hear Vatican) " the judgment of the Lord, 

Thy voice"; and this verse itself runs and ye ravines," &c. 

In what sense we are rewarded and punished here. 71 

Yea and in another point of view, it is not possible either HEB.iii.6 . 
that a bad man should be altogether bad, but he may have 
some good things also : nor again that a good man should 
be altogether good, but he may also have some sins. When 
therefore the wicked man prospers, know thou that it is for 
evil on his own head. For, for this cause does he receive his 
recompence in this life, that having here received the reward 
of those few good things, he may hereafter be entirely 
punished yonder. And happy is he most of all who is 
punished here, that having put away all his sins, he may 
depart approved, and pure, and without having to be called 
to account. And this is what Paul teacheth us when he 
says, For this cause many \_are'\ weak and sickly among you, i Cor. xi. 
a7id a good many sleep. And again, / have delivered such ^' ^ 
an one to Satan, And the prophet saith, for she hath re- Is. xl. 2. 
ceived of the Lord's hand her sins double ; and again David, 
Behold mine anemies that they are multiplied above the Ps. xxv. 
hairs of my head^, and [ivith] an unjust hatred have they ^^' 
hated me : and forgive Thou all my sins. And again an- u,. ig. 
other: Lord, our God, give peace unto us; for Thou hast is. xxvL 
rendered all things to us again. '^• 

These however are [the words] of one shewing that good 
men receive here the punishments due for their sins. But 
where are the wicked [mentioned] who receive their good 
things here, and there are utterly punished ? Hear Abraham 
saying to the rich man. Thou didst receive good things, and s. Luke 
Lazarus evil things. What sort of good things ? For in ^^^' ^' 
this place by saying thou receivedst ^, and not thou " hadst ^ oTreAa- 
given V^ he shews that it was according to what was due to f JJ^^^gy 
him that each was treated, and that the one was in pros- 
perity, and the other in adversity. And he saith. Therefore 
he is comforted here (for thou seest him pure from sins) 
and thou art tormented. Let us not then be perplexed 
when we see sinners well off here ; but when we ourselves 
are afflicted, let us rejoice. For this very thing is paying 
off the penalty ^ of sins. ^ ewTtrrtj 

[7.] Let us not then seek relaxation: for Christ promised 

tribulation to His own disciples : and Paul saith. All who 2 Tim. 

^ Hi. 12. 

g The words " above the hau's of my head" are part of another Psalm, xl. 
12, or Ixix. 4. 

72 Trials to be borne nobly but not provoked. 

HoM.5. will live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution. No 
1 ffKa^i. noble-spirited wrestler, when in the lists \ seeks for baths, 
and a table full of victuals and wine. This is not the con- 
duct of a wrestler but of an effeminate sluggard. For the 
wrestler contendeth with dust, with oil, with the heat of the 
sun's ray, with much sweat, with pressure and constraint. 
This is the season for the contest and for fighting, there- 
fore also for being wounded, and for being made bloody^ 
and for being in pain. Hear what the blessed Paul saith, 

1 Cor. ix. So fight /, not as one that beateth the air. Let us consider 

that our whole life is engaged in combats, and then we 
shall at no time seek rest, at no time shall we feel it strange 
when we are afflicted : no more than a boxer feels it strange, 
when he is engaged in combat. Another season is the 
season for repose. It is by tribulation we must be made 

And even if there is not any persecution, nor tribulation, 
yet are there other afflictions which befal us every day. 
And if we do not endure these, we should scarcely endure 

lb. X. 13. those [other]. There hath no temptation taken you, it is 

said, but such as is common to man. Let us then pray in- 

f deed to God that we may not come into temptation ; but 

What if ^Ye have come into it, let us bear it nobly. For that 
indeed is the part of prudent men, not to throw themselves 
upon dangers, but this latter of men of noble spirit and true 
philosophers. Let us not then lightly cast ourselves upon 

rashness [dangers], for that is rashness; ngr yet if led into them, 

and called by circumstances, let us give in, for that is 

what CO- cowardice. But if indeed the Gospel^ call us, let us not 

2 K-itpvyfia decline the trial ; but in a simple case, when there is no 

reason, nor need, nor necessity which calls us in connection 
what dis- with religion, let us not run to [trials] . For this is mere 
P^^y display, and useless ambitiousness. But should any of 
those things which are injurious to religion occur, then even 
if it be necessary to endure ten thousand deaths, let us in 
no respect decline the trial. Challenge not trials, when 
thou findest the things that concern religion succeed as 
thou desirest. Why di*awest thou needless dangers upon 
thyself which bring no advantage? 

These things I say, because I wish you to observe the 

Christian soldier ready and watchfaL 73 

laws of Christ who commands us to pray that we enter not HEB.iii.6. 
into temptation, and commands us to take up the cross and ^' ^^^' 
follow Him. For these things are not opposed to oneib. xvi.* 
another, nay on the contrary they are exceedingly in har- ^^* 
mony. Do thou be so prepared as is a valiant soldier, be 
continually in thine armour, sober, watchful, ever expecting 
the enemy : do not howxver breed wars, for this is not [the 
act] of a soldier ])ut of a mover of sedition. But if on the 
other hand the trumpet of religion call thee, go forth im- 
mediately, and make no account of thy life, and enter with 
great zeal into the contests, break thou the phalanx of the 
adversaries, bruise the face of the Devil, set up thy trophy. 
If how^ever religion be in no wdse suffering, and no one 
laying waste our doctrines (those I mean which relate to 
the soul), nor compel us to do anything displeasing to God, 
do not thou interfere needlessly. 

The life of the Christian must be full of bloodsheddings ; 
I say not in shedding that of others, but in being prepared 
to shed his own. Let us then pour out our own blood, when 
it is done for the sake of Christ, with as great readiness of 
mind, as one would pour out water (for the blood which 
circulates around the body is w^ater), and let us put off our 
flesh with as much good temper, as one even would a gar- 
ment. And this shall we do, if we be not bound to riches, 
if not to houses, if not to' affections, if we be detached from 
all things. For if they who live this life of [earthly] soldiers 
bid farew^ell to all things, and whithersoever war calls them" 
there present themselves, and make journeys, and endure 
all things with ready mind; much more ought we, the 
soldiers of Christ, so to have prepared ourselves, and to 
set ourselves firm against the w^ar of the passions. 

[8.] There is no persecution now, and God grant that 
one may never arise : nevertheless another war there is, that 
of -the desire of money, of envy, of the passions. Paul 
describing this war, saith. We wrestle not against flesh and Eph. vi. 
blood. This war is ever at hand. For this cause he wishes i^. 
us to stand ever armed. For in that he does wish us to 
stand ever armed, he says, Stand, having girded yourselves ib. 14. 
about. Which itself also belongs to the time present, and 
expresses that we ought ever to be armed. For great is the 

74 Our armour : the girt loins : the breast plate^ and helmet. 

HoM.5. war through the tongue, great that through the eyes ; this 

then we must keep down — great [too] is that of the lusts. 

For this cause he begins at that point to arm the soldier 

Eph. \\. of Christ : for stand, saith he, having your loins girt about, 
and he added ivith truth. Why ivith truth ? Because lust 

Ps. is a mockery and a lie : wherefore the prophet saith. My 

xxxviii. loins are filled with mockings. The thing is not pleasure, 
but a shadow of pleasure. Having your loins, saith he, 
girt about ivith truth; that is, with true pleasure, with tem- 
perance, with orderly behaviour. For this cause he gives 
this advice, knowing the unreasonableness of sin, and wish- 

Ecclus. i. ing that all our members should be hedged round ; for unjust 

^^' anger, it is said, shall not be guiltless. 

Moreover he wishes us to have around us a breastplate 
and a buckler. For wrath is a wild beast which easily 
springs forth, and we shall have need of walls and fences 
innumerable, to overcome, and to restrain it. And for this 
cause God has built this part [of our body] with bones, as 
with a kind of stones, more than any other part, placing 
them as a support around it, so that wrath might not at 
any time, having broken or cut through, easily injure the 
whole man. For it is a fire (it is said) and a great tempest, 
and no other part of the body could endure this violence. 
And the sons of the physicians too say that for this cause 
the lungs have been spread under the heart, so that the 
heart being itself [put] into something soft and tender, by 
beating as it were into a sort of sponge, may continually be 
rested, and not [by striking] against what is resisting and 
hard, [I mean] the sternum, receive hurt through the violence 
of its beatings. We have need therefore of a strong breast- 
plate, so as to keep this wild beast alway quiet. 

We have need also of an helmet ; for since the reasoning 
faculty is there, and from this it is possible for us either to 
be saved, when what is right is done, or it is possible for 

Eph. vi. us to be ruined — for this cause he says, the helmet of salva- 

1^- tion. For the brain is indeed by nature soft and tender ; 

and for this cause it is itself also covered above with the 
scull, as with a kind of^hell. And it is to us the cause of 
all things both good and evil, according as it determine what 
is fitting, or what is not so. Yea and our feet too and our 

Armour needed for hands and feet, 75 

hands need armour, not these hands, nor these feet, but as HEB.iii.6. 
before those of the soul — the former by being employed 
about what is right, the latter, that they may walk where 
it behoves [them] . Thus then let us thoroughly arm our- 
selves, and we shall be able to overcome our enemies, and 
to wreathe ourselves with the crown in Christ Jesus our 
Lord, with whom to the Father and also to the Holy Ghost 
be glory, might, honour, now and for ever and world with- 
out end. Amen. 


Heb. iii. 7 — 11. 

Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day if ye will hear 
His voice, harden 7iot your hearts, as in the provocation 
171 the day of temptation in the ivilderness, when your 
fathers tempted Me, proved Me, and saw My works forty 
years. Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and 
said. They do alway err in their heart, and they have 
^ as not known My ways. So^ I sware in My wrath. If they 
shall enter into My rest. 

(1) [1.] Paul, having treated of hope, and having said that 
supra jf^ ^^g jjig Jiouse, if IV e hold fast the confidence and the 
rejoici7ig of the hope firm unto the end ; next shews that 
we ought to look forward with firmness, and this he proves 
from the Scriptures. But do you be attentive, because he 
has expressed this in a manner somewhat difficult and not 
readily to be comprehended. And therefore we must first 
make our own statements, and after we have briefly made 
you acquainted with the whole argument, then direct our 
discourse to the actual words of the Epistle. For you will 
no longer have need of us, if you have once understood the 
scope of the Apostle. 

His discourse was concerning Hope, and that it behoves 
us to hope for the things to come, and that for those who 
have toiled and suffered here there will assuredly be some 
reward and fruit and refreshment. This then he shews 
from the prophet ; andnvhat saith he ? Wherefore as the 
Holy Ghost saith, To-day if ye ivill hear His voice, harden 
not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temp- 

The three Rests : The Isy^aelites refusing to enter Canaan. 77 

tation in the wilderness : when your fathers tempted Me, HEB.iii.7. 
proved Me, and saw My works forty years. Wherefore I 
was grieved with that generation, and said, they do alway 
err in their heart, and they have not known My ways. So^ ^n& 
I sware in My wrath. If they shall enter into My rest. 

He says that they are three rests : one, that of the Sab- 
bath, in which God rested from His works ; the second, 
that of Palestine, into which when the Jews had entered 
they would be at rest from that their great affliction and 
labom^s ; the third, that which is Rest indeed, the kingdom 
of Heaven ; which those who obtain, do indeed rest from 
their labom's and troubles. Of these three then he makes 
mention in this place. 

And with what object did he mention the three, when he 
is treating of the one only ? That he might shew that the 
prophet is speaking concerning this one. For he was not 
speaking (saith he) concerning the first. For how could 
he be speaking of what had taken place long before ? Nor 
yet again concerning the second, that in Palestine. For 
how could he ? for he says. They shall not enter into My 
rest. It remains therefore that it be this third. 

[2.] But it is necessary also to lay before you the his- 
tory, to make the argument more clear. For when after 
they had come forth out of Egypt, and had accomplished a - 
long journey, and had received proofs innumerable of the 
power of God, both in Egypt, and in the Red Sea, and in cf. Acts 
the wilderness, they determined to send spies thoroughly to ^"' ^^' 
search out the nature of the land ; and these went and re- 
turned back, admiring indeed the country, and saying that 
it abounded in excellent fruits, yet that nevertheless it was 
a country of strong and invincible men : and the ungrate- 
ful and senseless Jews, when they ought to have called to 
mind the former mercies of God, and how when they were 
hemmed in in the midst of so many Egyptian armies. He 
rescued them from their perils, and made them masters of 
their enemies' spoils ; and in the wilderness clave the rock, 
and bestowed on them that abundance of waters, and gave 
them the manna, and the other wonderful things which He 
had wrought; [when they ought, I say, to have remembered 
this,] and to have trusted in God, they considered none of 

xiv. 3. 

78 The Kingdom of Heaven is the Rest implied. The Warning is for us, 

HoM. 6. these things, but being struck with terror, just as if nothing 
had taken place, they said, we wish to go back again into 
cf. Num. Egypt, /or God hath brought us out hither (it is said) to slay 
us, ivith our children and wives. God therefore being angry 
that they had so quickly cast off the memory of all that 
had been done, sware that that generation, which had said 
these things, should not enter into the Rest ; and they all 
perished in the wilderness. When David then (he means) 
speaking at a later period, and after these events, after that 
generation of men, said. To-day, if ye ivill hear His voice, 
harden not your hearts, that ye may not suffer the same 
things which your forefathers did, and be deprived of the 
Rest ; he evidently [said this] on the supposition of there 
being some [future] rest. For if they had received their 
Rest (he says) why does He again say to them. To-day if ye 
will hear His voice harden not your hearts, as your fathers 
did ? What other rest then is there, except the kingdom 
of Heaven, of which the Sabbath was an image and type ? 

[3.] Next having set down the whole testimony (and this 
is. To-day if ye will hear His voice, harden not your hearts, 
as in the provocation in the day of temptation in the ivilder- 
ness, when your fathers tempted Me, proved Me, and saw 
My works forty years. Wherefore I was grieved with that 
generation, and said. They do ahvay err in their heart, and 
they have not known My ways. So I sware in My ivrath. If 
they shall enter into My rest, he then adds : 

ver. 12. Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you 
an evil heart of unbelief in departing from the Living God. 
For from hardness unbelief ariseth : and as in bodies, the 
parts that have become callous and hard do not yield to 
the hands of the physicians, so also souls that are hardened 
yield not to the word of God. For it is probable besides 
that some even disbelieved as though the things which had 
been done were not true. 

On this account he says, Take heed lest there be in any 
of you an evil heart of unbelief in departing from the Living 
God. For since the argument from things future is not 
so persuasive as that from the past, he reminds them of 
the history, in which they had wanted faith.. For if your 
fathers (saith he) because they did not hope as they ought 

Sin is the parent of unbelief. 79 

to have hoped, suffered these things, much more will you HE.iii.i5. 
[suffer]. Since to themselves also is this word addressed : 
for. To-day (saitli he) is " ever," so long as the world lasts. 

[4.] ver. 13. Wherefore exhort ye one another daily, 
while it is called to-day. That is, edify one another, raise 
yourselves up : lest the same things should befal you. Lest 
any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. Seest (2) 
thou that sin produces unbelief ? for just as unbelief is the 
parent of an evil life, so also a soul, ivhen it is come into a Prov. 
dei^th of evils, becometh contemptuous ^, and having become f^"^" ^* 
contemptuous it endures not even to believe, in order there- <ppov€7 
by to free itself from fear. For they said (saith one). The Ps. xciv. 
Lord shall not see, neither shall the God of Jacob consider. ^' 
'And again. Our lips are our own who is Lord over us ? and lb. xii. 4. 
again, Wherefore hath the ivicked man provoked God to lb. x. 13. 
wrath? and again. The fool hath said in his heart, there is ib.xiv. 1. 
no God ; they are corrupt and become abominable in their 
doings. There is no fear of God before his eyes, for he to as Tb.xxxvi. 
deceitful before Him, to find out^ his iniquity and to hate. J' ^\ 
Yea and Christ also says this very same thing, Every one evpe7u 
that doeth evil, hateth the light and cometh not to the light. .?: *l^!^" 

Then he adds, (ver. 14) For we have been made partakers 
of Christ. What is this. We have been made partakers of 
Christ ? We share in Him (he means) ; we were made 
One, we and He — since He is the Head and we the body, 
fellow-heirs and of the same body ; we are one body, of His Eph. iii. 
flesh and of His bones. ^^^ ^^i 

If we hold fast the beginning of our confidence [or, the 5. 
principle of our subsistence ^] stedfast unto the end. What 39/* ^' 
is the principle of our subsistence ? The faith by which we 
were made to subsist, and have been brought into being 
and were made sub^antial, as one may say. 

[5.] Then he adds, (ver. 15) When it is said'^. To-day if 3 ^Vt^ 
ye hear His voice, harden not your hearts, as in the pro- ^e-yeo-ea* 
vocation. This is a transposition*, tvhen it is said To-day being 
if ye hear His voice, harden not your hearts. [It must be f^*^ 
read thus :] i-n-epfia- 

(Ch. iv. 1, 2.) Let us fear lest a promise being left us of'^'^^ 

» apxhvTris viroa-Taa-ews. S. Chrys. understands vnSaTaais in its prior sense, 
as " subsistence," " subsisting," " being brought into real existence." 

80 Hearing without believing admits not to the Rest, 

HoM.6. entering into His rest, any of you should seem to come short 
of it ; for to us hath the Gospel been preached^ as ivell as 
unto them, when it is said, To-day if ye hear His voice (for 
' ael To-day is " at every time ^/') 

Then [he adds] but the tvord of heatnng did ?iot profit 
them, as they were not mixed '^ by faith with them that heard. 
How was it that it did not profit [them] ? Then wishing 
to alarm them, he shews this very thing by what he says : 

(ch. iii. 16 — 19) For some when they had heard did 
provoke, howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses : 
And ivith whom ivas He grieved forty years ? Was it not 
with them that had sinned, whose carcases fell in the wilder- 
ness ? And to whom sware He that they should not enter into 
2 And His rest, but to them that believed not? So^ ive see, that 
they could not enter in because of unbelief After again re- 
peating the testimony, he subjoins also the question, by 
doing which he makes the argument clear. For he said 
(he repeats), To-day if ye hear His voice, harden not your 
hearts, as in the provocation. Of whom does he speak 
(saith he) [as] having been hardened ? of whom [as] not 
believing? is it not of the Jews ? 

Now what he says is to this effect. They also heard, 
just as we hear : but no benefit resulted to them. Do not 
suppose then that by hearing what is proclaimed [in the 
Gospel] ye will be profited ; seeing that they also heard, 
but derived no benefit because they did not believe. 

Caleb then and Joshua, inasmuch as they agreed not 
with those who did not believe, escaped the vengeance that 
was sent forth against them. And see how admirably he 
said, not They did not agree, but, they ivere not mixed — 
that is, they stood apart, without creating any factious 
divisions when all the other had one #nd the same mind. 
In this place it seems to me that a faction too is hinted af^. 

•» That is, these words are addressed f* aiulrrcaOai. That is, is indirectly 

to us as well as to them. condemned, hy'the contrast of the 

•= (TvyK^Kpajxivovs. Sav. and Ben. conduct of Caleb and Joshua. S. 

have o-vyKeKpafieu-ns (i.e. olko^s). The Chrys. reverses the expression of the 

received text of the New Testament Epistle, and says, " Caleb and Joshua 

has (TvyKeKpafji.euos, " the word tipt be- were not mixed with the unbelievers," 

ing mixed." liachniann [& Tisch.] when the Apostle had said, " the unbe- 

read avyKeKepaaixfuovs, which is the lievers were not mixed with them." 
reading of some MSS. of S. Chrys. 

Proof that there is yet another Rest : a true Sabbath, 81 

[6.] (ch. iv. 3) For ive ivho have believed, saith he, shall HEB.iv.9. 
enter into rest. He subjoined that from which this becomes 
evident, as He said, as I sware in My wrath, if they shall 
enter into My rest : although the ivorks were finished from 
the foundation of the world. This however tends to shew 
not that we shall enter in, but that they did not enter in. 
What then ? Up to this point he is labouring to shew that 
just as that [first] rest does not hinder another rest from 
being spoken of, so neither does this [second exclude] that 
of Heaven. Up to this point he wishes to point out that 
they [the Israelites] did not attain to the rest. For be- 
cause this is what he means he says, (ver. 4, 5) For he spake 
in a certain place concerning the seventh day on this wise, 
And God rested on the seventh day from all His works. And 
in this place again, If they shall enter into My rest. Thou 
seest how that first rest doth not hinder this other rest 
also from being ? 

ver. 6, 7. Seeing then it remaineth (saith he) that some 
must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached 
entered not in because of unbelief : again he limiteth a cer- 
tain day, saying in David, To day, after so long a time ; as 
it has been said before ®. But what is it that he means ? 
Seeing then (he would say) that some must certainly enter 
in, and they did not enter in. And that it behoves that 
[men] enter in, and that some must enter in, let us hear 
from what this is clear. Because after so many years (he 
saith) David again saith : To-day if ye will hear His voice, 
harden not your hearts, (ver. 8) For if Joshua had given 
them Rest he ivould not have spoken of another day after 
that. It is evident, that he says these things, on the view 
that some persons are to attain some recompence. 

[7.] ver. 9. There remaineth therefore a Sabbath Rest ^ ^ capfia- 
for the people of God. Whence [does this appear] ? from '^"^'* * 
his giving the exhortation. Harden not your hearts : for if 
there were no Sabbath Rest, these exhortations would not 
have been given. Neither would they have been exhorted 
not to do the same things [with the Jews] lest they should 
suffer the same things, unless they were about to suffer the 

« Trpoeip-nrai. This is the correct reading- of the sacred text Heb. iv. 7 : for 
which the common editions have efpTjrat " it is said," 

82 Sabbath-rest the Kingdom. To-day. 

HoM. 6. same. But how were they who were in possession of 
Palestine about to suffer the same things [i.e. exclusion 
from the Rest] unless there were some other Rest ? 
(3) And well did he conclude the argument. For he said 

not Rest but Sabbath-keeping ; calling the kingdom Sabbath- 
keeping, by the appropriate name, and that which they 
rejoiced in and were attracted by. For just as, on the 
Sabbath He commands that men abstain from all evil 
things ; and that those things which relate to the Service 
of God alone should be done, which things the Priests were 
wont to accomplish, and whatever things are profitable to 
the soul, and nothing else ; so also [will it be] then. How- 
ever he did not say thus himself, but what [said he] ? ver. 10. 
For he that hath entered into his rest, he also hath ceased 
from his own works, as God [didlfrom His. As God (saith 
he) ceased from His works, so he that hath entered into 
His rest [hath ceased] . For since his discourse to them 
was concerning rest, and they were desirous to hear when 
this would be, he concluded the argument with this. 

[8.] And [he said] To-day^, that they might never at 
any time be without hope. Exhort one another daily, he 
saith, [ivhile it is called to-day^ that is, even if a man have 
sinned, as long as it is To-day, he has hopes : let no man 
then despair so long as he lives. Above all things indeed, 
supra iii. he says, let there not ever be [such a thing as] an evil heart 
of unbelief . But even suppose there should be, let no man 
despair, but let him recover himself ; for as long as we are 
in this world, the To-day hath [its] season. But in this 
place he means not unbelief only but also murmurings: 
whose carcases, he says, fell in the wilderness ^. 

Then that none may suppose that they will simply be 
deprived of rest only, he adds the mention of punishment 
also, saying *(ch. iv. 12) For the Word of God is living, and 
powerful; and' sharper than any two-edged sword, and 
pierceth even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and 
of the joints and marrow: and is a discerner of the thoughts 
and intents of the heart. Here he is speaking of Hell and 

^ S. Chrys. returns here tt<ch. iii. is at every time." 

13 connecting the To-day if ye hear ^ The words of the Apostle ch. iii. 17. 

His voice harden not your heart, with are tliose of Numb^ xiv. 29 &c. where 

E.vhort one another daily while it is murnuiring- is the sin specified. 
called To-day : as he had said " to-day 


Considerations of encouragement and of terror combined. 83 

of the punishment [in store for the wicked] . It pierceth HE.iii.i4. 
(he saith) into the secrets of our heart, and cutteth asunder 
the soul. Here it is not the falUng of carcases nor, as in 
the former case, the being deprived of a country, but of a 
heavenly kingdom ; and being delivered to an everlasting 
hell, and to undying punishment and vengeance. 

(ch. iii. 13) But exhort ^^ one another. Observe the gentle- 
ness and mildness [of the expression]: he said not ^Re- 
buke', but Exhort. Thus ought we to bear ourselves towards 
those who are distressed by tribulation. This he says also 
in writing to the Thessalonians, Warn them that are unruly, 1 Thess. 
but in speaking of the feeble-minded, not so, but what ? ^' ^^' 
Comfort the feeble-minded, support the weak, be patient to- 
ward all men ; that is, Do not cease to hope ; do not des^ 
pair. For he that does not encourage one who is straitened 
by affliction, makes him more hardened. 

[9.] Lest any of you, he saith, be hardened by the deceit- 
fulness of sin. He means either the deceit of the devil (for 
it is indeed a deceit, not to look for the things to come, to 
think that what we are and what we do will not be brought 
to account, and that we shall not suffer punishment for the 
things which we have done here, nay, that there will not 
ever be a resurrection), or in another sense insensibility 
[or] despairing is a deceit. For to say. What is there left 
[for me] ? I have sinned once for all, I have no hope of 
recovering myself, is a deceit. 

Then he suggests hopes to them, saying, (ver. 14) We 
have been made partakers of Christ; All but saying. He that 
so loved us. He that counted us worthy of so great things, as 
to make us His Body, will not suffer us to perish in neglect. 
Let us consider (he says) of what we have been thought 
worthy : we and Christ are One : let us not then distrust 
Him. And again, he hints at that which had been said in 
another place, that If ive suffer, ive shall also reign with 2 Tim. ii. 
IIi7n. For this is [implied in] We are made partakers, we 
partake of the same things whereof Christ also partakes. 

He encouraged them from the good things ; for we are, 
saith he, partnkers of Christ. Then, again, from gloomy 

h Trapa/caAeTre. The word includes the idea of comforting and encouraging 
as well as of exhorting. 

G 2 

84 God provoked ifive require proofs of His care. Heaven^s Rest. 

HoM.6. ones (ch.iv. 1) Let us fear, lest at any time a promise being 
left us of entering into His Rest, any of you should seem to 
come short of it. For that is manifest and confessed. 

(ch. iii. 9) They proved Me, saith He, and saw My works 
forty years. Thou seest that it is not right to call God to 
account, but whether He defend [our cause] or not, to trust 
Him? For against those [of old] he now brings this charge, 
that they tempted God. For he that will have absolute 
proof either of His power, or of His providence, or of His 
tender care, does not yet believe, that He is either power- 
ful or kind to man. This he insinuates in writing to these 
[Hebrews] also, who probably wished, even already, in their 
trials, to obtain the experimental proof and positive evi- 
dence of His power and His providential care for them. 
Thou seest that in all cases the provocation and the anger- 
ing arises from unbelief. 

What then saith he ? (ch. iv. 9) There remaineth there- 
fore a Sabbath-Rest for the people of God. And see how he 
has summed up the whole argument. He sware, saith he, to 
those former ones, that they should not enter into the Rest, 
and they did not enter in. Then long after their time dis- 
coursing to the Jews, he saith, Harden not your hearts, as 
your fathers [did], shewing that there is another Rest. 
For of Palestine we have not to speak : for they were al- 
ready in possession of it. Nor can he be speaking of the 
seventh [day] ; for surely he was not discoursing about that 
which had taken place long before. It follows therefore 
that he hints at some other, that which is Rest indeed. 


(4) [10.] For that is indeed Rest, where pai7i, sorrow and 

Is. XXXV. sighing are fled away : where there are neither cares, nor 
labours, nor agony, nor fear stunning and shaking the 
soul ; but only that fear of God which is full of delight. 
Gen. iii. There there is not, In the sweat of thy face thou shall eat 
lb.' 16. ^% bread, nor any thorns and thistles, no longer. In sorrow 
thou shalt bring forth children, and to thy husband shall be 
thy desire and he shall rule over thee. All is peace, joy, 
gladness, pleasure, gooiiness, meekness. There is not there 
jealousy, nor envy, no sickness, nor this death of the 
body, nor that other of the soul. There is no darkness nor 
night ; all [is] day, all light, all things are bright. It is not 

Attempts to image forth its glory : in vain. 85 

possible to be weary, it is not possible to be satiated : ever HEs.h 
shall we continue with a desire of good things \ 

Would you that I should also give you some image of 
[our] condition there ? It is impossible. But yet, so far 
as it is possible, I will try to give you some image of it. 
Let us look up into the heaven, when without any interven- 
ing cloud it shews forth its crown [of stars] . Then when 
we have dwelt long on the beauty of its appearance. Jet us 
think that we too shall have a pavement, not indeed such 
[as this], but as much more beautiful as is a roof of gold 
than those of clay, and [let us think] on that which is 
beyond it again, the higher roof; then on the Angels, the 
Archangels, the infinite multitude of unbodied powers, the 
very palace of God itself, the Throne of the Father. 

But language is too weak (as I said) to set forth the 
whole. Experience is necessary, and the knowledge which 
[cometh] by experience. Tell me, how was it (think you) 
with Adam in Paradise ? This [heavenly] life is far better 
than that, as much as heaven [is better] than earth. 

[11.] But however let us search after another image still. 
If it so happened that he who now reigns was master of 
the whole world, and yet was troubled neither by wars nor 
by cares, but was honoured only and lived delicately ; and 
had large tributes, and on every side gold flowed in to him, 
and he was looked up to, what feelings do you think be 
would have, if he saw that all the wars in all parts of the 
world had ceased? Some thing such as this will it be. 
But rather I have not even yet arrived at that image [which 
I seek] ; therefore I must search after another too. 

Imagine then, I pray you ; for just as some royal child, 
so long as he is in the womb, has no sense of any thing, 
but should it happen that he suddenly came forth from 
thence, and ascended the royal throne, [and] not gradually, 
but all at once received possession of all things. So is it 
as regards this [present] and that [future] state. Or, if 
some captive, having suffered evils innumerable, should be 
caught up at once to the royal throne. 

But not even thus have I attained to the image exactly. 

For here indeed whatever good things a person may obtain 

' [The insatiate yet satisfied ; 
The full yet craving still. 
Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, translated by Dr. Neale, p. lo!] 

86 It is inconceivable. Let us sti^ive to attain it, 

HoM. 6. even shouldst thou say the empire itself, during the first 
day indeed his desires are in full vigour, and for the second 
too, and the third, but as time goes on, he continues indeed 
to have pleasure, but not so great. For of whatever kind 
[the pleasure] be, it always ceases from our being accustomed 
to it. But yonder not only is it not diminished, but it even 
increases. For imagine how great a thing it is, that a soul 
after departing thither, should never any more look for an 
end of those good things, no, nor yet change, but increase, 
and life that has no end, and life set free from all danger, 
and from all despondency and anxiety, full of cheerfulness 
and blessings innumerable. 

For if when we go out into a plain, and there see the 
soldiers' tents fixed with curtains, and the spears, and hel- 
mets, and bosses of [their] bucklers glittering, we are raised 
above the earth in wonder and admiration ; but if we also 
chance to see the Emperor himself running in the midst 
or even riding with golden armour, we think we have every 
thing ; what thinkest thou that [it will be] when thou seest 
the everlasting tabernacles of the saints pitched in heaven ? 

S. Luke (for he saith, They shall receive you into their everlasting 
tabernacles) when thou seest each one of them beaming 
with light above the rays of the sun, not from brass and 
steel, but from that glory the gleamings of which the eye 
of man cannot behold ? And this indeed with respect to 
the human beings [that are there]. But what, if one 
were to speak of the thousands of Angels, of Archangels, of 
Cherubim, of Seraphim, of thrones, of dominions, of prin- 
cipalities, of powers, whose beauty is inimitable, passing 
beyond all understanding ? 

But [I pause] ; for to what point shall I go without check- 

1 Cor. ii. ing myself in pursuing what cannot be overtaken ? For 
neither hath eye seen, he saith, nor ear heard, neither hath 
entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath 
prepared for them that love Him. Therefore nothing is more 
pitiable than those who miss, nor anything more blessed 
than those who attain. Let us then be [of the number] of 
the blessed, that we rflray attain to the everlasting good 
things that are in Christ Jesus our Lord with.whom to the 
Father and also the Holy Ghost be glory might honour now 
and for ever and world witliout end. Amen. 


Heb. iv. 11—13. 

Let us labour therefore to enter into that Rest, lest any 
man fall after the same example of unbelief. For the 
word of God is quick [i. e. living~\ and powerful, and 
sharper than any two-edged sword, and pierceth even to 
the dividing asunder of soul and spiint, and of the joints 
and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and in- 
tents of the heart, neither is there any creature that is 
not manifest in His sight, for all things are naked and 
opened unto the eyes of Him with Whom we have to do, 

[1.] Faith is indeed a great thing and bringeth salva- (1) 
tion, and without it, it is not possible to be saved at any- 
time. It is not however of itself sufficient to accomplish 
this, but there is need of a right conversation also. Where- 
fore for this cause Paul also exhorts those who had already- 
been counted worthy of the mysteries ; saying. Let us labour 
to enter into that Rest, Let us labour (saith he) on the 
view that Faith is not sufficient, but that the life also ought 
to be added thereto, and that our earnestness be great ; for 
there is need indeed of much earnestness too in order to 
go up into Heaven. For if they who had suffered so great 
distress in the Wilderness, were not counted worthy of 
[the promised] land, and were not able to attain [that] 
land, inasmuch as they murmured and inasmuch as they 
committed fornication : how shall we be counted worthy of 
Heaven, if we live neglectfully and indolently ? We then 
have heed of much earnestness. 

And observe, the punishment does not extend to this 
only, the not entering in (for he said not. Let us labour 

88 The Word, a sword ; searching the inmost thoughts, all 

Ji££_?: to enter into the Rest, lest we fail of [attaining] so great 
blessings) but what most of all arouses men, this he added. 
Of what kind then is this ? Lest any man fall, after the 
same example of unbelief. What means this ? It means 
that we should have our mind, our hope, our expectation, 
yonder, that we fail not in like manner [as they did]. For 
that [otherwise] we shall fail, the example shews, lest [&c.] 
after the same, saith he. 

[2.] In the next place, lest when thou hearest [the words] 
after the same [example'], thou shouldest think that the 
punishment is the same, hear what he adds ; For the Word 
of God is living and powerful, and sharper than any two- 
edged sword, and pier ceth even to the dividing asunder of 
soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a dis- 
cerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. In these words 
he shews that He Himself, the Word of God, wrought those 
former things also, and lives and has not been quenched. 

Do not then when thou hearest of the Word, think of it 

lightly. For He is sharper, saith he, than a sword. Observe 

^fj-dxaipav His condesccnsion ; and hence consider why the prophets 

Ps. vii! ^^s^ needed to speak of brand ^ and bow and sword ^. If 

12. ye turn not, saith one. He will whet His sword. He hath 

hent His how and made it ready. For if now, after so long 

a time, and after their being perfected % He cannot smite 

[men] down by the name of the Word alone, but needs 

these expressions in order to shew the superiority [arising] 

from the comparison [of the Gospel with the law]: much 

more then [of old] . 

Piercing, saith he, even to the dividing asunder of soul 
and spirit. What is this ? He hinted at something more 
fearful. Either that He divides the spirit from the soul, 
or that He pierces even through incorporeal [substances], 
tiot as a sword, only through bodies. Here he shews, that 
the soul also is pimished, and that the most inward things 
are thoroughly searched out. 

[He is a sword] piercing wholly through the whole man. 
And is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart, 
neither is there any creature that is not manifest in His 
sight. In these words did he most of all terrify them. For 

" ufTtt T€\iiu}(Tiv, i.e. by Baptism. 

bared to Him. They failed at Canaan^ s very door. 89 

do not (saith he) be confident if ye still stand fast in the HE.iv.i3. 
Faith, but yet without full assurance. He judges the inner 
heart, for there He passes through, both in punishing and 
in searching out. 

And why speak I of men ? saith he. For even if thou 
speak of Angels, of Archangels, of the Cherubim, of the 
Seraphim, even of any creature whatsoever : all things are 
laid open to that Eye, all things are clear and manifest ; 
there is nothing which is able to escape it ; All things are 
naked and opened unto the eyes of Hirn, ivith whom we have 
to do. 

But what is opened^? [It is] a metaphor from the ^ '^^'^p"-, 
skins which are drawn off from the victims. For just as va 
in that case, when a man has killed them, and has drawn 
aside the skin from the flesh, he lays open all the inward 
parts, and makes them manifest to our eyes; so also do 
all things lie open before God. And observe, I pray thee, 
how he constantly needs corporeal images ; which arose 
from the weakness of the hearers. For that they were 
weak, he shewed evidently, when he said that they were 
dull, and had need of 7nilk, not of strong meat. All things infra v. 
are naked, saith he, and laid open before the eyes of Him, ' 
with lohom ive have to do. 

[3.] But what is, after the same example of unbelief ? 
As if one should say, why did they of old not see the land ? 
They had received an earnest of the power of God; [and] 
when they ought to have believed, [then] from yielding 
too much to fear, and entertaining no great ideas concern- 
ing God, and being faint-hearted, they perished. Yea and 
somewhat else also may be said, as, that after they had ac- 
complished the most part of the journey, when they were 
arrived at the very doors, at the haven itself, were they 
sunk into the sea. This I fear (he saith) in regard to you 
also. This is [the meaning of] after the same example of 

For that these also [to whom he is writing] had suffered 
much, he afterwards testifies, saying. Call to mind the lb. x. 32. 
former days, in which after that ye had been enlightened, 
ye endured a great fight of afflictions. Let no man then be 
faint-hearted, nor [when he is] near the end fall down 

90 Many faint and weary. God^s severity. 

HoM.7. through weariness. For there are, there are [indeed] those 
who at the beginning engage in the fight with the full 
vigour of zeal ; but a little after^ not being willing to add to 
all [they have done], they lose all. Your forefathers (he 
saith) are sufficient to instruct you not to be entangled in 
the same [evils], not to suffer the same things which they 
suffered. This is [the meaning of]. After the same example 
of unbelief. Let us not faint, he means (which he says 
Infra xii. also near the end [of the Epistle] . Lift up the hands which 
^^' hang down, and the feeble knees) : lest any man, saith he, fall 

after the same example. For this is to fall indeed.. 

Then, lest when thou hearest, lest any man fall after the 
same example, thou shouldest conceive of the same death 
which they also underwent, see what he saith : For the 
Word of God is living and powerful and sharper than any 
two-edged sivord. For the Word falls upon the souls of 
these [men] more severely than any sword, causing grievous 
wounds ; and inflicts fatal blows. And of these things 
he needs not to give the proof, nor to establish them by 
argument, seeing that the history he has is so fearful. 
For (he would say) what kind of war destroyed them ? 
what sort of sword? did they not fall simply of them- 
selves ? For let us not grow careless because we have not 
suffered the same things. As long as it is called To-day, 
it is in our power to recover ourselves. 

For lest on hearing the things that belong to the soul 
[alone] we should grow negligent, he adds also what con- 
cerns the body. For then is it so as a king when his 
officers are guilty of some great misconduct, first of all 
strips them (say) of their command, and after depriving 
them of their belt, and their rank, and their herald '', then 
punishes them : so also in this case doth the sword of the 
Spirit work. 

[4.] Next he di^courseth of the Son, with whom we have 
to do, he saith. What is with whom we have to do ? To 
Him (he would say) we have to render account for the 
things we have done ? Even so. How then [must we act] 
that we fall not, nor be f^int-hearted ? 

^ Having a Ki\pvi, was a special mark of dignity, belonging to certain 
offices. See Mr. Field's notes. 

Encouragement from having a great High Priest, 91 

Well then (he would say) these things even [alone] are HE.iv.i4. 
sufficient to instruct us. But we have also a great High 
Priest, that is passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son 
of God. For as it was on this account that he added [it], (2) 
he subjoined, For we have not an High Priest who cannot 
be touched with the feeling of our infirmities. For this 
cause he said above, In that He hath suffered Himself being 
tempted, He is able to succour them which are tempted. 
See then how in this place also he does the same. And what 
he says is to this eftect : He went (saith he) on the road 
which we also [are going] now, or rather even a more rugged 
one. For He had experience of all human [sufferings]. 

He had said above There is no creature that is not mani- 
fest in His sight, intimating His Godhead ; then since he 
had begun to speak of [His] flesh [His Human nature], he 
again discourses more condescendingly, saying, (ver. 14) 
Having then a Great High Priest, that is passed through 
the heavens : and shews that His care is greater and that 
He protects them as if [they were] His own, and wills not 
that they should fall away. For Moses indeed (he saith) 
did not enter into the rest, while He [Christ] did enter in. 
And how it is that he has nowhere stated this itself is 
strange ; [it was] lest they might [herein] seem to find an 
excuse ; he however implied it and [at the same time] that 
he might not appear to bring an accusation against that 
man^, he did not say it openly. For if, when none of these ^.e.Moses 
things had been said, they yet brought forward these 
[charges], saying. This man hath spoken against Moses See Acts 
and against the law ; much more, if he had said. It is not 28. * 
Palestine but Heaven % would they have said stronger 
things than these. 

[5.] But he attributes not all to the Priest, but requires 
also what is [to come] from us, I mean our confession. 
For having, he saith, a great High Priest, who is passed 
through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us holdfast 
our profession [or confession ^] . What sort of confession ^ S^oXo- 
does he mean ? That there is a Resurrection, that there of\^l^ 

<= There are two points of superior- which He promised His people, while ^^eed. 

ity over Moses implied in the words Moses did not. ii. That that Rest is 

that is passed into the Heavens, i. Heaven, not the earthly Canaan, 
that Christ entered into the Rest 

92 Our Faith in things future, Christ knew sorroiv without sin. 

HoM. 7. is a recompensing: that there are good things innumerable ; 
that Christ is God, that the Faith is right. These things 
let us confess, these things let us hold fast. For that they 
are true, is manifest from the fact, that the High Priest is 
within. We have not failed of [our hopes], let us confess; 
although the realities are not present, yet let us confess : 
if already they were present they were but a lie. So that 
this also is true, that [our good things] are deferred. For 
our High Priest also is Great. 

ver. 15. For we have not an High Priest, who cannot be 
touched ivith the feeling of our infirmities. He is not (he 
means) ignorant of what concerns us, as many of the High 
Priests, who know not those in tribulations, nay nor even 
that there is any tribulation at all. For in the case of 
men it is impossible that he should know the affliction of 
the afflicted who has not had experience, and gone through 
the actual sensations. Our High Priest endured all things. 
For for this cause He endured first and then ascended, that 
He might be able to sympathize with us. 

But [one] that was i7i all points tempted like as we are, 
(lit. after the likeness \_of our temptation]) without sin. 
Observe how both above he has used the word " in like 
manner^" and here "after the likeness." That is. He was 
persecuted, was spit upon, was accused, was mocked at, was 
falsely informed against, was driven out, at last was crucified. 

After our likeness, without sin. In these words another 
thing also is intimated, that it is possible even for one who is 
in afflictions to go through them without sin. So that also 
Rom.viii. when he says in the likeness of flesh, he means not that He 
took on Him [merely] the likeness of flesh, hut flesh. Why 
then did he say in the likeness ? Because he was speaking 
about sinful flesh "^ : for [His flesh He assumed] was like our 
flesh, since in nature it was the same with us, but in sin 
no longer the same. 

[6.] ver. 16. Let us come then boldly [with confidence] 
unto the throne of His grace, that we may obtain mercy, and 
find grace to help in time of need. 

What throne of grace isJie speaking of ? that royal throne 

'^ The words of Rom. viii. 3. to which S. Chrys. alludes, are God sending 
His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh 8fc. 

'■ irapa- 
supra ii. 


Now is the time to come with confidence to the throne of grace. 93 

concerning which it is said, The Lord said unto my Lord, HE.iv.i6. 
^it Thou on My right hand. Ps. ex. 1. 

What is let us come with confidence ? [It is] that we have 
an High Priest Who is without sin, that contends with and 
subdues the world. For, saith He, Be of good cheer, I have S. John 
overcome the world. For, to suffer all things, and yet to ^"^^' ^^' 
be pure from sins is this, [viz. to overcome the world]. 
Although we (he means) are under sin, yet is He one who 
cannot sin. 

How is it that we should approach with confidence ? Be- 
cause now it is a throne of Grace, not a throne of Judge- 
ment. For this cause [he says] with confidence, that we 
may obtain mercy, and such [mercy] as we are seeking. 
For the affair is [one of] munificence, a royal largess. 

And may find grace for help in time of need [for help in 
du e season'] . He well said, for help in due season. If thou 
approach now (he means) thou wilt receive both grace and 
mercy, for thou approachest in due season; but if thou 
approach then % no longer [wilt thou receive it] . For then 
thy approach is unseasonable, for it is not then a throne of 
Grace. Till that time He sitteth granting pardon, but when 
the end [is come], then He riseth up to judgment. For saith 
one. Arise, God, judge Thou the earth. (Let us come with Ps. 
confidence, or he says again that [which he had said before], ^'^^^^' ^' 
having no evil conscience, that is, not being in doubt, for 
such an one cannot come with confidence.) On this account 
it is said, / have heard thee in an accepted time and in a 2 Cor. vi. 
day of salvation have I succoured thee. Since even noiv for 2- 
those to find repentance who sin after baptism is of grace. 

But lest when thou hearest of an High Priest, thou 
shouldst think that He standeth, he forthwith leads [thee] 
to the throne^. But a Priest doth not sit but stands. 
Seest thou that [for Him] to be made High Priest, is not 
of nature", but of grace and condescension, and humiliation? 

« t({t6, "at the day of Judgment" e The Arians maintained that our 

opposed to, "now," " in this Ufe;" as Lord was Priest in His Divine Nature 

e'/cel, " there," " yonder," is the usual antecedent to the Incarnation. See 

expression for the future state, opposed the Oxford translation of S. Athanasius 

to euravda, " here," " in this world." against Arianism p. 292. notem. [add 

f The throne of grace, as he has p. 267 note 1. cf. also S. Cyril, Book 3 

said, is that of Christ, on wiiich He against Nestorius] . 
sits at the right hand of the Father. 

94 Earnestness in our Race ; we may not relax near the end. 

HoM. 7. This is it seasonable for us also now to say, Let us draw 
near asking with confidence : let us only bring Faith [as 
our offering] and He gives all things. Now is the time of 
the largess ; let no man despair of himself. Then [will 
be] the time of despairing, when the bride-chamber is shut, 
when the King is come in to see the guests, when they who 
shall be accounted worthy thereof, shall have received as 
their portion the Patriarch^s bosom : but now it is not as 
yet so. For still are the spectators assembled, still is the 
contest going on, still is the prize in suspense. 

(^) [7.] Let us then labour in earnest. For even Paul saith, 
1 Cor. ix. / gQ ,.2^?^ 7iot as uncertainly. There is need of running, and 
of running vehemently. He that runneth [a race] seeth 
none of those that meet him ; whether he be passing through 
meadows, or through dry and dusty places : he that runneth 
looketh not at the spectators, but at the prize. Whether 
they be rich or whether they be poor, whether one mock 
at him, or praise him, whether one insult, or cast stones 
at him, or plunder his house, whether he see children, or 
wife, or any thing whatever. He is occupied in one thing 
alone, in running, in gaining the prize. He that runneth, 
in no case standeth still, since even if he slacken a little, 
he has lost the whole. He that runneth, not only dimin- 
isheth nothing [of his exertions] before the end, but even 
then most especially straineth his speed. 

This have I said for those who say ; In our younger days 
* Tjo-K^o-o- we took pains to acquire holiness ^, in our younger days 
'**" we fasted, now we are grown old. Now most of all would 

it behove you to make your carefulness more intense. Do 
not be counting up to me the things which thou hast for- 
merly done well : be now most of all youthful and vigorous. 
For he that runneth this bodily race, when grey hairs have 
overtaken him, p'robably is not able to run as he did before : 
for the exertion depends entirely on the body ; but thou — 
wherefore dost thou lessen thy speed ? For in this race 
there is need of a soul, a soul thoroughly awakened : and 
the soul is strengthened in old age ; then it is in its full 
vigour, then is it in its pride. 

For just as the body, so long as it is oppressed by fevers 
and by one sickness after another, even if it be strong, is 

Unreasonableness and misery of a wicked old age. 95 

grievously afflicted, but when it is freed from this attack^ He.Iv.ig. 
it recovers its proper force, so al«o the soul in youth is 
feverish, and is chiefly possessed by the love of glory, 
and of luxurious living, and of sensual lusts, and of many 
other imaginations ; but old age, when it comes on, drives 
away all these passions, some through satiety, some through 
philosophy. For old age relaxes the powers of the body, 
and does not permit the soul to make use thereof, even 
if it wish, but repressing them as enemies of various kinds, 
it sets her in a position free from troubles and produces a 
great calm, and brings in a greater fear. 

For if none else does, yet they who are grown old know, 
that they are drawing to their end, and that they are most 
certainly standing near to death. When therefore the de- 
sires of this life are gradually withdrawing, and the expec- 
tation of the judgment-seat is coming on in their stead, 
softening the stubbornness of the soul, does it not become 
more disposed to give attention, if one be willing ? 

[8.] What [is to be said] then (you allege) when we see 
old men more intractable than young ones ? Thou tellest 
me of an excess of wickedness. For in the case of madmen 
too, we see them going over precipices, when no man pushes 
them. When then an old man too is disordered by the 
[diseases] of the young, this is an excess of wickedness ; 
besides not even in youth would such an one have an 
excuse : since he is not able to say. Remember not the sins Ps. xxy. 
of my youth, and my ignorances. For he who in old age ^" 
remains the same, shews that in youth too he was such [as 
he was] not from ignorance, nor from inexperience, nor 
from the time of life, but from unwillingness to exert him- 
self. For that man may say, Remember not the sins of my 
youth, and mine ignorances, who does such things as be- 
come an old man, who changes in his old age. But if even 
in age he continue the same unseemly courses, how can such 
an one be worthy of the name of an old man, who has no 
reverence even for [his own] age ? For he who says, Re- 
member not the sins of my youth, nor my ignorances, utters 
this, as being one that is doing right in his old age. Do 
not thou then, by the deeds of thine age, deprive thyself 
also of pardon for the sins of thy youth. 

96 Grey hairs with goodness honoured, withvicemost disgraced, 

^Q^- ^- For how can that which is done be other than unreason- 
able, and beyond pardon ? An old man sits in taverns. An 
old man hurries to horse-races — an old man goes up into 
theatres, running with the crowd like little children. In 
truth it is a shame and a mockery, to be adorned outside 
with grey hairs, but within to have the mind of a child. 

And indeed if a young man insult [him], he immediately 
puts forward his grey hairs. Do thou thyself be the first 
to reverence them ; if however thou dost not reverence thy 
own grey hairs, and that when thou art an old man, how 
canst thou demand of the young man to reverence them ? 
Thou dost not reverence the grey hairs, but puttest them 
to shame. God hath honoured thee with whiteness of hairs : 
He hath given thee high precedence. Why dost thou betray 
[thine] honours ? how shall the young man reverence thee, 
when thou art more wanton than he ? For the hoary head 
is then venerable, when it acts worthily of the grey head ; 
but when it plays a youthful part, it will be more con- 
temptible than the young. How then will you old men 
be able to give these exhortations to the young man when 
you are intoxicated by your disorderliness ? 

[9.] I say not these things as accusing the old, but [ra- 
ther] the young. For in my judgment they who act thus 
even if they have come to their hundredth year, are still 
young; just as the young if they be but children, yet if 
they are sober-minded are better than the old. And this 
doctrine is not my own, but Scripture also recognizes 
Wisd.iv. the distinction. For (it saith) honourable age is not that 
' ' which standeth in length of time, and an unspotted life is 
old age. 
(4) For we honour grey hairs, not because we esteem the 

white before the black, but because they are an indication 
of a virtuous life; and when we see them we conjecture there- 
from the inward lioariness. But if men continue to do what 
is inconsistent with the hoary head, they will for this become 
the more contemptible. Since we also honour the Emperor, 
and the purple and the diadem, inasmuch as they are sym- 
bols of his office. Bui if we should see him, with his 
purple, spitted on, trodden under foot by his guards, seized 
by the throat, cast into prison, torn to pieces, shall we then 

What the due honour of the aged; what the duty of youth. 97 

reverence the purple or the diadem, and not rather weep HE.iv.i6. 
over the stateliness itself ? Claim not then to be honoured 
for thy hoary head, when thou thyself wrongest it. For 
it ought indeed itself to receive satisfaction from thee, in 
that thou bringest disgrace on a condition so noble and so 

We say not these things against all [old persons], nor is 
our discourse against old age simply (I am not so mad as 
that) but against a youthful spirit that brings dishonour on 
old age. Nor is it concerning those who are grown old 
that we say these things in sorrow, but concerning those 
who disgrace the hoary head. 

For the old man is an emperor, if you will, and more royal 
than he who wears the purple, if he master his passions, 
and keep them under subjection, in the rank of guards. 
But if he be dragged about and made to descend from his 
throne, and become a slave to the love of money, and to 
vain-glory, and beautifying his person, and luxuriousness, 
and drunkenness, anger, and sensual pleasures, and has his 
hair dressed out with oil, and exposes his age insulted by 
his way of life, of what punishment would not such an one 
be worthy ? 

[10.] But may ye not be such, O young men ! for not 
even for you is there the excuse for sinning. Why so ? you 
will ask. Because it is possible to be old in youth : just 
as there are youths in old age, so also the reverse. For as 
in the one case the hair by being white saves no man, so 
in the other by being black it is no impediment. For if it 
is disgraceful for the old man to do these things of which I 
have spoken, much more than for the young man, yet still 
the young man is not freed from accusation. For a young 
man can have an excuse only, in case he is called to the 
management of affairs, when he is still inexperienced, when 
he needs time and practice ; but when it is necessary to 
display temperance and courage, then no longer is there ex- 
cuse for him ; nor yet when it is needful to keep his pro- 

For it sometimes happens that the young man is blamed 
more than the old. For the one needs much care and 
nursing, seeing that old age makes him altogether feeble : 


98 Great struggle, great aid to young : the Beatitudes for us. 

HoM. 7. but this young man who is able, if he have the will, to pro- 
vide for himself, what sort of excuse should he meet with, 
when he plunders more than the old, when he remembers 
injuries, when he is contemptuous, when he does not stand 
forward to protect others more than the old man, when he 
utters many things unseasonably, when he acts with inso- 
lence, when he reviles, when he is drunken ? 

And if in the [matter of] chastity he think that he can- 
not be impleaded^, consider that here also he has many 
helps, if he will. For although desire trouble him more 
violently than it doth the old, yet nevertheless there are 
many things which he will be able to do more than an old 
man, and so charm that wild beast. What are these 
things ? labours, readings, watchings through the night, 

[11.] What then are these things to us (saith one) who 
are not leading monastic lives ? Sayest thou this to me ? 
Eph. vi. s^y i^ to Paul, when he saith. Watching in all perseverance 
18. and supplication, when he saith. Make not provision for the 

14. ' flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof. For surely he wrote not 
these things to solitaries only, but to all that are in cities. 
For ought the man who lives in the world to have any ad- 
vantage over the solitary, save only the living with a wife ? 
In this point he has allowance, but in others none at all, 
but it is his duty to do all things equally with the solitary. 
Moreover the Beatitudes [pronounced] by Christ, were 
not addressed to solitaries only : since in that case the whole 
world would have perished, and we should be accusing God 
of cruelty. And if these beatitudes were pronounced to 
solitaries only, and it be not possible for the secular person 
to succeed in [attaining] them, while at the same time He 
Himself permitted marriage, the conclusion is that He has 
Himself destroyed all men. For if it be not possible, with 
marriage, to perform the duties of solitaries, all things have 
perished and are destroyed, and the [functions] of virtue 
are shut up into a narrow [compass] . 

And, how can marriage be honourable, which so greatly 
impedes us? Whatthe"^? It is possible, yea very possible, 
even if we have wives to pursue after virtue, supposing we 

'' that is, if he have fallen into sin in this respect. 

Wine and marriage each need restraint in use of them. 99 

have the will. How ? If having wives, we be as though . 
we had none, if we rejoice not over omv possessions, if we J^^^'-^^^* 
use the world as not abusing [using] it. ' 

And if any persons have been hindered by their married 
state, let them know that it is not marriage which is the 
hindrance, but their will which made an ill use of marriage. 
Since it is not wine which causes drunkenness, but the evil 
will, and the using wine beyond due measure. Use the 
married state with moderation, and thou shalt be first in 
the kingdom, and shalt enjoy all good things, which may 
we all attain by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus 
Christ with Whom to the Father and also to the Holy 
Ghost be glory, might, honour, now and for ever and world 
without end. Amen. 

H 2 


Heb. v. 1—3. 

'■ ftfTplO- 


For every high priest taken from among men, is ordained 
for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer 
both gifts and sacrifices for sins ; who can have compas- 
sion on ^ the ignorant and on them that are out of the ivay, 
for that he himself also is compassed with infirmity ; and 
by reason hereof he ought, as for the people so also for 
himself to offer for sins. 

The blessed Paul wishes to shew in the next place that 
this covenant is far better than the old. This then he 
does by first laying down as a foundation considerations 
far remote. For inasmuch as there was nothing bodily or 
(pavra- \^\Y2it made a shew ^, no temple for instance, nor Holy of 
Holies, nor Priest with so great furniture, no legal observ- 
ances, but all things more lofty and more perfect, and 
there was nothing of what is bodily things, but the whole 
was in things spiritual, and things spiritual did not attract 
the weak, as do things bodily; [for this cause] he opens 
this whole discussion. 

And observe his wisdom : he makes his beginning from 
the priest first, and continually calls Him an High Priest, 
and from this first shews the difference [of the two Dis- 
pensations] . On this account he first of all defines what a 
Priest is, and shews if He has any things proper to a Priest, 
and if there are any signs of priest-hood. It was however 
an objection in his way that He [Christ] was not even of 
noble birth, nor was He>)f the sacerdotal tribe, nor a priest 
on earth. How then was He a Priest? some one may say. 

And just as in the Epistle to the Romans, having taken 

What Christ has in common ivith their High Priests, 101 

up an argument of which they were not easily persuaded, Heb.v.4. 

that Faith effects that which the labour of the Law had 

not strength for, nor the sweat and toil of [a man^s] course 

of life, he betook himself to the Patriarch and referred the 

whole [question] to that time : so now in this place also 

he opens out the other path of the Priesthood, shewing its 

superiority from the things which happened before. And 

just as, in [the matter of] punishment, he brings before 

them not Hell alone, but also what happened in the case 

of their fathers ^, so now here also, he first establishes this \^^V- "»• 

. . .7 &c. 

position from things present. For it were right indeed 

that earthly things should be proved from heavenly, but 

when the hearers are weak, the opposite course is taken. 

[2.] Up to a certain point he lays down first the things 
which are common [to Christ and their High Priests], 
and then shews that He is superior. For comparative ^ ^ ^ f "t^ 
excellence arises thus, when in some respects there is *^^"^'" 
community, in others superiority ; if not, it is no longer 

For every High Priest taken from among men, this is 
common to Christ, is ordained for men in things pertaining 
to Godj and this also, that he may offer both gifts and sacri- 
fices for the people, and this too, [yet] not entirely: what 
follows however is no longer so : who can have compassion 
on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way, from 
this point forward is the superiority, inasmuch as himself 
also is encompassed with infirmity ; and on account of this 
[infirmity^ he ought as for the people, so also for hhnself, 
to offer for sins. 

Then also [there are] other points : He is made [Priest] 
(he says) by Another and does not of Himself intrude into 
[the office]. This too is common (ver. 4) And no man 
taketh this honour to himself, but on being called of God as 
was Aaron, 

Here again he deals gently with ^ them in another point, ^eepavei- 
[saying] that He was sent from God : which Christ was " 
wont to say throughout in discoursing with the Jews. He g. john 
that sent Me is greater than I, and, / came not of Myself, xii. 49 ; 

He appears to me in these words also to hint at the yni 42.' 
priests of the Jews, as being no longer priests, in that they 

102 Christ's appointment, tears, love. 

HoM. 8. were intruders and corrupted the law of the priesthood ; 
(ver. 5) So Christ also glorified not Himself to be made an 
High Priest, 

On what occasion then was He appointed (saith one) ? 
for Aaron's appointment was many times shewn as in the 
[matter of the] Rod, and when the fire came down and 
destroyed those who wished to intrude into the priesthood. 
But in this instance, on the contrary, they [the Jewish 
Priests] not only suffered nothing, but even are in high 
esteem. Whence then [is His appointment shewn] ? He 
shews it from the prophecy. He has nothing [to allege] 
that is cognizable by sense, nothing visible. For this cause 
he affirms it from prophecy, from things future ; But He 
that said unto Him Thou art My Son, to-day have I begotten 
Thee. What has this [appointment] to do with [His being] 
the Son ? Yea (saith he) it is a preparation for His being 
appointed by God. 

(ver. 6) As He saith also in another place, Thou art a 
Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedech. Unto 
whom now was this spoken ? Who is after the order of 
Melchisedech ? No other [than He] . For they all were 
under the Law, they all kept sabbaths, they all were cir- 
cumcised; one could not point out any other [than Him]. 
[3.] ver. 7, 8. Who in the days of His flesh, when He had 
offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and 
tears, to Him that was able to save Him from death, and 
was heard in that He feared ; though He were a Son, yet 
learned He obedience by the things which He suffered, 
Seest thou that [he doth] nothing else than set forth His 
anxious care [for us] and the exceeding greatness of His 
love ? For what means the [expression] with strong cry- 
itig ? The Gospel no where saith th,is, nor that He wept 
when He prayed, nor yet that He uttered any cry. Seest 
thou that it was* a condescension ? For it was not in the 
Apostle [merely] to say that He prayed, but also ivith 
strong crying. 

And having been heard (saith he) in that He feared; 
although He were a S^n, He learned obedience from the 
things which He suffered, (ver. 9, 10) And being made per- 
feet He became the Author of eternal salvation to all them 

Explanation of His Praying, being heard, learning. 103 

that obey Him : called of God a High Priest after the order Heb.v.8. 
of Melchisedech. ' 

Be it that [He entreated] with crying, why also strong 
[crying^ and tears ? 

Having offered (he saith) and having been heard in that 
He feared. What sayest thou ? let the Heretics ^ be 
ashamed. The Sox of God was heard in that He feared. 
And what more could any man say concerning the prophets ? 
And what sort of sequence is it to say, He ivas heard i7i 
that He feared, though He ivere Son, yet learned He obedi- 
ence from the things tvhich He suffered? Would any man 
say these things concerning God ? why, who was ever so 
mad ? and who, even if he were beside himself, would have 
uttered these things ? Having been heard (he says) in that 
He feared, He learned obedience from the things which He 
suffered. What obedience ? He that before this had been 
obedient, as a Son to His Father, even unto death, how did 
He afterwards learn [obedience] ? Seest thou that this is (2) 
spoken concerning the Incarnation ? 

Tell me now, did He pray the Father that He might be 
saved from death ? and was it for this cause that He was 
exceeding sorrowful, and said, If it be possible, let this cup s. Matt. 
pass from Me? yet no where prayed the Father concerning ^^ ^^* 
His resurrection, but on the contrary Himself openly de- 
clares. Destroy this temple and within three days I will s. John 
raise it up. And, / have power to lay doivn My life, and I\{^]^ ^g^ 
have power to take it again. No man taketh it from Me, 
I lay it down of Myself. What then is it ; for what pur- 
pose did He pray ? (And again He said. Behold we go up to ^^^^^' 
Jerusalem, and the Son of Man shall be betrayed unto the 19. 
chief priests and scribes, and they shall condemn Him to 
death. And they shall deliver Him to the Gentiles, to mock, 
and to scourge, and to crucify Him : and the third day He 
shall rise again, and said not, " My Father shall raise Me 
up again^^). How then was it that He prayed concerning 
this ? But further, for whom did He pray ? For those who 
had believed on Him. 

And what he means is to this effect, 'He is readily lis- 
tened to.' For inasmuch as they had not yet the right 

» Heretics who denied the reality of our Lord's Human Nature. 

104 Suffering path to perfection. Milk. 

HoM. 8. opinion concerning Him^ he said that He was heard. Just 
S. John as He Himself also when consoling His disciples^ said. If 
ye loved Me, ye would rejoice, because I go to My Father, 
and My Father is greater than I. But how did He not 
glorify Himself He who made Himself of no reputation, 
see Gal. He who gave Himself up ? For, it is said. He gave Himself 
1 Tim ^P f^^ ^^^^ ^^^^' -^^^ again, Who gave Himself a ransom 
ii. 6. for us all. What is it then ? Thou seest that it is on ac- 
count of the flesh that He speaks lowly things concerning 
Himself: So in this place also, Although He were Son, He 
was heard in that He feared, saith [the Apostle] . He wishes 
to shew, that the success was of Himself, rather than of 
God's favour. So great (saith he) was His reverence, that 
even on account thereof God had respect unto Him. 

He learned, he saith, to obey God. Here again he shews 
cf. supra }iow great is the gain of sufferings. And having been made 
53^ 72.' perfect, he saith. He became the Author of salvation to them 
that obey Him. But if He, being the Son, gained obedience 
from His sufferings, much more shall we. Dost thou see 
how many things he says in his discourse about obedience, 
that they might be persuaded to it ? For it seems to me 
that they would not be restrained. From the things, saith 
hQ, which He suffered He continually learned to obey God. 
And being made perfect through His sufferings. This then 
is perfection, and by this means must we arrive at per- 
fection. For not only was He Himself saved [thereby] , but 
this became to others also an abundant supply of salvation. 
For being made peyfect He became Author of salvation to 
them that obey Him. 

[4.] Being called, saith he, of God High Priest after the 
order of Melchisedech : (ver. 11) Of whom we have many 
things to say and hard to be uttered [or. explained] . When 
he was about to proceed to speak of the difference of the 
Priesthood, he first reproves them, pointing out both that 
this his so great condescension was milk, and that it was 
because they were children that he dwelt longer on the 
lowly subject, that [namely] which has relation to the flesh, 
and speaks [about Him] ^s about any righteous man. And 
see, he neither kept silence as to the doctrine altogether, 
nor did he utter it. For the one [he did] that he might 

Difficulty arising from their dulness, how managed, 105 

raise up their thoughts, and persuade them to be perfect, He.v.ii» 
and not to allow themselves to be deprived of the great 
doctrines ; the other that he might not overwhelm their 

Of whom, he saith, we have many things to say and hard 
to be explained, seeing ye are dull of hearing. Because they 
do not hear, on this account it is that the doctrine is hard 
to be explained. For when a person has to discourse with 
men who do not go along with him nor apprehend the 
things that are spoken, he cannot well explain the subject 
to them. 

But perhaps some one of you that stand here, is puzzled, 
and thinks it a hard case, that owing to the Hebrews, he him- 
self is hindered from hearing the more perfect doctrines. 
Nay rather, I think that perhaps here also, with the ex- 
ception of a few, there are many such [as they], so that 
this may be said concerning yourselves also : but for the 
sake of those few I will speak. 

Did he then keep entire silence, or did he resume the 
subject again in what follows ; and do the same as in the 
Epistle to the Romans ? For there too, when he had first 
stopped the mouths of the gainsayers, and said. Nay but, Rom. ix. 
man, ivho art thou that repliest against God ? he then sub- ^^• 
joined the solution. And for my own part I think that he 
was not even altogether silent, and yet did not speak it 
out, in order to lead the hearers to a longing [for the 
knowledge]. For having mentioned [the subject], and 
said that certain great things were stored up in the doctrine, 
see how he frames his reproof in combination with panegyric. 
For this is ever a part of Paul's wisdom, to mix painful 
things with kind ones. Which he also does in the Epistle 
to the Galatians, saying. Ye did run ivell; who did hinder Gal. v. 7. 
you? And, Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if ih.m.i. 
it be yet in vain, and, / have confidence in you in the Lord. lb. v. 10. 
Which he says also to these [Hebrews], But we are per- infra vi. 
suaded better things of you, and things that accompany ^• 
salvation. For these two things he effects, he does not 
overstrain them, nor suffer them to fall back ; for if the 
examples of others are sufficient to raise up the hearer, and 
to lead him to emulation ; when a man has the example 

106 He repeatedly tries to utter higher doctrine but defers them. 

HoM. 8. [drawn] from his own conduct and is bidden to emulate 
himseif, the possibility [of his doing it] is already therein 

He therefore shews this also, and does not suffer them to 
fall back as men utterly condemned, nor as being alway 
evil, but [says] that they were once even good ; (ver. 12) 
for when for the time ye ought to he teachers, saith he. 
Here he shews that they had been believers a long while 
ago, and he shews also that they ought to instruct others. 

[5.] At all events observe him continually travailing to 

introduce the discourse concerning the High Priest, and 

supra iv. still putting it off. For hear how he began : Raving a 

great High Priest who hath passed through the heavens; and 

omitting to say in wh^t manner He was great, he says again, 

supra Por every High Priest taken from among men, is appointed 

lb. 5. f^^' ^^^ ^^ things pertaining to God. And again. So Christ 

also glorified not Himself to be made an High Priest. And 

lb. 6. again after saying. Thou art a Priest for ever after the order 

lb. 7. of Melchisedec, he again puts off [the subject], saying, Who 

in the days of His Flesh offered prayers and supplications. 

(3) When therefore he had been so many times repulsed, he 

says, as though he were excusing himself. The blame is 

with you. Alas ! how great a difference ! When they ought 

to be teaching others, they are not even simply learners, 

but the last of learners, ver. 12. For when for the time ye 

ought to be teachers, ye have need again that some one ^ teach 

^ the you the very first elements ^ of the oracles of God. Here he 

of the nieans the Human Nature [of Christ]. For as in external 

begin, literature it is necessary to learn the elements first, so also 

here they were instructed first concerning the human nature 

[of Christ]. 

Thou seest what is the cause of his uttering lowly things. 

So Paul did to the Athenians also, discoursing and saying. 

Acts xvu. The times then of wnorance God ivinked at : but now com- 

30 31 'f ^ 

' * mandeth all men every where to repent, because He hath 

appointed a day in the which He will judge the world in 

righteousness by that Man whom He hath ordained, whereof 

^Tiva. The common editions have the Epistle, where Lachman adopts 
Tti'o,"that one teach you whicli be &c." the reading rfra. 
as is read in the received version of 

Dulness, whence. Milk^^e dwelling on Chris fs HumanNature. 107 

He hath given assurance unto all men, in that He hath He. v. 12 . 
raised Him from the dead. For this cause, if he says any 
thing lofty, he expresses it briefly, while the lowly state- 
ments are scattered about in many places through the whole 
Epistle. And in this very way too His loftiness is indicated ; 
since the extreme lowliness [of what is said] forbids the 
suspicion that these things relate to His Divine Nature. | 

So in this place also the safe ground was kept ^. ; 

But what produces this dulness ? This he intimates ] 

especially in the Epistle to the Corinthians, saying, For 1 Cor. iii. ' 

whereas there is among you envy and strife and divisions, ^* 
are ye not carnal ? But observe, I beseech you, his great 
wisdom, how on each occasion he addresses himself in a way 
corresponding to the distempers before him. For there 
[in the case of the Corinthians] the weakness arose chiefly 
from ignorance, or rather from sinful acts ; but here [in j 

the case of the Hebrews] not from sins only, but also from j 

their continual afflictions. Wherefore he also uses expres- I 

sions calculated to shew the difference, not saying, ye are j 

become carnal, but dull: in that case carnal, but in this j 

the pain is greater. For they [the Corinthians] indeed 
were not able to endure [his reproof] , inasmuch as they were 
carnal : but these were able. For in saying. Seeing ye are supra | 

become dull of hearing, he shews plainly that formerly they ^^^' ' I 

were sound in health, and were strong, fervent in zeal, i 

which he also afterwards testifies respecting them, 

[6.] And are become such as have need of milk, not of 
strong meat. On every occasion he calls the lowly doctrine 
milk, both in this place and in the other. When, saith he, 
for [i. e. because q/*] the time ye ought to be teachers : that j 

very thing because of which especially ye are become faint 
and supine, [I mean] because of the time, because of that | 

especially ye ought to be strong. Now he calls it milk, on 
account of its being suited to the more simple. But it is 
injurious to those who are more perfect, and the dwelling j 

on these [lowly] things is hurtful to them. So that it were { 

not right that practices pertaining to the Law should be 
introduced^ now or the comparison made from these [points], 

= That is, he took care to provide thing-s concerning- Christ. \ 

ag^ainst being understood to refer to ^ The allowing the observances of j 

His Divine Nature, when he said lowly the law, as M^eJl as the dwelling- thus j 

108 Milk, child^sfood. Word of righteousness. 

^^^^•^• . that He was a High Priest, and offered sacrifice, and needed 
crying and supplication. Wherefore see how these things 
are unhealthful^ to us; but them at that time they nourished, 
being in no respect unheal thful to them. 

So then it seems the oracles of God are true nourishment. 
Amos For I will give unto them^ he saith, not a famine of bread, 
nor a thirst of ivater, but a famine of hearing the word of 
the Lord. 
I Cor. iii. I gave you milk to drink, and not meat ; He did not say, 
I fed you, intimating that such [nourishment] as this is not 
food, but that the case is like that of little children who 
cannot be fed with bread. For such have not drink given 
them, but their food is to them instead of drink. 

Moreover he didnotsay,"ye have need," butz/ecfre become 
such as have need of milk and not of strong meat. That is, 
ye willed [it] ; ye have reduced yourselves to this state, this 

ver. 13. For everij one that part aketh of milk is unskilled 

in the word of righteousness for he is a babe. What is the 

Word [^doctrine'] of righteousness ? He seems to me here to 

S. Matt, hint at conduct also. That which Christ also said. Except 

^' ' your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the 

Scribes and Pharisees, this he says likewise, unskilled in 

the word of righteousness, that is, he that is unskilled in 

the philosophy that is above, is unable to embrace a life 

^6.KpovKa\ perfect and exact ^. Or else by righteousness he here means 

lifvo"' Christ, and the high doctrine concerning Him. 

That they then were become dull, he said ; but from what 
cause [they were so], he did not add, leaving it to them- 
selves to know it and not being willing to make his discourse 
hard to bear. In the case of the Galatians on the contrary 
Gal. i. 6 ; ^G both may^velled and stood in doubt, which tends much 
iv. 20. more to encourage, as it is the language of one who would 
never have expected that this should happen. For this is 
[what] the doubting [implies]. 
Thou seest that there is another infancy. Thou seest 
*T€\€t(J- that there is another full age^. Let us become oifull age 


on the Human characteristics of our « irpon-ia-Tarai. Said of that which 
Lord, were suited for the beginners, cannot be digested or cause§ nausea, 
but would be injurious to us. 

Hoiv to discern good and evil ; i.e. true and false teaching. 109 

in this sense : It is in the power even of those who are He.v.14. 
children, and young persons, to arrive at ihdit full age : For 
it is not of nature but of virtue. 

[7.] ver. 14. But strong meat belongeth to them that are 
of full age [perfect], even thern ivho by reason of use have 
their senses exercised to discern both good and evil. Those 
persons had not their senses exercised, nor did they knoio 
good and evil. He is not speaking now concerning life 
[and conduct] , when he says to discern good and evil, for 
this is possible and easy for every man to know, but con- 
cerning doctrines that are wholesome and sublime, and 
those that are corrupted and low. The babe knows not 
how to distinguish the bad and the good food. Oftentimes 
at least it puts even dirt into its mouth, and takes what is 
hurtful; and it does all things without discernment; but 
not [so] that which is of full age. Such [babes] are they 
who listen to all things without distinction, and give up 
their ears indiscriminately : which seems to me to imply 
blame on these [Hebrews] also, as being lightly carried 
about, and now giving themselves to these, now to those. 
Which he also hinted at near the end [of the Epistle], say- 
ing, Be not carried aside by divers and strange doctrines. Infra xiii. 
This is the meaning of to discern good and evil. For the j'^^ 
mouth tasteth food, but the soul trieth words. xxxiv. 3. 

[8.] Let us therefore ourselves also learn this lesson. (4) 
Do not thou when thou hearest that a man is not a Heathen 
nor a Jew, straightway believe him to be a Christian ; but 
examine also into all the other points; for even Mani- 
ch6eans, and all the heresies, have put on this mask, in 
order thus to deceive the more simple. But if we have the 
senses of the soul exercised to discern both good and evil, we 
are able to discern such [teachers]. 

But how do our senses become exercised? By continual 
hearing ; by experience of the Scriptures. For when we 
set forth the error of those [Heretics], and thou hearest 
to-day and to-morrow ; and ascertainest by testing that it is 
not right, thou hast learnt the whole, thou hast known the 
whole : and even if thou shouldest not comprehend to-day, 
thou wilt comprehend to-morrow. 

110 Chief heresies named. Safeguard in Scripture and The Faith. 

HoM. 8. That have, saith he, their senses exercised. Thou seest 
that it is needful to exercise our hearing by divine studies, 
so as not to be addressed in a strange language ? Exercised, 
saith he, for discerning, that is, to be skilled. 

One man says, that there is no Resurrection ; and an- 
other looks for none of the things to come ; another says 
there is a different God ; another that He has His begin- 
ning from Mary. And see at once how they have all fallen 
1 €| o/A€. away from want of moderation ^, some in the way of excess, 
■^^ "* others in that of defect. As for instance, the first Heresy 

cf. S. Ire- ... . 

naeus iv. of all was that of Marcion, this introduced besides [the true] 
fok^n^T ^ different God, which has no existence. See the excess. 
' After this was the [heresy] of Sabellius, saying that the 
Son and the Spirit and the Father are One K Next that 
of Marcellus and Photinus, which also taught the same 
things. Moreover that of Paul of Samosata, saying that 
He had His beginning from Mary. Afterwards that of the 
Manicheeans ; for this is the most modern of all. After 
these the heresy of Arius. And there are others too. 

But on this account have we had the Faith handed down 
to us, that we might not be compelled to engage with in- 
numerable heresies, and to be troubled [therewith], but 
whatever any man might have endeavoured either to add to 
or take from it, that we might hold to be spurious. For just 
as those who give the standards [measures] do not oblige 
[people] to busy themselves about measures innumerable, 
but bid them keep to that which has been given them ; so 
also in the case of doctrines. 

[9.] But no man is willing to give attention to the Scrip- 
tures. For if we did give attention, not only should we not 
be ourselves entangled by deceit, but we should also set 
others free who are deceived, and should draw them out of 
dangers. For the strong soldier is not only able to help 
himself, but also to protect his comrade, and to free him 
from the malice of the enemy. But as it is, some do not 
even know that there are any Scriptures. Yet the Holy 
Spirit indeed made so many wise provisions in order that 
they might be safely kejH. 

And look at it from the first, that ye may learn the un- 

^ '4v. The common texts add Trpcaw-rrov, " one person." 

Gon^ scareinpreserving the Scriptures,men^sneglect of them. Ill 

speakableloveof God towards man. He inspired the blessed He. v. 14. 
Moses ; He engraved the tables, He detained him on the 
mount forty days ; and again as many [more] to give the 
Law. And after this He sent prophets who suffered woes 
innumerable. War came on ; they slew them all, they cut 
them to pieces, the [sacred] books were burned. Again, 
He inspired another admirable man to publish them, Ezra 
I mean, and caused them to be put together from the re- 
mains. And after this He arranged that they should be 
translated by the seventy. They did translate them. Christ 
came. He acknowledges them ; the Apostles disperse them 
among men. Christ wrought signs and wonders. 

What then after so great painstaking ? The Apostles 
also wrote, even as Paul likewise said, they were written i Cor. x. 
for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are ^^' 
come. And again Christ said. Ye do err not knowing the s. Matt. 
Scriptures : And again Paul said. That through patience and ^^"' ^^* 
comfort of the Scriptures we may have hope. And again, 4. 
All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profit- 2 Tim. Hi. 
able. And let the word of Christ dwell in you richly. And J,^j jj. 
the prophet, he shall meditate in His Law day and night, 16. 
and again in another place. Let all thy communication he ecc/us 
in the law of the Most High. And again, How sweet are ix. 15. 
Thy words unto my throat. (He said not to my hearing, but jqs. 
to my throat) more than honey and the honeycomb to my 
mouth. And Moses saith. Thou shall meditate in them con- Deut. vi. 
tinually, ivhen thou risest up, when thou sittest, when thou '^' 
liest down. Be in them, saith he. And innumerable things i Tim. 
one might say concerning them. But notwithstanding, after ^^' 
so many things there are some who do not even know that 
there are Scriptures at all. For this cause, believe me, 
nothing sound, nothing profitable comes from us. 

[10.] Yet, if any one wished to learn military affairs, 
of necessity he must learn the laws affecting military affairs. 
And if any one was disposed to acquire the knowledge of 
steering or of carpentering, or any thing else, of necessity 
he must learn the [principles] of the art. But in this case 
they will not do anything of the kind, and that, notwith- 
standing this is a science which needs much wakeful atten- 
tion. For that it too is an art which needs teaching, hear 

112 Bible neglected: spiritual things uncaredfor, temporal lost. 

HoM. 8. the prophet saying. Come, ye children, hearken unto me, 

Ps.xxxiv. / ^iii i^dQji yQy^ the fear of the Lord. It follows therefore 

certainly that the fear of God needs teaching. Then he 

lb. 12. saith. What is man is he that ivould have life ? he means 

Ib.13,14. the life yonder; and again. Keep thy tongue from evil and 

thy lips that they speak no guile; turn aside from evil and 

do good, seek peace and pursue it. 

Do you know who it is that said these things, a prophet 
or a writer of history, or an apostle, or an evangelist ? For 
my own part I do not think you do, except a few. Yea 
and these themselves again, if we bring forward a testimony 
from some other place, will be in the same case as the rest 
of you. For see, I repeat the same statement expressed 
Is. i. 16, in other words. Wash ye, become clean, put away your 
wickednesses from your souls before Mine eyes, learn to do 
well, seek out judgment. Keep thy tongue from evil, and do 
good: learn to do well. Thou seest that virtue needs to be 
taught ? For this one saith, / will teach you the fear of 
the Lord, and the other Learn to do ivell. 

Now then do you know where these words are in [the 
Scripture] ? For myself I do not think you do, except a 
few. And yet every week these things are read to you 
twice or even three times : and the reader when he goes 
up [to the desk] first says whose the book is, [the book] 
of such a prophet, and then says what he says, so that it 
shall be more intelligible to you and you may not only 
know the contents of the Book, but also the occasion of 
what is written, and who it was that spake these things. 
But all in vain ; all to no purpose. For your interest is 
wholly on things of this life, and of things spiritual no ac- 
count is made. 

For this cause not even do those [worldly] matters turn 
out according to your wishes, but there also many diffi- 
S. Matt, culties [befal you] . For Christ saith, Seek the Kingdom of 
VI. 33. Qoci^ and all these things shall be added unto you. These 
things He said, shall also be given in the way of addition : 
but we have inverted the order and seek the earth and 
the good things which 'are in the earth, as if those other 
[heavenly] things were to be given us in addition. For this 
cause we have neither the one nor the other. Let us then 

Who seek spiritual, ivillhave temporal ; nor lose all. 113 

at last wake up and become coveters of the things which He. v. 14. 
shall be hereafter ; for so these also will follow. For it is 
not possible that he who seeks the things that relate to 
God, should not also attain human [blessings] . It is the 
declaration of the Truth itself which says this. Let us 
not then act otherwise, but let us hold fast to the counsel 
of Christ, lest we fail of all. But God is able to give you 
compunction and to make you better, in Christ Jesus our 
Lord, with whom to the Father and also to the Holy 
Ghost be glory, power, honour, now and for ever and world 
without end. Amen. 

VOL. VlJ. 


Heb. vi. 1—3. 

Wherefore leaving the principles of the Doctrine of Christ % 
let us go on unto perfection, not laying again the founda- 
tion of repentance from dead works, and of faith towards 
God ; of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of 
hands ; and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal 
judgment. And this we will do, if God permit. 

You have heard how much Paul found fault with the 

Hebrews for wishing to be always learning about the same 

supra V. things. And this he did with good reason : For when for 

the time ye ought to he teachers, ye have need again that 

^ Tcb o-Toi- some one teach you the elements of the first principles^ of the 

^'\'''^' oracles of God. 

I am afraid that this might very appropriately be said to 
you also, that luhenfor the time ye ought to be teachers, ye 
do not even maintain the rank of learners, but ever hearing 
the same things, and on the same subjects, you are in the 
same condition as if you heard no one. And if any man 
should question you, no one will be able to answer, excejDt 
a very few who may soon be counted. 

But this is no trifling loss. For oftentimes w^hen the 
teacher wishes to go on further, and to touch on higher 
and more mysterious doctrines, the want of attention in 
those who are to be taught does not permit him [to do so]. 
For just as in the case of a grammar-master, if a boy is 
continually being taught the first elements without retain- 

^ rhv K6yov ttjs apxh^ '''ov Xpicrov. substitutes for this, tj apxh fov \6yov. 
Literally " the discourse of the begin- "the beginning- of the doctrine," as the 
ning of Christ; "but presently S.Chrys. words are translated in our Version. 

Same truths repeated as for their good, not for display. 115 

ing them, it will be necessary for him to be continually 
dinning them into the boy, and he will not leave off teach- 
ing, until the other has been able to learn them accurately, 
for it is great folly to lead him on to other things, without 
having put well into him w^hat comes first ; so too in the 
Church, if while we constantly say the same things you 
learn never the more, we shall not ever cease saying the 
same things. 

For if our preaching were a matter of display and am- 
bition, it would have been right for us to pass quickly from 
one subject to another and to be continually digressing, as 
having no thought for you yourselves, but only for your 
applauses. But since it is not to this that we have devoted 
our zeal, but our labours are all for your j)rofit, w^e shall 
not cease discoursing to you on the same subjects, till you 
succeed in learning them. For I might have said much 
about the Gentile superstition, and about the Manichgeans, 
and about the Marcionists, and by the grace of God have 
given them heavy blows, but this sort of discourse is out 
of season. Since to persons who do not as yet know ac- 
curately what concerns their own selves, to persons who 
have not yet learned that to be covetous is evil, who would 
utter such discourses as those, and lead them on to other 
subjects before the time ? 

We then for our part shall not cease to say the same 
things, whether ye be persuaded or not. We fear however, 
that by continually saying the same things, if ye hearken 
not, we may make the condemnation heavier for them that 
are disobedient. 

I must not however say this in regard to you all ; for I 
know many who are benefited by their coming into this 
place, who might with justice complain loudly against 
those others, as insidiously injuring them^ through their' iveSpev- 
ignorance and inattention. However not even thus will 
they be injured. For hearing the same things continually 
is useful even to those who know them, since by often 
hearing what we know, we are more deeply affected. We 
know, for instance, that Humility is an excellent thing, and 
that Christ often discoursed about it ; but when we also 
listen to His very words and the reflections made upon 

I 2 


116 Need of securing the elements and foundation of the Faith. 

HoM.9. them, we are yet more affected, even if we hear them ten 

thousand times. 

[2.] It is not out of place then for us also to say now to 

you, Wherefore leaving the beginning of the doctrifie of 

Christ, let us go on unto perfection, 
vapxi) What is the beginning of the doctrine'^ ? He sroes on to 

Tov \oyov . . 

state it himself saying, not laying again (these are his 
words) a foundation of repentance from dead works, and 
faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms and of laying 
on of hands, of the resurrection of the dead, and of eternal 

But if this be the Beginning, what else is our doctrine 
save to repent from dead ivorks, and through the Spirit 
to receive the faith ^ in the resurrection of the dead, and 
eternal judgment ? But what is the Beginning ? The Be- 
ginning, he says, is nothing else than this, when there is 
not also a strict life. For just as for one who is entering 
on the study of grammar, it is necessary to be instructed in 

2 or the the Elements " first, so is it for the Christian also to know 
letters . . 

these things accurately, and to have no doubt concerning 

them. And should he again have need of teaching, he does 

not as yet possess the foundation. For one who is firmly 

grounded ought to be fixed and to stand steady, and not be 

moved out of his place. But if a person who has been 

catechized and baptized is going ten years afterwards to 

learn again about the Faith, and that we ought to believe 

in the resurrection of the dead, he does not yet possess the 

foundation, he is again seeking after the beginning of the 

Christian religion. For that the Faith is the foundation, 

and the rest is the building, hear [the Apostle] himself 

1 Cor. iii. saying ; / have laid the foundation and another buildeth 

lb 12 thereupon. If any man build upon this foundation, gold, 

silver, precious sjtones, wood, hay, stubble. 

Not laying again (saith he) a foundation of repentance 

from dead works. 

(2) [3.] But what is, let us go on unto perfection ? Let us 

henceforth proceed (he means) even to the very roof, that is, 

let us have the most e^ellent life. For just as in the case 

^ The Faith ; tt/o-tis with the Article in this place and a little below means 
the Creed ; as we say "the Belief." 

TVe are not to be ever beginning anew in Religion. 117 

of the letters the Alphabet ^ contains the whole^, and as the Heb.vj.i. 
foundation holds together the whole building, so also does '^^ ^^^'^ 
full assurance concerning the Faith maintain purity of life. 
And without this it is not possible to be a Christian, any 
more than for a building [to exist] without foundations ; 
or for a man to become skilled in literature without the 
letters. Still if a person should be always going round 
about the letters, or if he should be [always engaged] about 
the foundation, not about the building, he will not yet 
have gained any thing. 

Do not thou however think that the Faith is depreciated 
by being called elementary : for it is indeed the whole 
power : for when he says, For every one that useth milk is supra v. 
unskilled in the ivord of righteousness, for he is a babe, it * 
is not this which he calls milk. But to be still doubting 
about these things is [a sign] of a feeble mind, and one 
that needs many discourses. For these are the wholesome 
doctrines. Since we call him a petfect man [i.e. of full 
age] who with the faith has a right life ; but if any one 
has faith, but yet does evil, and is in doubts concerning 
[the faith] itself, and brings disgrace on the doctrine, him 
we shall with reason call a babe, in that he has gone back 
again to the beginning. So that if we have been even ten 
thousand years in the faith, and yet are not firm in it, we 
are babes ; when we exhibit a life not suitable to it ; when 
we are still laying a foundation. 

[4.] But besides [their way of] life he brings another 
charge also against these [Hebrews], as being shaken from 
their position, and needing to lay a foundation of repent- 
ance from dead ivorks. For when a man changes from one 
thing to another, giving up this, and choosing that, he ought 
first to condemn himself, and to depart from [what he held] 
in disposition and then to pass to the other. But if he in- 
tends again to lay hold on the first, how shall he touch 
the second ? 

What then is to be said of the Law (saith one) ? we have 
condemned it, and again we go back to it. This is not 
a shifting about, for here also [under the Gospel] we have 
a law. Do ive then (he saith) 7nake void the law through Rom. iii. 
faith ? God forbid, yea ive establish the Laiv. I was speak- ^^' 

118 Holy Baptism once for all, 

HoM.9. ing concerning evil deeds. For he that intends to pursue 
virtue ought to condemn wickedness first, and then go in 
1 SeT^ai pursuit of it. For repentance had not the power to make ^ 
them clean. For this cause they were straightway baptized, 
that what they were unable to accomplish by themselves 
might be effected by the grace of Christ. Neither then is 
repentance sufficient for purification, but it is necessary 
to receive baptism. At all events, after having previously 
condemned the sins one had committed and given a deci- 
sion against them, it was necessary to come to baptism. 

But what is the doctrine of baptisms ? The expression 
is used not as if there were many baptisms, but one only ^. 
Why then did he express it in the plural number ? because 
he had said, not laying again a foundation of repentance. 
For if he had again baptized them and catechised them 
' H apxvs afresh, and after having been baptized anew ^ they were 
being taught what things ought to be done and what ought 
not, they would be in the way to remain perpetually un- 

And of laying on of hands. For thus did they receive 
Actsxix. the Spirit, tvhen Paul had laid his hands on them, it is 
^- said. 

And of the resurrectioii of the dead. For this is both 
effected in baptism, and is affirmed in the confession. 

And of eternal judgment. But wherefore saith he this ? 
Because it was likely that after having already believed 
they would either be shaken from [their faith], or would 
i/7}<|/aTc lead evil and slothful lives, he saith, be wakeful. 

It is not open to them to say, If we live slothfully we 
will be baptized again, we will be catechized again, we will 
again receive the Spirit, even if now we fall from the faith, 
we shall be able again by being baptized, to wash away 
our sins, and to attain to the very same state as before. 
Ye are deceived (he saith) in supposing these things. 

[5.] ver. 4, 5. For it is impossible for those rvho have been 
once enlightened and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and 
have been made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and have tasted 
the good word of God, ^d the powers of the ivorld to come, 
and have fallen aivay, to renew them again unto repentance, 

• That is, the Apostle repudiates the teaching of more than one baptism. 

Repentance may be repeated ; not Baptismal renewal. 119 

crucifying "^ unto themselves the Son of God afresh, and 
putting Him to an open shame. 

And see how touchingly^ and positively [forbiddingly] he ^ ^vrp^. 
begins, hnpossible. No longer (he would say) expect that '^'^"^"^ 
which is not possible (for he said not, It is not seemly, 
or, It is not expedient, or. It is not lawful, but impossible, 
so as to cast [them] into despair), if ye have once been al- 
together enlightened. 

Then he adds, and have tasted of the heavenly gift. If (3) 
ye have tasted (he says) of the heavenly gift, that is, of for- 
giveness. And been made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and 
tasted the good word of God (he is speaking here of the 
doctrine) and the powers of the world to come (what powers 
is he speaking of ? either the working of miracles, or the 2 Cor. i. 
earnest of the Spirit) and have fallen away, to renew them 
again unto repentance, seeing they crucify to themselves the 
Son of God afresh and put Him to an open shame. Renew 
them, he saith, unto repentance, that is, by repentance, for 
unto repentance is by repentance. 

What then, is repentance excluded? Not repentance, 
God forbid ! but the renewing again by the Washing ^. For ^ 5'« 
he did not say, impossible to be renewed unto repentance, 
and then stop, but added how, impossible [by] crucifying 

To be renewed, that is, to be made new, for to make men 
new is [the work] of the Washing only : for (it is said) 
thy youth shall be renewed as the eaglets. But it is [the Ps.ciii.5. 
work of] repentance, when those who have been made new, 
have afterwards become old through sins, to set them free 
from this their old age, and to make them strong^. ^Q^vr^ppovs 
brmg them to that former brightness however, is not m Sav. Ben. 
its power ; for there the whole was Grace. 

[6.] Crucifying to themselves, saith he, the Son of God 
afresh, and putting Him to an open shame. And what he 
means is this. Baptism is a Cross, and our old man was Rom. vi. 
crucified with \Him'\, for we were made conformable to the jj^ ^ ^^^ 
likeness of His death, and again, ive were buried therefore Phil. iii. 
loith Him by baptism into death. Wherefore, just as it is not ^^^ ^,5 

•> S. Chrys. exposition requires this renew them by crucifying- afresh," and ^• 
literal translation of the participle. " seeing they crucify afresh." 
He gives two explanations of it, " to 

120 Second Baptism is cy^ucifying Christ afresh. 

HoM.9. possible that Christ should be crucified a second time, for 
Rom. vi. this is to put Him to an open shame ^. For if death shall 
no more have dominion over Him, if He rose again, by His 
resurrection becoming superior to death ; if by death He 
wrestled with and overcame death, and then is crucified 
again, all those things become a fable and a mockery. He 
then that baptizeth ^ a second time, crucifies Him again. 

But what is crucifying afresh ? [It is] crucifying over 
again. For just as Christ died on the cross, so do we in 
baptism, not as to the flesh, but as to sin. Behold two 
deaths. He died as to the flesh ; in our case the old man 
was buried, and the new man arose, which had been made 
conformable to the likeness of His death. If therefore it is 
1 S. B. necessary to be baptized [again^], it is necessary that this 
same [Christ] should again die. For baptism is nothing 
else than the putting to death and the rising of that person 
who is baptized. 

And well said he, crucifying afresh unto themselves. For 
he that doth this, as having forgotten the former grace ^, and 
ordering his own life carelessly, acts in all respects as if 
there were another baptism. It behoves us therefore to 
take heed and to be cautious. 

[7.] What is, having tasted of the heavenly gift? it is, " of 
the Remission of sins :^' for this is of God alone to bestow, 
lb. 1, 2. and the grace is a grace once for all. What then? shall toe 
continue in sin that grace may abound? God forbid! But if 
we should be always going to be saved by grace we shall 
never at any time be good. For here where there is but one 
grace, even so we are indolent, should we then cease sinning 
if we knew that it is possible again to have our sins washed 
away? For my part I think not. 

In this place he indicates that the gifts are many : and 
to explain it, "Ye were counted worthy (he says) of forgive- 
ness so great, for he that was sitting in darkness, he that 
was at enmity, he that was at open war, that was alienated, 

« The common editions add ovtus baptizeth himself." S. Chrys. however 

ouSe )3a7rTt(r0^;/at," so neither [is it pos- is speaking- of a Bishop who repeats 

sible] to be baptized [a second tinue] ." baptism. 

The apodosis is wanting^ in the older ^ X«p'^- The word is used throug-h- 

text, as it is in several other places. out this passag-e in the sense of Re- 

f The later texts add kavrhu, "that mission,asexplainedinthenext clause. 

Hoiv can privileges, so great, be restored, if cast away? 121 

that was hated of God, that was utterly lost, this man hav- Heb.vjA 
ing been suddenly enlightened, counted worthy of the Spirit, 
of the heavenly gift, of adoption as a son, of the kingdom 
of heaven, of those other good things, the mysteries that 
are not to be spoken of; and who does not even thus become 
better, and yet when he was indeed worthy of perdition, 
had obtained salvation and honour, as if he had successfully 
accomplished some great things; how could he possibly be 
again baptized ? 

On two grounds then he said that the thing was impos- 
sible, and he put the stronger last : first, because he to whom 
such [blessings] have been vouchsafed, and who has be- 
trayed all that was granted to him, is not worthy to be 
again renewed, neither^ is it possible that Christ should 
again be crucified afresh : for this is to put Him to an open 

There is not then any second Washing : there is not 
[indeed] . And if there is, there is also a third, and a fourth; 
for the former one is continually disannulled by the later, 
and this continually by another, and so on indefinitely. 

And tasted, he says, the goodioord of God ; and he does 
not unfold it ; and the powers of the ivorld to come, for to 
live as Angels and to have no need of earthly things, to 
know that this is the means of our introduction to the en- 
joyment of the worlds to come ; this may we learn through 
the Spirit, and enter into those sacred recesses. 

What are the powers of the ivorld to come ? Life eternal, 
ansrelic conversation. Of these then we have alreadv re- 
ceived the earnest through our Faith from the Spirit. Tell 
me then, if after having been introduced into a Palace, and 
having had all things therein entrusted to thee, thou hadst 
then notwithstanding betrayed all, wouldest thou have been 
again entrusted with them ^ ? 

[8.] What then (you say)? Is there no repentance ? There (4) 

h The longer text in Sav. and Ben. nuine text, as also in other works of 

adds, Sevrepcf Se on oh, " and secondly S. Chrys. 

because it is not &c": the shorter text ' The common texts add ra eKe7, 

has only ovZe omitting "secondly." "the things in heaven." But S. Chrys. 

There are many other instances of a is speaking of present privileges here 

similar negligence of Style in the ge- on earth. 

122 Repentance a Medicine. Its vi7'tue and co^nponent parts. 

HoM.9. is repentance, there is however no second baptism : but 

Repentance there is, and great is the force it has, in that it 

is able to set free from the burden of his sins, if he will, 

even him that hath been utterly immersed in sins, and to 

establish in safety him who is in danger, even though he 

should have come unto the very lowest depth of wicked- 

Jer. viii. ness. And this is evident from many places. For, saith 

"*• one, doth not lie that falleth rise again ? or he that turneth 

away, doth not he turn back to [God'] ? It is possible, if we 

have the will, that Christ should be formed in us again : 

Gal. iv. for hear Paul saying. My little children of ivhom I travail 

in birth again, until Christ be formed in you. Only let us 

lay hold on repentance. 

For behold the kindness of God to man ! we ought on 
every ground to have been punished at the first ; in that 
having received the natural law, and also enjoyed innumer- 
able blessings, we have not acknowledged our Master, and 
have lived an unclean life. Yet He not only has not 
punished us, but has even made us partakers of countless 
blessings, just as if we had successfully accomplished some 
great things. Again we fell aw^ay, and not even so does He 
Ingre- punish US, but has given us the medicine of repentance, 
medicine which is Sufficient to put away and blot out all our sins ; 
of repent- provided only that we know the nature of the medicine, 
and in what manner we ought to apply it. 

Of what nature then is the medicine of Repentance ? and 
the first how is it made up ? First, of the condemnation of our 
Fs. xxxu. Q^n sins ^ ; For (saith he) my iniquity have I not hid ;■ And, 
/ will confess against myself mine iniquity unto the Lord, 
and Thou forgavest the impiety of my heart. And again, 
Isaiah Declare thou at the first thy sins, that thou may est bejusti- 
Prov fi^^' ^^d. The righteous man is an accuser of himself at the 
xviii. 17. first speaking. 

the se- Secondly, of great humbleness of mind : For it is like a 

cond golden chain; if one have hold of the beginning, all will 

follow. Because if thou confess thy sin as one ought to 

confess, the soul is humbled. For conscience turning it on 

ifl-uo-Tpe- itself^ causeth it to be ST*bdued. 

fhe third Other things too must we needs add to humbleness of 
^ The common texts add koI a-rrh i^ayopevaeuis, "and [of] from confession." 

Tears, alms, forgive, aid souls and bodies, be meek. 123 

mind if it be such as the blessed David knew, when he said, Heb.vj.g. 
A broken and humbled heart Godivill not despise. For that Ps. li. 17. 
which is broken does not rise up, does not strike, but is 
prepared to be ill-treated and itself riseth not up. Such is 
Contrition of heart : though it be insulted, though it be 
evil entreated, it remaineth quiet, and is not eager to take 

And after humbleness of mind, there is need of intense the fourth 
prayers, of many tears, tears by day, and tears by night : 
for, saith he, every night ivill I wash my bed, I will ivater ib. vi. 6. 
my couch with my tears. I ara weary with my groaning. 
And again. For I have eaten ashes as it were bread, and lb. di. 9. 
mingled my drink with weeping. 

And after prayer thus intense, there is need of much the fifth 
almsgiving : for this it is which especially gives strength 
to the medicine of Repentance. And just as in the case of 
the aids administered by physicians there are medicines 
into which many herbs are put, but one that is essential, 
so also in case of Repentance this herb is the most essen- 
tial, yea, is every thing. For hear what the Divine Scripture 
saith. Give alms, and all things shall be clean. And again, S.Luke 
By almsgiving and acts of faithfulness ^ sins are purged away, prov.xvi. 
And, Water will quench a flaming fire, and alms will do away 6. 
with great sins. iii. so. 

Next not being angry with any one, not bearing malice ; the sixth 
the forgiving all men's trespasses. For, saith one, Man Ib.xxviii. 
retaineth wrath against man, and yet seeketh healing from 
the Lord. Forgive that ye rnay be forgiven. ^:^^^^ 

Also, the converting our brethren from their wandering, t^e • ' 

For, it is said "^ Go thou, and convert thy brethren, that thy seventh 

sins may be forgiven thee. And from one's being in close ^^^j^^j^ 

relations with^ the priests, and if, it is said, a man hath S.James 

committed sins it shall he forgiven him. To stand forward V^^^\^ 

in defence of those who are wronged. Not to retain anger : oIk^'iws 

to bear all things meekly. 

* [9.] Now then, before you learned that it is possible to 

i/calTTtVTeo-ij/. [These same two words which go to mal<e up truth, comp. true 

e\^T]fio(TvvaL Ka\ irlarcis, almsgiving o//<f«/-^ throughout the psalms.] 
and acts of faithfulness, are used by •" This seems to be an expression of 

the Septuagint to translate merc^ anf/ the doctrine of S.James v. 19,20. 

truth in Prov. iii. 3 also, as if TriVrets partially in the language of our Lord, 

were the distinct acts of faithfulness S. Luke xxii. 23. [cf. Acts iii. 19.] 

124 Confession ofsins^one by one, remember them. AlmsJ^orgiveness, 

HoM. 9. have our sins washed away by means of repentance, were 
ye not in an agony of fear, because there is no second 
(5) Washing, and were ye not in despair of yourselves ? But 
now that we have learned by what means Repentance and 
remission is brought to a successful issue, and that we shall 
be able entirely to escape, if we be willing to use it aright, 
what consideration can we possibly obtain, if we do not 
even enter on the thought of our sins ? since if this were 
done, all would be accomplished. 

For as he who has entered the door, is within [the house] ; 
so he who reckons up his own evils will also most certainly 
come to get them cured. But should he say, I am a sinner, 
^KareUos without reckoning them up specifically^, and saying. This 
and this sin have I committed^ he will never leave off, 
confessing indeed continually, but never in earnest caring 
for amendment. For should he have laid down a begin- 
ning, all the rest will unquestionably follow too, if only in 
2 (is %v, one point ^ he have manifested a beginning : for in every 
for all ^^^^ tl^^ beginning and the preliminaries are difficult. This 
then let us lay as a foundation, and all will be smooth 
and easy. 

Let us begin therefore, I entreat you, one with making 
^KaTn<i>€iv ^^^ prayers intense : another with continual weeping : ano- 
serlous- thcr with downcast^ countenance. For not even is this 
ls!^?vii. which is so small a matter, unprofitable ; for / saw (it is 
17, 18. said) that he ivas grieved and went downcast^ and I healed 
his ways. 

But let us all humble our own souls by almsgiving and 
forgiving our neighbours their trespasses, by not remem- 
Remem- bering injuries, nor avenging ourselves. If we continually 
er sms reflect on the things we have done amiss, no external cir- 
cumstances will have power to make us elated : neither 
riches, nor power, nor authority, nor honour ; nay, even 
should we be seated in the imperial chariot itself, we shall 
sigh bitterly : Since even the blessed David was a King, 
Ps. vi. 6. and yet he said. Every night I loill wash my bed, [&c] : and 
he was not at all hurt by the purple robe and the diadem : 
he was not puffed up ; for he knew himself to be a man, 
and inasmuch as his heart had been made contrite, he went 

Vanity of all earthly ; the Consulate. 125 

[10.] For what are all things human ? ashes and dust, . 
and as it were spray before the wind ; a smoke and a 
shadow, and a leaf driven here and there; and a flower; a 
dream, and a tale, and a fable, wind and air vainly puffed 
out and dispersing ; a feather that hath no stay, a stream 
flowing by, or if there be aught of more nothingness than 

For, tell me, what dost thou esteem great ? what dignity 
thinkest thou to be great ? is it that of the Consul ? for 
the many think no dignity greater than that. Let me tell 
thee that he who is not Consul is not a whit inferior to 
him who is in so great splendour, who hath been held in so 
great admiration. Both one and the other are of the same 
dignity ; each of them alike, after a little while, is no more. 

When was he made [Consul] ? for how long a time? 
tell me : for two days ? Nay, this takes place even in 
dreams. But that is [only] a dream, you say. And what 
is this ? for (tell me) what is by day, is it [therefore] not a 
dream ? Why do we not rather call these things a dream ? 
for just as dreams when the day comes on are proved to 
be nothing ; so these things also, when the night comes on, 
are proved to be nothing. For night and day have received 
each an equal portion of time, and have equally divided 
the whole of duration. Therefore as in the day a person 
rejoices not in what happened at night, so neither in the 
night is it possible for him to reap the fruit of what is . 
done in the day. Thou hast been made Consul ? So was 
I in the night ; only I was so in the night, thou in the day. 
And what of this ? Not even so hast thou any advantage 
at all over me, except haply its being said. Such an one is 
Consul, and the pleasure that springs from the words, gives 
him the advantage. 

I mean something of this kind, for I will express it 
more plainly : if I say ' Such an one is Consul,' and bestow 
on him the name, is it not gone as soon as it is spoken ? 
Of such kind also are the things themselves; no sooner 
does the Consul appear, than he is no more. But let us 
suppose [that he is Consul] for a year, or two years, or 
three or four years. Where are they who were ten times 
Consul ? Nowhere. 

126 Earthly glory compared with that of the Saints. 

^"^^•^- But it is not so with Paul. For he was even living con- 
tinually : he did not live one day, nor two, nor ten, and 
twenty; nor thirty [days] ; nor ten and twenty, nor yet 
thirty years — and die. Even the. four hundredth year is 
now past, and still even yet is he illustrious, yea much more 
illustrious than when he was alive. And besides these 
things indeed [are] on earth, but the glory of the saints 
in heaven what discourse could represent ? 

Wherefore I entreat you, let us seek this glory ; let us 
pursue after it, that we may attain it. For this is the true 
glory. Let us henceforth separate ourselves from the things 
of this life, that we may find grace and mercy in Christ 
Jesus our Lord : with whom to the Father, together with 
the Holy Ghost, be glory, power, honour and worship, now 
and for ever, and world without end. i\.men. 


Heb. vi. 7, 8. 

For the Earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft 
upon it, and bring eth forth herbs meet for them by whom 
it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God. But if it bear^ 
thorns and briars it is rejected, and nigh unto cursing, 
whose end is to he burned. 

Let us listen to the oracles of God with fear, with fear 
and much trembling. For (it is said) Set^ve the Lord with Ps.ii. II. 
fear, and rejoice unto Him ivith trembling. But if even our 
joy and our exultation ought to be ivith trembling, of what 
punishment are we not worthy, if we listen not with terror 
to what is said, when the things spoken are themselves 
fearful, such as those now [uttered] ? 

For having said that it is impossible for those ivho have 
fallen away to be baptized a second time, and to receive 
the remission which is [given] through the Washing, and 
having pointed out the awefulness of the case, he goes on 
to say, for land which has drunk in the rain that cometh 
often upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom 
also it is cultivated, partaketh of blessbig from God. But 
if it bear thorns and thistles, it is rejected ^, and near to a i i^sSKijuos 
curse ; ivhose end is for burnina. repro- 


Let us then fear, my beloved ! This threat is not Paul's, 
these are not the words of man : they are the words of 
the Holy Ghost, of Christ that speaketh in him. Is there 

a The received version is necessarily " land which hath drunk in &c partak- 

altered here : S. Chrysostom's com- " eth of blessing- &c. But if it bear 

mentary will be more readily under- " thorns and thistles, it is reprobate, 

stood if it is kept in mind that the exact " and nigh unto a curse, whose end 

translation would be as below : " The " is for burning." 

128 Fearful warnings as to privileges abused. Rain; Thorns. 

HoM. 10. then any one that is clear from these thorns ? And even 
if we were clear, not even so ought we to be confident, 
but to fear and tremble lest at any time thorns should 
spring up in us. But when we are wholly and throughout 
thorns and thistles, whence is it (tell me) that we are con- 
fident ? and are becoming supine ? what is it which makes 
us inert ? If he that thinketh he standeth ought to fear lest 

1 Cor. X. he fall ; for (he saith) Let him that thinketh he standeth, 
take heed lest he fall; he that hath fallen, how anxious 
ought he to be that he may rise up again ! If Paul fears, 

\h.\x.27 . lest that by any means, when he had preached to others, 
himself should be a castaway ; and he who had been so ap- 
proved is afraid lest he should become disapproved"^ : what 
pardon shall we have who are already disapproved, if we 
have no fears, but fulfil our Christianity as a custom, and 

Rom. i. to clear off a duty. Let us then fear, beloved : For the 

^^' lorath of God is revealed from heaven. Let us fear, for it 

is revealed not against impiety only but against all unright- 
eousness. What is against all unrighteousness? [against all] 
both small and great. 

[2.] In this passage he intimates the loving-kindness of 
God towards man : and the teaching [of the Gospel] he 

supra V. calls rain: and what he said above, when for the time ye 

^^* ought to be teachers, this he says here also. Indeed in 

many places the Scripture calls the teaching rain. For (it 

Is. V. 6. says) I will command the clouds that they rain no rain upon 
it, speaking of the vineyard. The same which in another 

Amos place it calls a famine of bread, and a thirst of water. And 

p" Ix^* ^§^^^5 "^^^ river of God is full of waters. 

9. For land, saith he, ivhich hath drunk in the rain that 

Cometh often upon it. Here he shews clearly that they had 
received and had drunk in the word, yea and had often en- 
joyed this, and yet not even so had they profited. For if 
(he means) thou hadst not been tilled, if thou hadst enjoyed 
no rains, the evil would not have been so great. For (it 

S.John is said) If I had not come and spoken unto them they had 

XV. 22. 

^ aSoKi/xos. In the original it is one accepted. It means rejected after test- 

and the same word which inth^text, ing-, as in ease of metals: which may 

Heb. vi. 8, is translated rejected, in 1 take place, as S. Chrys. implies in this 

Cor. ix. 27, a castaway ; it is in this passage, either here or hereafter ; 

clause opposed to SdKifios, approved, either for a time or for eternity. 

Thovns )iot to be left : fruits grow because God bids them. 129 

7iot had sin. But if thou hast often drank and received Heb.vj.s. 
[nourishment], wherefore hast thou brought forth other 
things instead of fruits ? For (it is said) I waited that it Is. v. 2. 
should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth thorns. 

Thou seest that everywhere the Scripture calleth sins 
thorns. For David also saith, I ivas turned into mourning Ps.xxxii. 
when a, thorn ivas fixed in me. For it does not simply lxX) 
come on us, but is fixed in ; and even if but a little of it 
remain in, even if we take it not out entirely, that little 
portion of itself in like manner causes pain, just as in the 
case of a thorn. And why do I say, ^ that little of itself? ' 
even after it has been taken out, it leaves therein for a long 
time the pain of the wound. And much care and treatment 
is necessary, that we may be perfectly freed from it. For 
it is not enough merely to take away the sin, it is necessary 
also to treat the wounded place. 

I fear however that the things said [here] apply to us 
more than to others. For, he saith, land which hath drunk 
in the rain that cometh often upon it. We are ever drinking, 
ever hearing, but ivhen the sun is risen we straightway lose S. Matt, 
our moisture, and for this cause we bring forth thorns. ^"^* ^' 
What then are the thorns ? Let us hear Christ saying, that 
the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke lb. 22. 
the word, and it becometh unfruitful. 

[3.] For land which hath drunk in the rain that cometh 
oft upon it, he saith, and bringeth forth meet herbs. Because (2) 
nothing is so meet as purity of life, nothing so suitable as 
the most excellent life, nothing so meet as virtue. 

And bringeth forth (saith he) herbs meet for them by 
whomit is cultivated, partakes of blessing from God. Here 
he says that God is the cause of all things, giving the 
heathen a quiet blow, who ascribed the production of fruits 
to the power of the earth. For (saith he) it is not the hands 
of the husbandman which stir up the earth to bear fruits, 
but the command which comes from God. For this cause 
he ssiys,2)artakes of blessing from God. 

And see how in speaking of the thorns, he said not, 
"bringing forth ^ thorns," nor did he use this word expres- ^rUTovaa 
sive of what is good and useful ; but what said he ? bearing ^ ^ iK<pe. 
[literally putting out] thorns, as if one should say, ' forcing ^''^^* 
out,' 'throwing out.' 


130 Still room for hope. The Apostle encourages them* 

HoM. 10. Rejected {he saith) and nigh unto a curse. Oh! how 
great consolation is there in this word ! For he said nigh 
unto a curse, not " a curse/' Now he that hath not yet fallen 
into a curse, but is come to be near [thereto], may also 
come to be far off [therefrom] . 

And not by this word only did he encourage them, but 
also by what follows. For he did not say rejected and nigh 
unto a curse, " which shall be" burned," but what then ? Of 
which the end is for 6z^r/im^, if he continue [such] (he means) 
unto the end. So that, if we cut out and burn the thorns, 
we shall be able to enjoy those good things innumerable 
and to become approved, and to partake of blessing. 
\} rplpo- And with good reason did he call sin a thistle ^, saying 
a^burrl ^^^^ which beareth thorns and thistles ; for on whatever side 
you lay hold on it, it wounds and stings [you], and it is 
unpleasant even to look at. 

[4.] Having therefore sufficiently rebuked them, and 
alarmed and wounded them, he in turn soothes them, so 
as not to cast them down too much, and make them supine. 
For he that strikes one that is dull, makes him more dull. 
So then he neither flatters them throughout, lest he should 
make them supine, nor does he wound them throughout, 
but having inserted a little which was calculated to wound 
them, he applies much that is of a soothing and healing 
nature in what follows. 

For what saith he ? We say not these things, as having 
already condemned you, nor as thinking you to be full of 
thorns, but in the fear that this should come to pass. For 
it is better to terrify you by words, that ye may not suffer 
by the realities. And this is specially a sign of Paul's 

Moreover he did not say. We think, or, we conjecture, 
or, we expect, or, we hope, but what ? (ver. 9) But be- 
loved, we are persuaded better things of you, and things 
that accompany salvation, though we thus speak. Which 
Gal. V. word he also used in writing to the Galatians : But I am 
^^' persuaded of you in the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise 
minded. For in tha1> instance, inasmuch as they were 
greatly to be condemned and he could not praise them 
from things present, he does it from things future [that 

He stimulates them to increased earnestness, 131 

ye will be none otherwise minded, lie says) : he said not, ye . 
are, but ye will be none otherwise minded. But in this 
place he encourages them from things present. We are 
persuaded better things of you, beloved, and things that be- 
long to salvation, though we thus speak. And since he was 
not able to say so much [as he would] from things present, 
he confirms his consolation from things past ; and says, 

ver. 10. For God is not unrighteous to forget your work, 
and ^ the love, which ye have shewed towards His name, in 
that ye have ministered unto the saints and do minister. O 
how did he here recover their spirit, and give them fresh 
strength, by reminding them of former things, and bring- 
ing them to the necessity of not anticipating that God 
had forgotten [them] . (For he cannot but sin who is not 
fully assured concerning his hope, and says that God is un- 
righteous. Accordingly he obliged them by all means to look 
forward to those future things. For a man who has become 
desponding owing to the present state of things, and has 
given up exerting himself, may be restored by [the prospect 
of] thiTigs future.) As he himself also said in writing to the 
Galatians, Ye did run ivell : And again Have ye suffered so Gal. v. 7. 
many things in vain ? if it be yet in vain. "^* 

And as in this place he puts the commendation together 
with the reproof, saying, When for the time ye ought to be supra v. 
teachers, so also there, / marvel that ye are so soon re- Gal. i. 6. 
moved. The commendation [is mingled] with reproof. For 
it is respecting great things that we marvel, when they fail. 
Thou seest that praise is concealed under the accusation 
and the blame. 

Nor does he say this concerning himself only, but also 
concerning all. For he said not, I am persuaded, but we 
are persuaded better things of you, even good things (he 
means). He says this either in regard to matters of con- 
duct, or to the recompense. 

In the next place, having said above, that it is rejected 
and nigh unto a curse, and that it shall be for burning, he 
says, we do not by any means say this of you. For God 
is not unrighteous to forget your work, and your love. 

<= Sav. and Ben. here, and in other These words are probably not part of 
places where the text is cited, insert the sacred text. They are not referred 
Tov kSttov the labour of love &c. to by S. Chrysostom. 

K 2 

132 In tender language he exhorts them as to the future. 

HoM. 10. [5.] With what object then did we say these things ? 
(ver. 11, 12) But we desire that each of you shew the same 
zeal for the full assurance of hope unto the end, that ye 
be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and 
patience inherit the promises. 
(3) We desire, he says, and we do not therefore merely 
labour for, or even so far as words go, wish this. But what? 
We desire that ye should hold fast to virtue, not as con- 
demning your former conduct (he means), but fearing for 
the future. And again he did not say, ' not as condemning 
your former conduct, but your present ; for ye have fainted, 
ye are become too indolent;' but see how gently he indicated 
it, and yet at the same time did not wound them. 

For what saith he ? But tve desire that each of you shew 
forth the same zeal unto the end. For this is the admirable 
part of Paul's wisdom, that he does not expressly say that 
they had given in, that they had become negligent. For 
when he says. We desire that each of you — it is as if one 
should say, I wish thee to be always in earnest ; and such 
as thou wert before such to be now also, and for th^ time 
to come. For this made his reproof more gentle and easy 
to be received. 

And he did not say, '^ I will that," which would have been 
expressive of the authority of a teacher, but what is ex- 
pressive of the affection of a father, and what is more than 
" willing," ive desire. All but saying. Pardon us, even if 
we say what is somewhat distasteful. 

We desire that each of you shew forth the same zeal, for 

the full assurance of your hope unto the end. Hope (he 

means) carries us through : it recovers us again. Be not 

wearied out, do not despair, lest your hope should be in 

vain. For he that worketh that which is good hopeth 

also that which is good, and never at any time despairs of 


^aK{ji)}v That ye may not become dull"^. Still '^ that ye 77iay not 

supra V. become; and yet he said above, seei7ig ye are become diill ^ of 

^^' hearing. Observe however how he limited the dullness 

^ vuiQpoi. The same word is translat- "without quickness in perception or 
ed slothful and dull in tliese two pas- energy in action.'^ 
sages. It means " sluggish," " stupid" 

His tenderness embraces eachr Patient loaiting. 133 

to the hearing. And in this place he insinuates the very 
same thing ; instead of " that ye may not continue in it," 
he says [this] . But again he leads it on into that future 
time for which as yet they had no account to render; say- 
ing in effect "that ye may not become too slothful:'^ since 
for that which is not yet come we could not be subject 
to account. For he who in regard to the present time is 
exhorted to be in earnest, as being remiss, will perhaps 
become even more slothful, but he who is exhorted with 
reference to the future, not so. 

We desire (saith he) that each of you. Great is his 
affection for them : he cares equally for great and small ; 
moreover he knows all, and overlooks no one, but displays 
the same tender care for each, and equal value for all : from 
which cause also he the rather persuaded them to receive 
what was distasteful in his words. 

That ye be not slothful, he saith. For just as inactivity is 
hurtful to the body, so also inactivity as to what is good 
renders the soul more supine and feeble. 

[6.] But followers (he saith) of them, ivho through faith 
and patience inherit the promises. And who they are, he 
says afterwards. He said therefore, "Imitate your own 
former well-doings." Then, lest they should say. What 
[well-doing] ? he leads them back to the Patriarch : bring- 
ing before them examples of well-doing indeed from their 
own history ^, but of the thought of being forsaken, from ^ oUoe^v 
the Patriarch ; that they might not suppose that they were 
disregarded and forsaken as being of no account, but might 
know that this is [the portion] of the very noblest men to 
make the journey of life through temptations ; and that God 
has thus dealt with great and admirable men. 

Now we ought (he says) to bear all things with patience : 
for this also is believing : whereas if He say that He gives 
and thou immediately receivest, how hast thou also be- 
lieved? since in that case this no longer [comes] of thy 
faith, but of Me, He says, who have given [what I promise 
at once] . But if on the other hand I say that I give, and 
give after an hundred years, and thou hast not despaired ; 
then hast thou accounted Me worthy to be believed, then 
thou hast the right opinion concerning Me. Thou seest 

134 " Ministering to the Saints^ 

HoM. 10. that oftentimes unbelief arises not from want of hope only, 
but also from faintheartedness^ and want of patience, not 
from condemning him who made the promise. 

For God (he saith) is not unrighteous to forget your love 
and the zeal which ye have shewed toward His Name, in 
that ye have ministered unto the saints, and yet do minister. 
He testifies great things of them, not deeds only, but deeds 
2 Cor. done with alacrity, which he says also in another place, and 
^"*' ^' not only so, but they gave themselves also to the Lord and 
to us. 

Which (he saith) z/e have shewed toivardHisName,in 
that ye have ministered to the saints, and yet do minister. 
See how again he soothes them, by adding and yet do mi- 
nister. Still even at this time (he says) ye are ministering, 
and he raises them up by shewing that they had done [what 
they did] not to them [the saints], but to God. Which ye 
have shelved (saith he) ; and he said not " unto the saints," 
but toivards God, for this is toward His Name. It is for 
His Name's sake (he means) that ye have done all. He 
^airoXav- therefore who willingly takes from, you the fruit of ^ so 
'^^ great zeal and love, will not at any time despise you nor 

forget you. 

(4) [7.] Hearing these things, let us, I beseech you, minister 
to the saints. For every believer is a saint in that he is a 
believer. Though he be a person living in the world, he 
1 Cor. is a saint. For (he saith) the unbelieving husband hath been 
^"' * sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife by the hus- 
ba7id. See how the faith makes the saintship. If then we 
see even a secular person in misfortune, let us stretch out 
a hand [to him] . Let us not be good to those only who 
dwell in the mountains ; they are indeed saints both in life 
and in faith ; these others however are saints by their faith, 
and many of them also in life. Let us not, if we see a 
monk [cast] into prison, in that case go in ; but if it be a 
secular person, refuse to go in. This last is also a saint 
and a brother. 

What then (you say^ if he be unclean and polluted [are 
S. Matt, we to help him] ? Listen to Christ saying, Judge not that 
vh. 1. ye be not judged. Do thou act for God's sake. Nay what 

ShewkindnesseventoJewsandheathens; the Good Samaritan, 135 

am I saying ? Even if we see a heathen in misfortune, we 
ought to shew kindness to him, and to every man without 
exception who is in misfortunes, and much more to a be- 
liever who is in the world. Listen to Paul, saying. Do Gal. vi. 
good unto all men, but especially to those who are of the ^^' 
household of faith. 

But I know not whence this [notion] has been intro- 
duced, or whence this custom hath prevailed. For he that 
only seeks after the solitaries, and is willing to do good to 
them alone, and with regard to the others on the contrary 
is over-curious in his enquiries, and says, '^unless he be 
^ worthy % unless he be righteous, unless he work miracles, 
^ I stretch out no hand : ' [such an one] has taken away the 
greater part of charity ^, yea and in time he will in turn ^ f^^^Mo- 
utterly destroy the very thing itself. And yet that is merciful- 
charity which [is shewn] towards sinners, towards the guilty. "^^^ ^T 
For this is charity, not the pitying those who have done ing 
well, but those who have done wrong. 

[8.] And that thou mayest understand this, listen to 
the Parable: A certain man (it saith) went down from Je- S.Lukex. 
rusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves : and when they ' ^' 
had beaten him, they left him by the way-side, having bruised 
him exceedingly. A certain Levite came, and when he saw 
him, he passed by ; A priest came, and when he saw him, 
he hastened past; then a certain Samaritan came, and great 
was the care he bestowed upon him. For he bound up his lb. 34. 
ivoimds, dropped oil on them, set him upon his ass, brought 
him to the inn, said to the host Take care of him (and observe lb. 35. 
his great liberality) ; and I, says he, will give thee whatso- 
ever thou shall expend. Who then is his neighbour? He, lb. 37. 
it is said, that shewed mercy on him. Go thou then also, 
He saith, and do likeivise. And consider what a parable 
He spake. He said not that a Jew did [so and so] to a 
Samaritan, but that a Samaritan displayed all that liber- 
ality. Having then heard these things, let us not have 
care only for those that are of the household of faith, and Gal. vi. 

e 4av iJ-v V ^I'os, eau fi^ 77 SiKaios. read by Mutianus. Ifit be omitted, the 

Mr. Field retains /i^ in these clauses, passage would run thus, " and says, If 

in accordance with the common edi- " he be worthy, if he be righteous [I 

tions, though all theMSS. omit the ne- " will help him] . Unless he work mi- 

gative in the fii'st clause, and the best " racles I stretch out no hand " &c. ; 

MSS. in the second also, and it was not which seems to give a good sense. 

136 Enquire not out, nor speak of the faults of the afflicted. 

HoM^JO. neglect the rest. In this way then thyself also, if thou see 
any man in affliction, be not curious to enquire further. 

^rbStKai'- His being in affliction involves a just claim on thy aid ^. 

fioT}eda5 F^^ if when thou seest an ass choking thou raisest him 
up, and dost not curiously enquire whose he is, much more 
about a man one ought not to be over-curious in enquiring 
whose he is. He is God's, be he heathen or be he Jew ; 
since even if he is an unbeliever, still he needs assistance. 
For if indeed it had been committed to thee to enquire and 
to judge, thou wouldst have well said thus, but, as it is, his 
misfortune does not suffer thee to search out these things. 
For if even about men in good health it is not right to be 
over-curious, nor to be a busy body in other men^s matters, 
much less about those that are in affliction. 

[9.] But on another view what [shall we say] ? Didst thou 
see him in prosperity, in high esteem, that thou shouldst 
say that he is a wicked and worthless person ? But if thou 
seest him in affliction, do not say that he is wicked. For 
when a man is in high credit, we fairly say these things ; 
but when he is in calamity, and needs help, it is not right 
to say that he is wicked. For this is cruelty, inhumanity 
and arrogance. Tell me what was ever more iniquitous 
than the Jews. But nevertheless while God punished them, 
and that justly, yea, very justly, yet He approved of those 
who compassionated them, and those who rejoiced over 

Amosvi. them He punished. For they ivere not grieved, it is said, 
at the affliction of Joseph. 

Prov. And again it is said Redeem [Ransom'] those who are 

XXIV. 11. y^fj^^y iQ ^g slain : spare not. (He said not, enquire curiously, 
and learn who he is ; and yet, for the most part, they who 
are led away to execution are wicked,) for this is in a special 
way a charity. For he that doeth good to a friend, doeth 
it not altogether for God's sake : but he that [doeth good] 
to one who is unknown to him, this man acts purely for 
God's sake. Do not spare thy money, even if it be ne- 
cessary to spend all, yet give. 

2 hyxo/xe- But we, when we see persons in extreme distress ", bewail- 

vovs JYig themselves, suffering things more grievous than ten 

thousand deaths, and oftentimes unjustly, we [I say] are 

sparing of our money^ and unsparing of our brethren ; we 

Hopeful patience of the fisherman, and husbandman. 137 

are careful of lifeless things, and neglect the living soul. 
And yet Paul says, in meekness instruct those that oppose 'i Tim. W. i 

themselves, if peradventure God should give them repent- ' ' i 

ance to the acknowledging of the truth, and they should | 

awaken out of the snare of the devil who have been taken \ 

captive by him, at His will. If peradventure, saith he ; 
thou seest of how great long-suffering the word is full. 

Let us also imitate Him, and despair of no one. For 
the fishermen too, when they have cast many times [sup- \ 

pose it], have not succeeded; but afterwards having cast I 

again, have gained all. So we also expect that ye will all i 

at once shew to us ripe fruit. For the husbandm too,na 
after he has sown, waits one day or two days, and is a long 
while in expectation: and all at once he sees the fruits 
springing up on every side. This we expect will take place 
in your case also by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with whom to the Father and also to the Holy I 

Ghost be glory might honour now and for ever and world 
without end. Amen. 


Heb. vi. 13—16. 

For when God made promise to Abraham, because He could 
swear by no greater, He sware by Himself, saying, Surely 
blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply 
thee. And so after he had patiently endured, he obtained 
the promise. For men verily swear by the greater, and 
an oath for confirmation is to them the end of all strife. 

Having boldly reflected on the faults of the Hebrews, 
and sufficiently alarmed them, he consoles them, first, by 
his commendations, and secondly (which also is the stronger 
ground), by the [thought] that they would certainly attain 
the objects of their hope. Moreover he draws his consola- 
tion, not from things future, but again from the past, which 
indeed had more power to persuade them. For as in the 
case of punishment, he alarms them rather by those [viz. 
things future], so also in the case of the prizes [set before 
them], he encourages them by these [viz. by things past], 
shewing [herein] God's way of dealing. And that is, not 
to bring in what has been promised immediately, but 
after a long interval of time. And this He does, both to 
present the greatest proof of His own power, and also to 
lead us to Faith, that they who are lining in tribulation 
without receiving .the promises, or the rewards, may not 
faint under their troubles. 

And omitting all [the rest], though he had many whom 

he might have mentioned, he brought forward Abraham 

both on account of the dignity of his person, and because 

this had occurred in a spebial way in his case. 

Infra xi. ^^^^ Y^* ^^ *^^^ ^^^ ^^ *^^^ epistle he says, that all these, 

13. having seen the j^romises afar off, and having embraced 

Abraham'' s patient waiting. He sware by Himself. 139 

thera, received them not, that they without us should not be HE.vii.i6. 
made perfect. For when God made promise to Abraham, Icwq'^^* 
(he saith [here]), since He could swear by no greater, He 
sware by Himself, saying. Surely blessing I ivill bless thee, 
and multiplying I will multiply thee. And thus after patiently 
enduring, he attained the promise. How then does he say 
at the end [of the Epistle] that he received not the pro- 
mises, and here, that having patiently endured he obtained 
the promise ? In what sense did he not receive ? in what 
sense did he obtain ? He is not speaking of the same things 
in this place and in the other, but makes his consolation 
twofold. God made promises to Abraham, and whereas 
after a long space of time He gave the things [spoken of] 
in this place, those others [He has] not [given] yet. 

And so after he had patiently endured, he obtained the 

promise. Seest thou that the promise alone did not effect 

the whole, but the patient waiting as well ? In this place 

he alarms them, pointing out that oftentimes a promise is 

hindered of its effect through faintheartedness ^. And this i hxiyo. 

he had indeed shewn through [the instance of] the [Jewish] '/'"X'"" 

people : for inasmuch as they were fainthearted, for that 

cause they obtained not the promise. But now he exhibits 

the contrary, and that in the case of Abraham. Afterwards 

near the end [of the Epistle] he proves something more 

also : [viz.] that even though they had patiently endured, 

they did not attain ; and yet not even so are they indignant. 

[2.] For men verily sivear by the greater, and an Oath 

for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. But God 

because He could swear by no greater, sivare by Himself, 

Well, who then is He that sware unto Abraham ? Is it 

not the Son ? No, saith one. Yea indeed most certainly 

it was He: however I shall not dispute [thereon]. So 

when He [the Son] sweareth the same oath. Verily, verily, 

I say unto you, is it not plain that it was from His not 

being able to swear by any greater ? For as the Father 

sware, so also the Son sweareth by Himself, saying. Verily, 

verily, I say unto you. He here reminds them also of the 

oaths of Christ, which He was constantly uttering. Verily, s. John 

verily, I say unto thee, he that believeth on Me shall never die. '^^' ^^• 

What is, And an oath for confirmation is to them- an end 

140 God's condescension, a?id accommodatio?i to our iveahiess. 

HoM.ii. of all strife? it is instead of, "by this every doubtful ques- 
tion is solved : " not this, or this, but every one. 

God, however, ought to have been believed eA- en without 
an oath: (ver. 17) wherein (saith he) God being willing 
more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the im- 

1 6>fo-t- mutability of His counsel, confirmed it [lit. mediated ^] by 
an oath. In these words he comprehends also the believers. 
For this cause he mentions also this pro^nise which was 
made to us [Christians] in common [with them]. He me- 
diated (saith he) by an oath. Here again he says that the 
Son was mediator between men and God. 

(ver. 18) That by two immutable things, in which it was 
impossible that God should lie. What are these two? The 
speaking and promising; and the adding an oath to the 
promise. For inasmuch as among men that which is [con- 
firmed] by an oath is thought more worthy of credit, on 
this account He added that also. 
(2) Thou seest that He regardeth not His own dignity, but 
how He may persuade men ; and He endures to have un- 
worthy things said concerning Himself. That is [He did 
this] wishing to impart full assurance. And in the case of 
Abraham indeed [the Apostle] shews that the whole was of 
God, not of his patient enduring, inasmuch as He even 
endured to add an oath, since He by whom men swear, by 
Him also God sivare, that is by Himself. They however 
swear [by Him] as one greater [than themselves], but He 
as by one not greater. And yet He did it. For it is not 
the same thing for man to swear by himself, and for God 
[to do so]. For man has no power over himself. 

Thou seest then that this is said not more [with refer- 
ence] to Abraham than to ourselves : that we (saith he) 
might have strong consolation, ivho have fled for refuge to 
lay hold on the hope set before us. 

Here too again % having patiently endured he attained the 
promise. • 

2 €7rej5rj Now lic mcans, and he did not say "when" He swore.^' 

" at the 

very time * This ohservation seems to be siig- on the Apostle's statement that this 

that" gestetl by the words the hope seij)e- oath was made that we might have 

fore t(s : i.e. this is another instance consolation, we, now, at this time ; 

of obtaining' a futm'e blessing by pati- not Abraham, to whom the oath was 

ent waiting-. The next clause bears originally made. 

Hope as an anchor keeps the soul from drifting. 141 

But what the oath is, he plainly shewed, by speaking of the 
swearing by a greater. But since the race of men is hard 
of belief^ He condescends to the same [things] with our- 
selves. As then for our sake He swears, although it be 
unworthy of Him that He should not be believed, so also 
did [the Apostle] make that other statement : He learned supra v. 
from the things lohich He suffered, inasmuch as men think ^' 
this more worthy of reliance — the going through the actual 
experience [of things] . 

What is the hope set before us ? from these [past events] 
(saith he) we conjecture the future. For if these came to 
pass after so long a time, so certainly these others will. So 
that the things which happened in regard to Abraham give 
us confidence also concerning the things that are yet to 

[3.] (ver. 19, 20) Which \hope'\ we have as an anchor of 
the soul both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that 
within the veil : ivhither the forerunner is for us entered, 
even Jesus, made High Priest for ever after the order of 
Melchisedec. He points out, that whilst we are still in the 
world, and not yet departed from [this] life, we are already 
among the things that have been promised. For through 
hope we are already in heaven. He had said, '' Wait ; for it 
shall surely be." Afterwards giving them full assurance, he 
saith," nay rather by hope" [&c] \ And he said not, " We 
are within," but " It hath entered within," which plainly 
was more true and more persuasive. For just as the anchor 
when it is dropped from the vessel does not allow it to be 
carried about, even if ten thousand winds agitate it, but 
being fastened and dropt makes it steady, so also does hope. 

And see how exceedingly suitable an image he has dis- 
covered : For he said not. Foundation ; which would not 
have been suitable ; but. Anchor. For that which is on the 
surf, and seems not to be very firmly fixed, stands on the 
water as upon dry land, and is shaken and yet is not 
shaken. For in regard to those who are very firm, and 
philosophic, Christ with good reason made that statement, 
saying. Whosoever [&c.] hath built his house on a rock. s. Matt. 
But in respect of those who are giving way, and who ought ^'"' ^^' 
^ Sav. and Ben. add ^Stj eVuxere, " ye have already attained it." 

142 Hope a needed anchor. Forerunner includes us, 

HoM. 11. to be carried through by hope, Paul hath suitably set down 
this. For the surge and the great storm toss the boat; 
but hope suffers it not to be carried hither and thither, 
although winds innumerable agitate it : so that, unless we 
had had this [hope] we should have long since been sunk 
in the sea. Nor is it only in things spiritual, but also in 
the affairs of this life, that one may find the power of hope 
great. For instance, in merchandise, in husbandry, in a 
military expedition, unless a person from the first sets this 
before him, he would not even touch any work. But he 
said not simply Anchor, but sure and stedfast [i.e.] not 
shaken. Which enter eth into that within the veil; instead 
of "which reacheth through even to heaven.'^ 

[4.] Then after this' he introduced the Faith also, that 
there might not only be hope, but an exceeding real and 
true [hope]. For after the oath he sets down another 
thing too, even demonstration by facts, in that the fore- 
runner is for us entered in, even Jesus. But a forerunner is 
a forerunner of some one, as John was of Christ. 

Now he did not simply say. He is entered in, but where 
He is entered in a forerunner for us, as though we also ought 
to attain to it. For there is no great interval between the 
forerunner and those who follow : otherwise he would not 
be a forerunner at all ; since the forerunner and those who 
follow ought to be in the same road, and to arrive after 
[each other]. 

Being made an High Priest for ever after the order, he 
saith, of Melchisedec. Here is also another consolation, if 
our High Priest is on high, and far better than those among 
the Jews, not in the kind [of Priesthood] only, but also in 
the place, and the tabernjicle, and the covenant, and the 
person [of the Priest] . And this also is spoken with refer- 
ence to that which, is according to the flesh. 

(3) [5.] , It is right then that those whose High Priest He 

is, should be very greatly superior. And as the difference 
is great between Aaron and Christ, so great should that be 
, , ^ which is between us and the Jews. For see, we have our 
2 evaia victim ^ on high, our priest on high, our sacrifice^ on high : 
oVsacrif ^^* ^^ bring such sacrifices as can be offered on that altar, 

Sphntual sacrifices preferred from the beginning. 143 

no longer sheep and oxen, no longer blood and steamy 
savour. All these things have been done away ; and there 
has been brought in in their stead the reasonable service. Rom. xii. 
But what is the reasonable service? the [offerings made] ^' 
through the soul; those made through the spirit f God, it s.John 
is said, is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must ivorship ^^'* ^'^^ 
Him in spirit and in truth); things which have no need of a 
body, no need of instruments, nor of special places, whereof 
each one is himself the Priest, such as, moderation, tem- 
perance, mercifulness, enduring ill-treatment, long-suffer- 
ing, humbleness of mind. 

These sacrifices one may see in the Old [Testament] 
also, shadowed out beforehand from the first. Offer to God, Ps. iv. 5. 
it is said, a sac7'ifice of righteousness ; Offer a sacrifice of Ps. 1. 14. 
praise ; and, a sacrifice of praise shall glorify Me, and, the lb. 23. 
sacrifice of God is a broken spirit ; and ivhat doth the Lord ^^'^ ^■. g 
require of thee but to hearken to Him.^ Burnt-offerings and Ps.xl.6,7. 
sacrifices for sin Thou hast had no pleasure in : then I said, 
Lo I come to do Thy ivill, O God I and again. To what pur- Jerem. 
pose do ye bring the incense from Sheba? Take thou away Xmos V 
from Me the sound of thy songs, and I ivill not hear the 23. 
melody of thy viols. But instead of these I will have mercy 
and not sacrifice. Thou seest with what kind of sacrifices infra xiii. 
God is well pleased. Thou seest also that already from the ^^' 
first the one class have given place, and these others have 
come in their stead. 

These therefore let us bring, for those other indeed are 
[the offerings] of wealth and of persons who have [posses- 
sions], but these of virtue : those from without, these from 
within : those any chance person even might perform ; these 
only a few. And as much as a man is superior to a sheep, 
so much is this sacrifice superior to that ; for here thou 
offerest thy soul as a victim. 

[6.] And other sacrifices also there are, which are indeed 
whole burnt-offerings, the bodies of the martyrs : there 
both soul and body [are offered] . These have a great sa- 
vour of a sweet smell. Thou also art able, if thou wilt, to 
bring" a sacrifice such as this. 

For what, if thou dost not burn thy body in the fire ? 
yet in a different fire thou canst ; for instance, in that of 

144 The sacrifices of martyrdom; Self-denial; alms-giving. 

HoMji. voluntary poverty^ in that of affliction. For to have it in 
one's power to spend one's days in luxury and expense, 
and yet to take up a life of toil and bitterness, and to mor- 
tify the body, is not this a whole burnt -offering ? Do thou 
mortify thy body, and crucify it, and thou shalt thyself 
also receive the crown of this martyrdom. For what in 
the other case the sword accomplishes, that in this case let 
a willing mind effect. ^ Let not the desire of wealth burn, 
or possess you. On the contrary let this unreasonable 
appetite itself be utterly consumed and quenched by the 
fire of the Spirit ; let it be cut in pieces by the sword of 
the Spirit. 

This is an excellent sacrifice, not needing a priest, but 
only himself who brings it. This is an excellent sacrifice, 
performed indeed below, but forthwith taken up on high. 
Are we not amazed that of old time fire used to come down 
and consume all ? It is possible now also that fire may 
come down far more wonderful than that, and consume all 

' rh. Trpo- fi^Q presented offerings ^ : nay rather, not consume, but 
bear them up to heaven. For it does not reduce them 
to ashes, but offers them as gifts to God. 

[7.] Of such a kind were the offerings of Cornelius. 

Actsx. YoY (it is said) thy prayers and thine alms are come up for 
a manorial before God. Thou seest [this] most excellent 
union. Then are we heard, when we ourselves also hear 

Prov. the poor who come to us. He (it is said) that stoppeth his 
ears that he may not hear the poor, his prayer God will not 

Ps. xl.l. hearken to. Blessed is he that considereth the poor and 
needy : the Lord will deliver him in the evil day. But 
what day is evil except that Day, which is an evil day to 
sinners ? 

What is meant by he that considereth ? He that under- 
standeth what it is to be a poor man, that has become 
thoroughly acquainted with the affliction of the poor man. 
For he that has become acquainted with his affliction, will 
certainly and immediately have compassion on him. When 
thou seest a poor man, do not hasten past, but immediately 
reflect what thou wouldct have been, hadst thou been he. 
What wouldst thou not have wished that all should do 
for thee ? He that considereth (saith he). Reflect that he is 

Si7i and clanger of not sympathising with the Poor, 145 

a free-man like thyself, and shares the same noble birth ^ 
with thee, and possesses all things in common with thee ; 
and yet oftentimes he is not on a level even with thy dogs. 
On the contrary, while they have their full, he often-times 
lies down to sleep in hunger, and the free-man is more 
dishonoured than thy slaves. 

But they perform needful services for thee. What, I ask, 
are these ? That they serve thee well ? Suppose then I 
shew that this [poor man] too performs services in thy 
need, far greater than they do. For he will stand by thee 
in the Day of judgement, and will deliver thee from the 
fire. What do all thy slaves do that is like this ? When 
Tabitha died, who raised her up ? the slaves who stood 
around or the poor ? But thou art not willing to put the 
free-man on an equality even with thy slaves. The frost 
is hard, and the poor man is cast [on the ground] in rags, 
well-nigh dead, with his teeth chattering, both by his looks 
and his dress calculated to move thee : and thou passest 
by, warm and full of drink; and how dost thou expect 
that God should deliver thee when thou art in misfortune ? 

And oftentimes thou sayest this too : " If it had been 
myself, and I had found one that had done many wrong 
things, I would have forgiven him ; and does not God for- 
give ?'' Say not this. Him that has done thee no wrong, 
whom thou art able to deliver, him thou neglectest. How 
shall He forgive thee, who art sinning against Him ? Is 
not this deserving of hell ? 

And how amazing! Oftentimes a body that is dead, 
insensible, no longer perceiving the honour [done to it], 
thou adornest with vestments innumerable, of varied colours 
and wrought with gold ; whilst that which is in pain, and 
lamenting, and tormented, and racked, by hunger and frost, 
thou neglectest; and givest more to vain glory, than to 
the fear of God. 

[8.] And would that it stopped here; but immediately 
accusations are brought against him who applies [for aid] ? 
For why does he not work (you say) ? and why is he to be 
maintained in idleness ? But (tell me) is it by working 
that thou hast what thou hast, didst thou not receive it as 
an inheritance from thy fathers ? And even if thou dost 


146 Charges brought against beggars cruel and foolish, 

HoM.ii. work, is this a reason why thou shouldest reproach an- 
other ? Hearest thou not what Paul saith ? For after 

2 Thess. saying, He that worketh not, neither let him eat, he says, 

lb. 13. ^^^ y^^ ^^ y^ ^^^ weary in ivell doing. 

(4) But what say they ? He is an impostor^. What sayest 
eineeT'ns thou, o man ? callest thou him an impostor, for the sake 
of a single loaf or of a garment ? But (you say) he will 
sell it immediately. And dost thou manage all thy affairs 
to perfection ? But what ? are all poor through idleness ? 
is no one so from a shipwreck ? none from lawsuits ? none 
from being robbed ? none from dangers ? none from ill- 
ness ? none from any other difficult circumstances ? If 
however we hear any one bewailing such evils, and crying 
out vehemently, and looking up naked towards heaven, 
and with his hair long, and clad in rags, at once we call 
him. The impostor ! the deceiver ! the swindler ! Art 
thou not ashamed ? Whom dost thou call impostor ? Give 
nothing, and do not accuse the man. 

But (you say) he has means, and yet makes himself this 
figure. This is a charge against thyself, not against him. 
He knows that he has to deal with cruel people, with wild 
beasts rather than with men, and that, even if he utter a 
pitiable story, he attracts no one's attention : And on this 
account he is forced to assume also a more miserable guise, 
that he may melt thy soul. If we see a person coming to 
beg in a respectable dress. This is an impostor (you say), 
and he comes in this way that he may be supposed to be 
of good birth. If we see one in the contrary guise, him 
too we think dishonest. What then are they to do ? O 
the cruelty, O the inhumanity ! 

And why (you say) do they expose their maimed limbs ? 
Because of thee. If we were compassionate, they would 
have no need of these artifices : if they persuaded us at the 
first application, "they would not have adopted so many arti- 
fices. W>xO is there so wretched, as to be willing to cry out 
so much, as to be willing to behave in an unseemly way, as 
to be willing to make public lamentation, with his wife 
destitute of clothing, wi^h his children, to sprinkle ashes on 
himself. How much worse than poverty are these things ? 

Our own need of food and of forgiveness. 147 

Yet on account of them not only are they not pitied, but He.v-.'jo. 
are even accused by us. 

[9.] Shall we still then be indignant, because when we 
pray to God, we are not listened to ? Shall we then still be 
vexed, because when we entreat we do not persuade ? Do 
we not tremble for fear, my beloved ? 

But (you say) I have often given. And art thou not 
always eating ? and dost thou drive away thy children that 
are often begging of thee ? O the shamelessness ! Dost thou 
call a poor man shameless ? And whilst thou art not shame- 
less when plundering, he is shameless when begging for 
bread ! Considerest thou not how great are the necessities 
of the belly ? Dost not thou do all things for this ? dost thou 
not for this neglect things spiritual ? Is not heaven set 
before thee and the kingdom of heaven ? and thou fearing 
the tyranny of that [ap petite] endurest all things, and think- 
est lightly of that [kingdom] . This is shamelessness. 

Seest thou not old men maimed ? But O what trifling ! 
" Such an one (you say) lends out so many pieces of gold, 
and such an one so many, and yet begs." You repeat the 
stories and trifles of children ; for they too are always 
hearing stories of this kind from their nurses. I am not 
persuaded of it. I do not believe this. God forbid it should 
be so. Does a man lend out money, and so go a begging 
when he has abundance ? For what purpose, tell me ? And 
what is more disgraceful than begging ? It were better to die 
than to beg. Where does our inhumanity stop ? [And if 
it be so] what then? Do all lend money? are all impostors? 
is there no one really poor ? " Yea (you say) and many." 
Why then dost thou not assist those persons, seeing thou 
art so strict an enquirer into their lives ? All this is an 
excuse and a pretence. 

Give to every one that asketh of thee, and from him that S. Matt. 
would borrow of thee turn not thou away. Stretch out thy ^' ^^* 
hand, let it not be closed up. We have not been consti- 
tuted examiners into men^s lives, since so we should have 
compassion on no one. Why is it that when thou callest 
upon God thou sayest. Remember not my sins ? So then, if 
that person even be an exceeding great sinner, make this 
allowance in his case also, and do not remember his sins. 

L 2 

148 God^s mercifulness. Professed Monks and Clergy, 

HoM. 11. It is the season of kindness not of strict enquiry ; of mercy 
not of calculation. He wishes to be maintained : if thou 
art willing, give [him something] ; but if thou art not will- 
ing, send him away without adding questions to put him 
Va^"" ^^ ^ difficulty ^. Why art thou wretched and miserable ? 
why dost thou not even thyself pity him, and also turnest 
away those who would ? For when such a one hears from 
thee. This [fellow] is a cheat ; that a hypocrite ; and the 
other lends out money ; he neither gives to the one nor to 
the other ; for he suspects all to be such. For you know 
that we easily suspect evil, but good, not [so easily]. 

S. Luke [10.] Let us be merciful, not simply so, but as our hea- 
venly Father is. He feeds even adulterers, and fornicators, 
and sorcerers, and what shall I say ? persons having every 
species of wickedness. For in so large a world there must 
of necessity be many such as well [as others] . But never- 
theless He feeds all ; He clothes all. No one ever perished 
of hunger, unless one did so of his own choice. In this 
way let us be merciful. If a person be in want and in ne- 
cessity, help him. 

But now as it is, we are come to such a degree of unrea- 
sonableness, as to act thus not only in regard to the poor 
who walk up and down the alleys, but even in the case of 

T«r ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ [religious] solitude ^. Such an one is an 

avSpuu impostor, you say. Did I not say this at first, that if we 
give to all indiscriminately, we shall always be compassion- 
ate; but if we begin to make over-curious enquiries, we shall 
never be compassionate ? What dost thou mean ? is a man 
an impostor in order to get a loaf? If indeed he asks for 
talents of gold and silver, or costly clothes, or slaves, or 
anything else [of this sort], one might with good reason 
call him a swindler. But if he ask none of these things, 
but only food and shelter, things which are suited to a phi- 
losophic life % tell me, is this the part of a swindler ? Cease 
we from this unseasonable fondness for meddling, which is 
Satanic, which is soul-destroying. 

For indeed, if a man say that he is on the list of the 
Clergy, or calls himselfs^ Priest, then busy thyself [to en- 

■^ 6 (f)i\o(ro(pUs 4ar\, i.e. of the ascetics or solitary life. 

God looks to our dispositions, not those lue relieve, 149 

quire] , make much ado : since in that case the communi- 
eating ^ without enquiry is not without danger. For the ^ ^oivuvia 
risk is about matters of importance, for thou dost not give 
but receivest. But if he want food, make no enquiry. 

Make enquiry, if thou wilt, how Abraham displayed his 
hospitality towards all who came to him^ If he had been 
over-curious about those who came to him for refuge, he 
would not have entertained angels. For perhaps not think- Infra 
ing them to be angels, he would have thrust away them too 
with the rest. But inasmuch as he was used to receive all, 
he received even angels. 

What? Is it from the life of those that receive [thy 
bounty] that God grants thee thy reward? Nay [it is] from 
thine own purpose, from thy abundant liberality; from thy 
lovingkindness ; from thy goodness. Let this be [found], 
and thou shalt attain all good things, which may we all 
attain, through the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with Whom to the Father and also to the Holy 
Ghost, be glory power honour, now and for ever and world 
without end. Amen. 


Heb. vii. 1 — 3. 

For this Melchisedec, King of Saletn, Priest of the most 
High God, who met Abraham as he ivas returning from 
the slaughter of the Kings, and blessed him : to whom also 
Abraham gave a tenth part of all ; first being by i?iter- 
pretation King of Righteousness, and after that also King 
of Salem, which is, King of Peace, loithout father, ivith- 
out mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning 
of days, nor end of life, but made like unto the Son of 
God, abideth a Priest continually, 

Paul wishing to shew the difference between the New 
and Old Covenant^ introduces the subject in many different 
places; and shoots from afar, and ringeth in the ears of 

1 StoKwSw- r]^jg-| hearers ^. and exerciseth beforehand. For at once, 
even from the introduction of the Ej^istle, he laid down 

supra i. this as a foundation, saying, that to them indeed He spake 
by prophets, to us by The Son, and to them at sundry times 
and in divers manners, to us through the Son. Afterwards, 
having discoursed concerning the Son, who He was and 
what He had wrought, and given an exhortation to obey 
Him, lest we should suffer the same things as the Jews ; 

lb. vi. 20. and having said that He is High Priest after the order of 
Melchisedec, and having oftentimes wished to enter into 
[the subject of] this diiference, and having used much pre- 
paratory management ; and having rebuked them as weak, 
and again soothed and recovered them to feelings of confi- 
dence ; then at last he introduces the discussion on the 
difference [of the two dispensations] to ears [as it were] 

The superiority of Melchizedek^s Priesthood, Titles. 151 

in their full vigour. For he who is depressed in spirits H^-^^-^' 
would not be a ready hearer. And that you may under- 
stand thisj hear the Scripture which saith, They hearkened ^ ' ^^' 
not to Moses for littleness of spirit ^. For this cause having ^ 0X170 
first cleared away their despondency by many considera- l^^j'"" 
tions, some fearful, some more gentle, he then from this hearted- 
point .enters upon the discussion of the difference [of the **^** 
dispensations] . 

[2.] And what saith he ? For this Melchisedec, King of 
Salem, Priest of the Most High God. And, what is espe- 
cially worthy of admiration, he shews the difference to be 
great by the Type itself. For as I [before] said, he con- 
tinually confirms the truth from the Type, from things 
past, on account of the weakness of the hearers. For (saith 
he) this Melchisedec, King of Salem, Priest of the Most High 
God, ivho met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the 
Kings, and blessed him, to ivhom also Abraham assigned a 
tenth part of all. Having concisely set down the whole 
narrative, he contemplated ^ it mystically. pt](tT' 

And first from the name. First (saith he) being by inter- drew out 
pr elation King of righteousness : for Sedec means righteous- ^l^^"^^' 
ness; and Melchi, iiCi/i^ ; Melchisedec, King of j^ighteousness. senses. 
Thou seest his exactness even in the names ? But who is 
King of righteousness, save our Lord Jesus Christ ? King 
of righteousness. And after that also King of Salem, from 
his city, that is. King of Peace, which again is [character- 
istic] of Christ. For He has made us righteous, and has 
made peace for things in Heaven and things on earth. What Col. i. 20. 
man is King of Righteousness and of Peace ? None, save 
only our Lord Jesus Christ. 

[3.] He then adds another distinction, Without father, 
without mother, ivithout genealogy, having neither beginning 
of days nor end of life, but made like unto the Son of God, 
abideth a priest continually . Since then there lay in his 
way [as an objection] the [words] Thou art a Priest for 
ever, after the order of Melchisedec, whereas he [Melchi- 
sedec] was dead, and was not Priest for ever, see how he 
exj)lained it mystically. 

'And who can say this concerning a man^? I do not assert 
this in fact (saith he) ; the meaning is, we do not know 

152 In luhat sense ivithout Father ^c. Figure and Reality. 

HoM. 12. when ^ [or] what father he had, nor what mother, nor when 
he received his beginning, nor when he came to an end. 
And what of this (saith one) ? for does it follow, because 
we do not know it, that therefore he did not die, [or] had 
no parents ? Thou sayest well : he both died and had 
parents. In what sense then [was he] without father, 
ivithout mother? In what sense having neither beginning 
of days nor end of life ? In what sense? [why] from its not 
lata'i ^^i^g expressed ^. And what of this ? That just as this 
man is so, from his genealogy not being given, so is Christ 
from the very nature of the reality. 
(2) See here is the without beginning. See here is the ivithout 
end. As in case of this man, we know not either begin- 
ning of days, or end of life, because they have not been 
written; so we know [them] not in the case of Jesus, not 
because they have not been written, but because they do not 

2 Tirros exist. For that indeed is a figure ^, and therefore [we say] 

3 axrideia ^bccausc it is not written,^ but this is the reality ^, and there- 

fore [we say] ' because it does not exist.' For just as in 
regard to the names also (for there King of Righteousness 
and of Peace are appellations, but here the reality of things 
actually existing) so these too are appellations in that case, 
in this the reality of things actually existing. In what 
sense then hath He a beginning ? Thou seest that the Son 
^ &uapxov is without beginning ^, not in respect of His not having a 

5 cuTiou cause ^, for this is impossible : for He has a Father, other- 

wise how is He Son ? but in respect of His not having be- 
ginning or end of life. 

But made like unto the Son of God. Where is the like- 
ness ? That we know not of the one or of the other either 
the end or the beginning. Of the one because they are 
not written ; of the other, because they do not exist. Here 
is the likeness. But if the likeness were to exist in all res- 
pects, there would no longer be figure and reality ; but both 

6 eiKSpwv would be figure. [Here] then just as in representations^'^ 

« Mr. Field reads trSTe making a in painting ; the word ef/cwi/, as our 

double question. The other eTiitions " likeness," being applicable to both, 

have -TTOTe " at all." The passage is considerably altered in 

'' The comparison is not between the the conimon editions so as to avoid 

living object and the picture, but be- an apparent difficulty, 
tween representations in drawing and 

His superiority implied inreceiving Tithes and in Blessi7ig . 153 

[by painting or drawing] , there is somewhat that is like and HE.vii.5. 
somewhat that is unlike. By means of the lines indeed 
there is a likeness of features ^, but when the colours are ^ X"pa- 
put on, then the difference is plainly shewn, and [that] 
part is like and part is unlike. 

[4.] ver. 4. Noiv consider (saith he) hoiv great this man 
is to whom even the Patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the 
spoils -. Up to this point he has been applying the type : ^ <^hoice 
henceforward he confidently shews him [Melchisedec] to 
be more glorious than the very realities which existed 
among the Jews. But if he who bears a type of Christ is 
so much better not merely than the priests, but even than 
the forefather himself of the priests, what should one say 
of the reality ? Thou seest from what a superabundance 
[of proof] he shews the superiority. 

Now consider (saith he) how great this man is to lohom even 
the Patriarch Abraham gave a tenth out of the choice por- 
tions. Spoils [taken in battle] are called choice port ions ■\ ^««po- 
And it cannot be said that he gave them to him as having 
a part in the war, for on this account (he said) he met him 
returning from the slaughter of the kings, for he had staid 
at home (he means), and yet [Abraham] gave him the first- 
fruits of his labours. 

ver. 5. And verihj that are of the sons of Levi who receive 
the office of Priesthood, have commandment to take tithes of 
the people according to the law, that is, of their brethren, 
although they are come out of the loins of Abraham. So 
great (he would say) is the superiority of the priesthood, 
that they who from their ancestors are of the same dignity, 
and have the same forefather, are yet far better than the 
rest. At all events they receive tithe from them. When 
then one is found, who receives tithes from these very per- 
sons, are not they indeed in the rank of laymen, and he 
among the Priests ? 

And not only this ; but neither was he of the same dig- 
nity with them, but of another race : so that he would not 
have given tithes to a stranger unless his dignity had been 
great. Astonishing ! what has he accomplished ? He has 
made quite clear a greater point than those relating to faith 
which he treated in the Epistle to the Romans. For there 

154 Great superiority of Melchizedek, type of Christ. 

HoM. 12. indeed he declares Abraham to be the first father both of 
our polity and also of the Jewish. But here he is exceed- 
ing bold against him, and shews that the uncircumcised 
person is far superior. How then did he shew that Levi 
paid tithes ? Abraham (saith he) paid them. ' And how 
does this concern us ? ' It most particularly concerns you : 
for you will not be so contentious as to say that the Levites 
are superior to Abraham, ver. 6. But he whose descent is 
not counted from them, received tithes of Abraham. 

And after that he did not simply pass on, but added, and 
blessed him that had the promises. Inasmuch as through- 
out, this it was that was regarded with reverence, he shews 
that Melchisedec was to be reverenced more than Abraham, 
from the common judgment of all men. (ver. 7) And ivith- 
out all contradiction, saith he, the inferior is blessed by the 
superior, i. e. in the opinion of all men it is the inferior that 
is blessed by the superior. So then the type of Christ is 
superior even to him that had the promises, 

(ver. 8) And here men that die receive tithes : but there 
he ofivhom it is testified that he liveth. However lest we 
should say, Tell us, why goest thou so far back ? he says, 
(ver. 9) And as I may so say (and he did welLin [thus] 
softening it) Levi also who receiveth tithes was tithed in 
Abraham, How ? (ver. 10) For he was yet in his loins when 
Melchisedec met him, i. e. Levi was in him, although he was 
not yet born. And he said not the Levites but Levi. 

Hast thou seen the exceeding superiority ? Hast thou 
seen how great is the interval between Abraham and Mel- 
chisedec, who bears the figure of our High Priest ? And he 
shews that the superiority had been caused by authority, 
not necessity. For the one paid the tithe, which indicates 
the priest: the other gave the blessing, which indicates the 
superior. This superiority passes on also to the descendants. 

In a marvellous and triumphant way he cast out the 
supra V. Jewish [system]. On this account he said. Ye are become 
dull, inasmuch as he wished to lay these foundations, that 
they might not start away. Such you see is the wisdom of 
^Jfxpd\. Paul, first preparing theih well, he so leads ^ them into what 
he wishes. For the human race is hard to persuade, and 
needs much attention, even more than plants. Since in that 



Salvation depends on ourselves. 155 

case there is [only] the nature of material bodies, and earth, HE.vii.iO . 
which yields to the hands of the husbandmen: but in this 
there is will, which is liable to many alterations, and now 
prefers this, now that. For it readily inclines to the side 
of evil. 

[5.] .Wherefore we ought always to guard ourselves, lest (^\ 
at any time we should fall oft' to slumber. For Lo (saith 
one) he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep, Ps. cxxi. 
and Bo not suffer^ thy foot to be moved. He did not say, ^• 
^^ be not moved '^ but do not thou suffer, &c. It depends 
then on ourselves to allow [this], and not on any other 
person. For if we are willing to stand stedfast and unmove- i Cor. 
able, we shall not be shaken. ^''' ^^• 

What then ? does nothing depend on God ? All indeed 
depends on God, but not so as that our free-will is im- 
paired. ^ If then it depend on God (saith one), why does 
He blame us' ? on this account I said, ^so as that our free- 
will is not impaired.' It depends then on us, and on Him. 
For we must first choose what is good ; and then He j 
contributes what [comes] from Himself^. He does not T^Trap'^' 
anticipate our wishes ^\ lest our free-will should be impaired, ^"-y^o^^ 
But when we have made our choice, then great is the assist- ^ ^^^ 
ance He contributes to us. 

How is it then that Paul saith, not of him that ivilleth, Rpm. ix. 
if it depend on ourselves also, nor of him that runneth, but 
of God that sheiveth- mercy ? 

In the first place, he did not introduce it as his own 
opinion, but inferred it from what was before him and from 
what had been put forward^ [in the discussion]. For after 

•^ In Psalm cxxi. 3 (cxx. 3. Sept.) Israel ought not to slumber or sleep, 

where we have " He shall not suffer " The Alex. MS. has wcnil^i in the 

&c. the LXX. have, ju)? S&jtjs eis aoKov third verse. 

Thv '!T6^a <Tov, yuTjSe vva-Toi^r] (Vat.) o ^ fiov\^(Teis. Those acts of the soul 

(/jvAao-o-wi/ ere," Lest thou suffer &c. and whereby we desire and aim at what 

lest he that keepeth thee slumber." is good. 

S. Chrys. substitutes S^s for 5cpr]s, « TrpoKeifieuov. . . Trpo^\r]6euTos. The 

making the sense, " Do not suffer &c. former word is used by S. Chrys. to 

and let not him that keepeth thee express the portion of Scripture on 

slumber." This he applies to the Chris- which he is treating- : the latter is a 

tian keeping guard over himself (his received term in the dialectical method 

words are xph TrduTore (pyXdrr^iv kav- of the Greeks to express a proposition 

Tous, u7]7roT6 aTrovv<TTd^wfxcv') : and so put forward to be argued from, to see 

beseems to have understood ver. 4, whatconsequences follow from it, with 

of the Christian : that a watchman of a view of shewing it to be untrue, or 


156 God's part a7id our own in the work of grace. 

HoMa2. saying It is written, I wilt have mercy on whom I will have 
Kom. ix. mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have 
lb. 16. compassion, he says, It follows then^ that it is not of him 
1 "Apa olv fj^fj^f loilleth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth 
lb. 19. mercy. Thou ivilt say then unto me, why doth He yet find 

fault ? 

And secondly that other explanation may be given, that 

he represents all as His, whose the greater part is. For 
" ^*'' P"j' it is our's to choose ^ and to wish ; but God's to accomplish. 

pose and . o • • 

will, Trpo- and to brmg to an end. Since therefore the greater part is 

^^^\q\ ^^ Him, he says all is of Him, speaking according to the 

By\vai custom of men. For so we ourselves also do. I mean 

for instance : We see a house well built, and we say the 

whole is the Architect's [doing], and yet certainly it is not 

all his, but the workmen's also, and the owner's, who 

supplies the materials, and many others', but nevertheless 

since he contributed the greatest share, we call the whole 

his. So then [it is] in this case also. Again, with respect 

to a number of people, where the many are, we say All 

are : where few, nobody. So also Paul in this place saith, 

not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God 

that sheweth mercy. 

And herein he establishes two great truths : one, that 

we should not be lifted up ^ : even shouldst thou run (he 

would say) even shouldst thou be very earnest, do not con- 

Kardp. sider that the success in well doing ^ is thine own. For if 

thou obtain not the impulse ^ that is from above, all is to 

no purpose. Nevertheless that thou wilt attain that which 

thou earnestly strivest after is very evident ; so long as 

thou runnest, so long as thou wiliest. 

He did not then assert this, that we run in vain, but 

that, if we think the whole to be our own, if we do not 

assign the greater part to God, we run in vain. For nei- 

determining the sense in which it is " attribute to God the cause of our sue- 
true. S. Chrys. means to say that this " cess in well-doing. Therefore" &c. 
proposition was only thus argumenta- Mr. Field thinks that either the thread 
tively inferred by S. Paul. of the discourse is broken, and the se- 
^ In the genuine text here as in cond point not mentioned or (which 
some other places, there is no mention seems more probable) that it is con- 
of the second point. The longei'^ext tained in the words ; Nevertheless &c. 
has " one that we should not be lifted s ^ott^: "The inclining of the bal- 
"up by what we do well : the other that ance :" or, " the weight which makes 
"when wedo anything well, we should it turn." 


Our condition orderedto bring us to a right sense of things. 157 

ther hatli God willed that the whole should be His, lest . 
He should appear to be crowning us without cause : nor 
again our's, lest we should fall away to pride. For if when 
we have the smaller [share], we think much of ourselves, 
what should we do if the whole depended on us ? 

[6.] Indeed God hath done away many things for the 
purpose of cutting away our boastfulness, and still there 
is the "^high hand. With how many afflictions hath He 
encompassed us, so as to cut away our proud spirit ! with 
how many wild beasts hath He encircled us ! For indeed 
when some say, 'what means this?' 'of what use is this ?' 
they utter these things against the will of God. He hath 
placed thee in the midst of so great fear, and yet not even 
so art thou lowly-minded ; but if thou ever attain a little 
success, thou readiest to Heaven itself in thy pride. 

For this cause [are] the very rapid changes and reverses (4) 
[which occur] ; and yet not even so are we instructed. 
For this cause are there continual and untimely deaths, but 
our thoughts and feelings are as if we were immortal, as if 
we should never die. We plunder, we over-reach, as though 
we were never to give account. We build as if we were 
to continue here for ever. And not even the word of God 
daily sounded into our ears, nor the events themselves, in- 
struct us. Not a day, not an hour can be mentioned, in 
which we may not see continual funerals going forth. But 
all in vain : and nothing reaches our hardness [of heart] : 
nor are we even able to become better by the calamities of 
others ; or rather, we are not willing. When we ourselves 
only are afflicted, then we are subdued, and yet if God take 
off His hand, we again lift up our hand : no one has the 
thoughts and feelings that become a human being \ no one 
despises the things on earth; no one looks to Heaven. 
But just as swine turn their heads downwards, stooping 
towards their belly, wallowing in the mire ; so too the great 

^ Sav. and Ben. add auToG," His hand m. of another: which had been cor- 
is high :" but the reference is to our rected to ohd. ovpdvia (p., the reading- 
sinning " withahigh hand," as appears of the Verona Edition. Mutianus has 
from what follows in the next para- nemo divina sapit : and the later 
graph.. ^ translator c«^£?^^m. The other MSS. 

' ov^^is avOpwiriua (ppove?. This is have avQpwinva irepicppoueT, TaTrcLva 
the reading also of Savile and Morell. (ppov^'L,raneii/o(ppovei. Montfaucon con- 
It is supported by one MS. and the pr. jectured ra avoo (ppoi/e7. 

158 Hardness of regaining purity : ive may not despair. 

HoM. 12. body of mankind are defiling themselves with the most 
intolerable filth, without being conscious of it. 

[7.] For better were it to be defiled with unclean mud 
than with sins ; for he who is polluted with the one, washes 
it off in a little time, and becomes like one who had never 
from the first fallen into that slough : but he who has 
fallen into the deep pit of sin has contracted a pollution 
that is not cleansed by water, but needs long time, and 
strict penitence, and tears and lamentations, and more 
wailing, f nd hat more fervent, than ye display over your 
dearest friends. For this defilement attaches to us from 
without, wherefore we also speedily put it away ; but the 
other is generated from within, wherefore also it is with 
difiiculty that we wash it off", and cleanse ourselves from it. 

S.Matt. For from the heart (saith He) proceed evil thoughts, forni- 
cations, adulteries, thefts, false ivitnesses. Wherefore also 

Ps. the Prophet said. Create in me a clean heart, O God, And 

Jerem. another, Wash thine heart from wickedness, O Jerusalem, 
(Thou seest that it is both our [work] and God^s.) And 

S. Matt, again, Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God, 

^' ^' Let us become clean to the utmost of our power. Let 

us wipe away our sins. But how it is possible to wipe them 

Is. i. 16. away, the prophet teaches, saying. Wash you, make you 
clean, put away your ivickednesses from your souls, before 
Mine eyes. What is before Mine eyes ? Because some 
seem to be free from wickedness, but only [seem so] to 
men, whilst to God they are manifest as being whited 
sepulchres. For this cause He saith, ^^so put them away as 

lb. 17, 18. "I see." Learn to do well ; seek out judgment, do justice for 
the poor and lowly. Come now, and let us reason together, 
saith the Lord : and though your sins be as scarlet, I ivill 
make you ivhite as snow, and if they be as crimson, I will 
make you white as ivool. Thou seest that we must first 
cleanse ourselves^ and then God cleanses us. For having 
said first. Wash you, make you clean. He then added / will 
make you white. 

Let no one then, [even] of those who are come to the 
very extreme of wickedness, despair of himself. For (He 
saith) even if thou hast passed into the habit, yea and 
almost into the nature of wickedness itself, be not afraid. 

Figure of it. Deep value of kindness in God^s sight. 159 

For, for this cause taking [the instance of] colours that are . 
not superficial but almost united with the very substance j 

of the materials, He said that He would bring them per- j 

manently into the opposite state. For He did not simply \ 

say that He would wash us, but that He would make us j 

white, as snow and as ivool, in order to suggest good hopes ' 

for us. Great then is the power of repentance, at least if 
it makes us as snow, and whitens us as wool, even if sin 
have first got possession and dyed our souls. ' 

Let us labour earnestly then to become clean ; He has ' 

enjoined nothing burdensome. Judge for the fatherless, and Is- i- 17. 
do justice for the widow. Thou seest on every side how 
great account God makes of mercy, and of standing forward 
in behalf of those that are wronged. These good deeds let 
us pursue after, and we shall be able also, by the grace of \ 

God, to attain to the blessings to come : which may we all I 

be counted worthy of, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom 
to the Father and also to the Holy Ghost, be glory power 
honour, now and for ever and world without end. Amen. | 




Heb. vii. 11 — 14. 

^ by If therefore perfection were by^ the Levitical priesthood ; 

means oj ^^^ under it the people have received the law V what further 
need was there that another priest should ainse after the 
order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of 
takes Aaron? For the priesthood being changed, there is^ of 
necessity a change also of the laiv. For He of whom these 

from things are spoken, pertained to another tribe, of^ which no 

man gave attendance at the altar. For it is evident that 
our Lord sprang out of Judah, of which tribe Moses spake 
nothing concerning priests ^. 

If therefore (he saitli) perfection were by the Levitical 
priesthood. Having spoken concerning Melchisedec, and 
pointed out how much superior he was to Abraham, and 
having proved that the difference was great between them, 
he begins from this point forward to prove the wide differ- 
ence as to the covenant itself, and how the one is imperfect 
and the other perfect. However he does not even yet enter 
on the matters themselves, but first contends on the ground 
of the priesthood, and the tabernacle. For these things 
would be more easily received by the unbelieving, when 
the proof was derived from things already allowed, and 

He had shewn that Melchisedec was greatly superior both 
to Levi and to Abraham, being to them in the rank of the 

* v^vojxoQirriTai is the reading of the ucuojjLoOeTrjrai. 

best MSS. of S. Chrys. here and ^ Upecou. The editions had Upacrv- 

throughout the Homily. Tlie cOHimon vns : So the common text of the New 

editions had uevoixoOerriTo. So while Test, read Upwavvris, the critical edi- 

the common editions of the N.T. read tions have Upiwv. 
pevo/j.oOeT'nTo, the critical editors have 

A 7iew Priesthood, implies theimperfectionoftheformer, 161 

priests. [Now] he argues again from a different point. He^viUI. 
What then is this ? Why (saith he) did he not say, after 
the order of Aaro7i ? And observe, I pray you, the great 
superiority [of his argument] . For from the very circum- 
stance for which it were natural to exclude His priesthood, 
viz. that He was not after the order of Aaron, from that he 
establishes Him, and excludes the others. For this is the 
very thihg that I say (saith he); why has He not been made 
after the order of Aaron ? , 

And the [saying] what further need has much emphasis. 
For if the Christ had been after the order of Melchisedec 
according to the flesh, and then afterwards the law had 
been introduced, and all that pertained to Aaron, a person 
might reasonably say that the latter as being more perfect, 
annulled the former, seeing that it had come in after it. 
But if the Christ comes later, and takes a different type, as 
that of His priesthood, it is evident that He does this on 
the ground that that [Aaronic] system was imperfect. For 
(he would say) let us suppose for argument's sake, that all 
has been fulfilled, and that there is nothing imperfect in 
the priesthood. What need was there in that case that He 
should be called after the order of Melchisedec and not 
after the order of Aaron? Why did He set aside Aaron, 
and introduce a different priesthood, that [namely] of Mel- 
chisedec ? 

If then perfection, that is the perfection of the things 
themselves, of the doctrines, of life ^, had been by the Levi- 
tical priesthood. 

And observe how he goes forward on his path. He had 
said that [He was] after the order of Melchisedec, imply- 
ing that the [priesthood] after the order of Melchisedec 
is superior : for [he was] ^ far superior. Afterwards he i or [it 
shews this from the time also, in that He was after Aaron; |fave^'„^' 
evidently as being better. yos in 

[2.] And what is the meaning of what follows next ? for *^'® *^^*- 
(saith he) under [or upon~\ it the people have received the 
Law [or have been legislated for]. What is, under it [&c.] ? 
regulateth itself^ by it; through it does all things. You ^o-TOix^' 

c €i fxhu ovr TeAetoxris, rovriari Trjs Mr. Field remarks, to what the article 
rwv Trpayp-aToov, rrjsrwv doyixdroov, rod rrjs, ttJs are to be referred. 
fiiov 7] T€A.eico(ris. It is not clear, as 

162 Change of Law involved: from tribe to tribe. 

HoM. 13. cannot say that it was given to others, the people under it 
have received the laiv, that is, have used it and did use it. 
You cannot say that it indeed was perfect, but that it did 
not rule and protect the people, they have been legislated 
for upon it, that is, they used it. 

What need was there then of another priesthood ? For 
the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change 
of the law also. But if there must be a different priest, or 
rather a different priesthood, there must of necessity be 
also a different law. This is directed against those who 
say, What need was there of a new Covenant ? For he 
could indeed have alleged a testimony from prophecy also. 

infra viii. This is the covenant which I made with your fathers [&c.] 

^^' But for the present he contends on the ground of the 

priesthood. And observe, how he says this from the first. 
He had said. According to the order of Melchisedec. By 
this he excluded the order of Aaron. For he would not 
have said After the order of Melchisedec, if this other had 
been better. If therefore another priesthood has been 
brought in, there must needs be also [another] Covenant; 
for neither is it possible that there should be a priest, with- 
out a covenant and laws and ordinances, nor that having 
received a different priesthood He should use that former 
[covenant] . 

In the next place, as to that which was the ver^r ground 
of objection : " How could He be a priest if He were not a 
"Levite ? " having previously overthrown this by what had 
been said above, he does not even condescend to solve it, 
but introduces it in passing. I said (saith he) that the 
priesthood was changed, therefore also the Covenant is. 

^ rpJir^^ And it was changed not only in its character ^, or in its 
ordinances, but also in its tribe. For of necessity [it must 
be changed] in its tribe also.. How? For the priesthood 
being changed {or transferred], horn tribe to tribe, from 
the sacerdotal to the regal [tribe], that the same might 
be both sacerdotal and regal. 

And observe the mystery. First it was roj^^al, and then 
it is become sacerdotal : therefore it is just as in the case 
also of Christ : for King indeed He always was, but has 
become Priest from the time that He assumed the Flesh, 

Commandment carnal. Christ. 163 

that He offered the sacrifice. Thou seest the change, and . 
the very things which were ground of objection these he 
introduces, as though the natural order of things required 
them. Fo7^ (saith he) He of ivliom these things are spoken 
pertained to another tribe. I myself also say it, I know 
that this tribe [of Judah] had nothing of priesthood. For 
there is a transferring. 

[3.] Yea and I am shewing another difference also (he 
would say) : not only from the tribe, nor yet only from the 
Person, nor from the character [of the Priesthood], nor 
from the covenant, but also from the type itself, (ver. 16) 
Who ivas made [became so], not according to the law of a 
carnal commandment^ but according to the power of an end- 
less life. He became (saith he) a priest^ not according to (2) 
the laiv of a carnal commandment: for that law was in 
many respects unlawful ^. ^ &uoiios 

What is [the meaning of] a carnal commandment ? Cir- 
cumcise the flesh, it says ; Anoint the flesh ; Wash the 
flesh ; Purify the flesh ; shave the flesh ; bind upon the 
flesh ~ ; cherish the flesh ; rest from work as to the flesh. SseeDeut. 
And again its blessings, what are they ? Long life for the ^^' ^' 
flesh ; milk and honey for the flesh ; peace for the flesh : 
luxury for the flesh. From this law it was that Aaron re- 
ceived the priesthood : Melchisedec however not so. 

ver. 15. And it is yet far more abundantly evident, if 
after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another 
priest. What is evident ? the interval between the two 
priesthoods, the difference ; how much superior He is who 
was made not according to the law of a carnal command- 
ment. (Who [is this ?] Melchisedec? Nay; but the Christ). 
But according to the power of an endless ^ life. For He ^ atcara. 
testifieth, Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of^YJ^,J^' 
Melchisedec ; that is, not for a time, nor having any limit, tible 
but according to the power of an endless life, that is, by 
means of power, by means of indestructible life. 

And yet this does not follow naturally after, who was 
made not according to the law of a carnal commandment : for 
what would follow naturally would be to say, ^^ but accord- 
ing to that of a spiritual one.^^ However by its being carnal, 
he implied its being temporary. Just as he says also in 

M 2 

164 The Law temporary, weak, unprofitable. How ? 

jioM. 13. another place, carnal ordinances imposed until the time of 
infra ix. reformation. 

According to the power of life, that is, because He lives 
by His own power. 

[4.] He had said, that a change of law also takes place, 
and up to this point he has shewn it ; Henceforward he 
enquires into the cause, that which above all things gives 
full assurance to men's minds, [I mean] the knowing the 

1 or con- cause thoroughly ; and it leads us more to faith ^ when we 
viction \^^^Q learned the cause as well, and the principle according 

to which [the thing] is done. 

ver. 18. For there is indeed (saith he) a disannulling 
of the commandment going before, on account of the weak- 
ness and unprofitableness thereof. Here the Heretics^ press 
on. But listen thou attentively. He did not say " on ac- 
count of the evil," nor, " on account of the viciousness,'' but 
on account of the weakness and unprofitableness [thereof], 
yea and in other places also he points out its weakness ; 
Rom.viii. as when he says In that it was weak through the flesh. It 
^' is not then [the law] itself which is weak, but we. 

ver. 19. For the Law made nothing perfect. What is, 
made nothing perfect ? made no man perfect, being dis- 
obeyed. And besides, not even if it had been listened to, 
would it have made one perfect and virtuous. But as yet 
he does not say this here, but that it had no strength : and 
with good reason. For written precepts were there set 
down. Do this and Do not that, being enjoined only, not at 

2 ivTidev- ^^^ same time giving power within ^. But the Hope is not 
Ta of such a character. 

What is a disannulling ? a casting out. A Disannulling 
is a disannulling of things which are of force. So that he 
intimated, that it [once] was of force, but henceforward 
was held of no account, seeing that it accomplished nothing. 
Was the Law then of no use ? It was indeed of use : and 
of very great use : but to make men perfect it was of no 
use. For it is in this respect that he saith, The law made 
nothing perfect. All things were figures, all shadow ; cir- 
cumcision, sacrifice, ^abbath. Therefore they had not 
power to reach through into the soul, wherefore they pass 

^ The early Heretics denied the divine character of the Mosiac dispensation. 

Our Better Hopes : points of inferiority in the Law. 165 

away and gradually withdraw. But \it mas'] the introduc- HE.vii.22. 
tion of a better hope, by which ive draw nigh unto God, 

[5.] (ver. 20) And forasmuch as not without the taking 
of an oath ^. Thou seest that the point of the oath becomes fp«*'Mo- 
necessary for him in this place. Accordingly for this 
reason he previously treated much [hereon], how that God 
sware ; • and sware for the sake of [our] fuller assurance. 

But the introduction of a better hope. For that other 
system also had a hope, but not such as this. For their 
hope was, that if they were well pleasing [to God] they 
should possess the land, that they should suffer nothing 
fearful. But in this [dispensation] our hope is, that if we 
have pleased [God], we shall possess not earth, but heaven; 
or rather (which is far better) we hope to be placed near 
to God, to come even unto the very throne of the Father? 
to minister unto Him among the Angels. And see how 
he introduces these things by little and little. For above 
he says which entereth into that withiyi the veil, but in this supra vi. 
place, by which we draw nigh unto God, 

And forasmuch as not ivithout the taking of an oath. What 
is And forasmuch as not without the taking of an oath ? 
that is, there is another difference also. Besides, neither 
were these things merely promised (saith he). For they in- 
deed became priests without the taking of an oath, (ver. 21, 
22) but He with the taking of an oath, through Him who 
said to Him, The Lord sware and will not repent. Thou 
art Priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec, By so 
much ivas Jesus made surety of a better covenant ^, He lays 
down two points of difference, that it hath not any end as 
the [covenant] of the Law had ^ ; and this he proves from 
[its being] Christ who exercises [the priesthood] ; for he 
saith according to the power of an endless life. And he 
proves it also from the oath, because \The Lord~\ sivare 
&c, and from the fact ; for if that other was cast out, because 
it was weak, this stands firm, because it is powerful. He 
proves it also from the priest. How? Because there is 

« The common editions add here words in what follows : but without 

ver. 23,24. "andthey truly were many citing: them. 

*' priests, because they were not suf- ^ The common texts add here " and 

«' fered to continue by reason of death ; that it is with oath-taking" : this is 

"but this [man] because he continueth probably to be understood: as if he 

" ever, hath an unchangeable priest- had said, He lays down a second point 

" hood." S. Chrys. alludes to these of diiference that &c. 

166 The perpetual Intercession ; saviiig to the uttermost. 

HoM. 13. One [only]; and there would not have been One [only], 
unless He had been immortal. For as there were many 
priests, because they were mortal, so [here is] The One, be- 
cause He is immortal. By so much ivas Jesus made surety 
of a better covenant, inasmuch as He sware to Him that 
He should alway be [Priest] ; which He would not have 
done, if He had not been Living. 

[6.] (ver. 25) Wherefore He is able also to save them to 
the uttermost, ivho come unto God by Hirn, seeing He ever 
(3) liveth to make intercession for them. Thou seest that he 
saith this in respect of that which is according to the flesh. 
For when He [appears] as Priest, then He also intercedes. 
Rom.viii. Wherefore also when Paul says, ivho also maketh interces- 
^"^^ sion for us, he insinuates the same thing ; it is the High 

S.John Priest that maketh intercession. For He that raiseth the 
^'- 2^- dead as He ivill, and quickeneth them, and that even as the 
Father [doth], how [is it that] when there is need to save, 
lb. 22. He maketh intercession ? He that hath all judgment, how 
S. Matt, is it that He maketh intercession ? He that sendeth His 
angels, so as to cast some into the furnace, and to save 
others, how is it that He maketh intercession ? Wherefore 
(saith he) He is able also to save. For this cause then He 
saves, because He dies not. Inasmuch as He ever liveth. 
He hath (he means) no successor : And if He have no suc- 
cessor. He is able to stand forward in behalf of all men. 
For there [under the Law] indeed, the High Priest al- 
though he were worthy of admiration, [was so] only for 
the time during which he was [High Priest] (as Samuel 
for instance, and any other such), but, after this, no longer ; 
for they were dead. But here it is not so, but He saves to 
'"''\\ the uttermost^. 

What is to the uttermost ? He hints at some mystery. 
Mn this Not here ^ only .(saith he) but there ^ also He saves them 
Mi^the *^^* ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^y Him. How does He save [them ?] 
other in that He is ever living (saith he) to make intercession for 
them. Thou seest the humiliation ? Thou seest the man- 
hood ? For he saith not, that He obtained this, by making 
intercession once for all, but [does it] continually, and 
whensoever it may be needful to intercede for them. 

To the uttermost. What is it ? Not for a time only, but 
there also in the future life. ' Does He then always need to 

xiii. 4 


To the uttermost. His Sinlessness, 167 

^ pray ? and yet how can [this] be reasonable ? Even men HE.vii.26 
'indeed that are righteous, have oftentimes accomplished 
' all by one entreaty, and is He always praying ? For what 
' purpose then is He throned with [the Father] ?' Thou seest 
that it is a condescension. The meaning is : Be not afraid, 
nor say, Yea, He loves us indeed, and He has confidence 
towards the Father, but that He should live alway is not 
possible. For He doth live alway. 

[7.] (v. 26) For such an High Priest also ° became us, ivho 
is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from the sinners. Thou 
seest that the whole is said with reference to the manhood. 
(But when I say ' the manhood,' I mean [the manhood] hav- 
ing Godhead; not dividing [one from the other], but leaving 
[you] to suppose ^ what is suitable). Didst thou mark the Hiroimi. 
difference of the High Priest ? He has summed up what ^'^ 
was said before, in all points teynpted like as we are yet 
without sin. For (saith he) such an High Finest also be- 
came us, loho is holy, harmless. Harmless : what is it ? 
without wickedness : that which another ^ Prophet says : 
guile was not found in His mouth, that is, [He is] not crafty, is. iiii. 9. 
Could any one say this concerning God ? and is one not 
ashamed to say that God is not crafty, nor deceitful ? Con- 
cerning Him, however, viewed in respect of the Flesh it 
might be reasonable [to say it]. Holy, undefiled. This too 
would any one say concerning God ? for has He a nature 
capable of defilement ? Separate from sinners. 

s In Mr. Field's ed. koI is read here, dicens, quia Deus non est callidus, 

and where the words are cited after- neque dolosus. De eo vero qui se- 

wards, in the common texts it is cundum carnem est, habebit forsitan 

omitted. So critical editors consider rationem. (pro def. trium capp. lib. xi. 

that the sacred text is toiovtos yap c. 5 p. 488. ed. Sinn.) [Gall. Bibl. 

r]ij.7v Kal cTrpeTTei/ k. A. Patr. xi. 789.] 

^ As this passage is cited by Facun- Mr. Field's text is, h (t om. MS. R.) 

dus Hermianensis, an African Bishop, \4yei erepos irpo<p-i]rT]s' Sokos oux cvpe- 

writing about the year 547 : it may be Or) iv r^ (XTOfxarL avrov (tovt^o-tiu, 

well to give his words and also the two ovx virovkos' rovro du ns irepl ©eoD 

Greek texts con-esponding to them, e^iroi; kuI ovk alaxvu^rai \eyuu, '6ti 6 

as an evidence that the text which he O^hs ovk iaTiv vwovXos, ovde SoAepSs; 

had, was of the short and simple form irepl fx4uToi rod Kara adpKa ^xoi fez/ 

now restored in Mr. Field's edition. \6you. 

" In interpretationequoqueEpistolse The text of Savile and the Benedic- 

ad Hebrseos, Sermone xiv, de eo quod tines ovxvttovXos- kuI otitoiovtos,&kov- 

scriptum est, Sicut consummatio per e tov irpucp-hrov xiyovros- ovSh evpedrj 

Leviticum sacerdotium erat, ita lo- SoAos iv r^ crrSfiaTL avrov, rovro ovv &v 

cutus est: Dicit alter propheta, Do- risTr€p\&eov diroi; 6 dhovK atcrxvuerai 

lus non est inventus in ore ejus, hoc Aeycop,orideehsovKe(TrivvTrov\os,ovSk 

est nulla calliditas. Hoc forsitan quis- SoXepos ; -wepl fxev ovv rod Kara adpKa 

quam de Deo dicat, et non erubescit exoi av hoyov. 

168 All belongs to the economy of the Incarnation. One Priest: 

HoM. 13. [8.] Does then this alone shew the difference, or does 

the very sacrifice itself as well ? How ? (ver. 27) He hath 

no need (saith he) daily, as the High Priest^, to offer up 

sacrifices for his sins, for this He did once for all, ivhen He 

offered Himself, This, what ? Here he proceeds to sound 

as it were a prelude^ concerning the exceeding greatness 

of the spiritual sacrifice and the interval [between them] . 

He has mentioned the point of the priest ; he has mentioned 

that of the faith ; he has mentioned that of the Covenant ; 

not entirely indeed, still he has mentioned it. In this place 

he proceeds to prelude also concerning the sacrifice itself. 

Do not then, because thou hast heard that He is a Priest, 

suppose that He is alway executing the priest^s office. 

infra X. For He executed it once for all, and thenceforward sat 
12, . . 

doion. That thou mayest not suppose th^t He is standing 

on high, and is a minister, he points out that the matter is 
[part] of a dispensation [or economy]. For just as He be- 
came a servant, in the same manner also [He became] a 
Priest and a Minister. But as after becoming a servant. 
He did not continue a servant, so also, having become a 
Minister He did not continue a Minister. For it belongs 
not to a minister to sit, but to stand. 

This then he hints at here, and also the greatness of the 
sacrifice, if being [but] one, and having been offered up 
once only, it effected that which all [the rest] were unable 
to do. But he does not yet [treat] of these points, 
ib. viii.3. For this He did, saith he. This; what ? For (he saith) it 
is of necessity that this \_Man'] have somewhat also to offer. 
Not [to offer] for Himself ; for how did He offer for Himself? 
but for the people. What sayest thou ? And is He able 
to do this? Yea (saith he). For the Laiv maketh men high 
priests, lohich have infirmity. And doth He not need to 
offer for Himself ? No, saith he. For, that you may not 
suppose that the [words, this~\ He did once for all, are 
said respecting Himself, as well [as others], hear what he 
says : For the law maketh men high priests^ ivhich have 
infirmity. On this account they both offer continually, and 
for themselves. He h'^wever who is mighty. He that hath 

' This is the reading- adopted by the Epistle. Indeed what is omitted 
Mr. Field. The common texts g-ive must plainly be intended to be sup- 
the passage as it stands in the Text of plied. 

One sacrifice. Loss in delaying Baptism. 169 

no sin^ for what cause should He offer for Himself, or often- HE.vii.28 . 
times for the others ? 

But the word of the oath-taking which loas since the Law 
\maketli\ the Son who has been consecrated ^^perfected'] for 
evermore. Per/ec/ec?; what is that? Paul does not set down 
the expressions of contrast that are required in strictness^ ; ^ rks 
for after saying having InfirmAtij, he did not say the Son ^^'^f^"' 
who is mighty, but perfected : i. e. mighty, as one might Kvplas 
say. Thou seest that the name Son is used in contradistinc- 
tion to that of servant. And by infirmitij he means either 
sin or death. 

What is, for evermore ? Not now- only without sin but 
always. If then He is perfect, if He never sins at any 
time, if He lives always, for what purpose shall He offer 
many sacrifices for us ? But for the present he does not 
insist strongly on this point : but what he does strongly 
insist upon is. His not offering on His own behalf. 

[9.] Seeing then that we have such an High Priest, let 
us imitate Him ; let us walk in His footsteps. There is 
no other sacrifice : one alone has cleansed us, and after this, 
fire and hell. For indeed it is on this account that he re- 
peats it over and over, saying, "one Priest," "one Sacrifice," 
lest any man supposing that there are many [sacrifices] 
should sin without fear. Let us then, as many as have 
been counted worthy of The Seal ^, as many as have enjoyed -«.e.Bap. 
The Sacrifice, as many as have been partakers of the Im- *^^"^ 
mortal Table, [let us, I say] continue to guard our noble 
birth and our dignity : for our falling away is not without 

And as many as have not yet had these [privileges] 
vouchsafed, let not these either be confident on that ac- 
count. For when a person goes on in sin, with the view of 
receiving holy baptism at the last gasp, perhaps (as often 
happens) he will not obtain it. And, believe me, it is not 
to terrify you that I say what I am going to say. I have 
myself known many persons, to whom this has happened, 
who in expectation indeed of the enlightening^ sinned ^Bap- 
much, and on the day of their death went away empty. ^^'" 
For God gave us baptism for this cause, that He might do 
away our sins, not that He might increase our sins. Where- 

170 Delaying Baptism ; to live in sin, and yet be saved, 

HoM. 13. as if any man have employed it as a security for sinning 
more, it becomes a cause of negligence. For if there had 
been no Washing, they would have lived more warily, as 
not having [the means of] forgiveness. Thou seest that 
Rom. iii. it is ourselves who cause it to be said [that we say] Let us 
do evil, that good may come. 

Wherefore, I exhort you, ye also who are uninitiated, be 
sober. Let no man follow after virtue as an hireling, no 
ayv(a[xwv ^ii^in as an ungenerous and ungrateful ^ person, no man as 
though it were a heavy and a burdensome thing. Let us 
pursue after it then with ready mind, and with joy. For if 
there were no reward laid up, ought we not to be good ? 
But however, at least with a reward, let us become good. 
And how is this anything else than a disgrace and a very 
great condemnation ? Unless thou give me a reward (saith 
one), I do not become chaste. Then am I bold to say 
somewhat : never wilt thou be chaste, no not even when 
thou livest chastely, if thou dost it for a reward. Thou 
esteemest not virtue at all, if thou art not enamoured of it. 
But on account of our great weakness, God was willing that 
for a time it should be practised even for reward, yet not 
even so do we pursue it. 

Let us however suppose, if you will, that a man dies, 

after having done innumerable evil things, having also had 

baptism vouchsafed him (which however I think does not 

readily happen), tell me, how will he depart thither ? Not 

indeed called to account for the deeds he had done, but 

^a-nap. yet without Confidence^; as is reasonable. For when after" 

prja-iaiTTos jj^.jj^g a hundred years, he has no good work to shew -J, but 

only that he had not sinned, or rather not even this, but 

^ L e. that he was saved by grace ^ only, and when he sees others 

naercy crowned, in splendor, and highly approved : even if he fall 

not into hell, tell me, will he endure his desf)ondency ? 

[10.] But to make the matter clear by an example. Sup- 
pose there are two soldiers, and that one of them steals, 
injures, overreaches, and that the other does none of these 
things, but acts the part of a brave man, does well in im- 
portant things, sets up troJ>hies in war, has his right hand 

J [S. Cyril Alex, speaks too of those have nought to bring to tlieir Master, 
who put off Baptism till they are old Glaph. 273 b c] 
and receive forgiveness through it but 

Contr^ast between being just saved, and highest in glorij. 171 

stained with blood ; then when the time arrives, suppose HE.vii.28. 
that (from the same rank in which the thief also was) he is 
at once conducted to the imperial throne and the purple ; 
but suppose that the other remains there where he was, 
and merely of the royal mercy does not pay the penalty of 
his deeds, let him however be in the last place, and let him 
be stationed under him who is [now] a King. Tell me, 
will he be able to endure his despair when he sees him who 
was [ranked] with himself ascended even to the very highest 
point of dignities, and made thus glorious, and master of 
the world, while he himself still remains below, and has 
not even been freed from punishment with honour, but 
through the grace and mercifulness of the King ? For even 
should the King forgive him, and release him from the 
charges against him, still will he live in shame ; For surely 
not even will others admire him : since in such instances 
of forgiveness, we admire not those who receive the gifts, 
but those who bestow them. And in such proportion as 
the gifts are greater, the more are they ashamed who re- 
ceive them, when what they have done amiss is great. 

With what eyes then will such an one be able to look on 
those who are in the King's courts, when they exhibit 
their sweatings out of number and their wounds, whilst 
he has nothing to shew, but has his being saved itself of 
the mere lovingkindness of God ? For just as if one were 
to beg off a murderer, a thief, an adulterer, when he was 
going to be led away for execution, and were to command 
him to stay at the porch of the King's palace, he will not 
afterwards be able to look any man in the face, although he 
has been set free from punishment : so too without ques- 
tion is this man's case. 

For do not, I beseech you, suppose that because it is 

called a palace ^, therefore all are to attain the same things. ^ ^«o-'- 

For if here in Kings' courts there is the Prefect, and all who but Sav. 

are about the King, and also those who are in very inferior ^«^iAeia, 

stations, and occupy the place of what are called Decani ^ dom. 

(though the interval be so great between the Prefect and the 

k " The Ae/caj/ol at Constantinople Jamqiie ordine certo 

were liotors, and had the charg-e of Tiu-ba decanorum, cursorum, in rebus 
burying the dead : they are otherwise ag-entum, 

called fimerumelato7'es,lecticarit,ves- Cumque palatinis stans Candida turba 
pUlones, libitinarU, KOTTiarai. CoriY>^ns tribunis." Suicer, Thes. Eccles. 

lib. iii. says cited by Mr, Field. 

172 God^s commandments not burdensome :^ Instances. 

HoM. 13. Decanus) much more shall this be so in the royal court 

And this I say not of myself. For Paul layeth down an- 
other difference greater even than these. For (saith he) 
as many differences as there are [in passing] from the sun 
to the moon and the stars, and the very smallest star, so 
many also [will be the differences] of those in the kingdom 
of Heaven] . And that the difference between the sun and 
the smallest star is far greater than that between the De- 
canus (as he is called) and the Prefect, is evident to all. 
For while the sun shines upon all the world at once, and 
makes it bright, and puts out of sight the moon and the 
stars, the other perhaps does not even appear, not even in 
the dark. For there are many stars w^hich we do not see. 
When then we see others become suns, and ourselves have 
the rank of the very smallest stars, which are not even 
visible, what comfort shall we have ? 

Let us not, I beseech you, let us not be so slothful, let 
us not be so inert, let us not barter away the salvation 
of God on an easy life, but let us make merchandise of it, 
and increase it. For even if a person be only a Catechumen, 
still he knows Christ, still he is acquainted with the Faith, 
still he is a hearer of the divine oracles, still he is not 
far from the knowledge. He knows the will of his Lord. 
Wherefore then does he procrastinate? wherefore does he 
delay and postpone ? Nothing is better than a good life 
whether here or there, whether in case of the Enlightened 
or of the Catechumens. 

[11.] For tell me what burdensome command have we 

enjoined you ? Have a wife (saith He) and be chaste. Is 

this difficult ? How ? when many, not Christians only but 

Heathens also, live chastely without a wife. That which 

1 iirepfiai- the heathen goes beyond ^ for vain glory^s sake, thou dost 

"^^ not even keep for tlie fear of God. 

Give (saith He) to the poor out of what thou hast. Is 
this burdensome ? But in this case also heathen condemn 
us, who for vain-glory only have emptied out their whole 
possessions. ^ 

Use not filthy language. Is this difficult? For if it had 
not been enjoined, ought we not to have done right in this 
respect, to avoid appearing degraded ? For that the con- 

Yet every thing burdensome ivhen good ivill is wanting, 173 

trary conduct is against the grain, I mean the using filthy HE.vii.28 . 
language, is manifest from the fact that the soul is ashamed 
and blushes if it have been led to say any thing of that 
kind, and it will not even utter such things, unless by chance 
a man be drunk. For when sitting in a public place, even 
if thou doest it at home why dost thou not do it there ? 
Because of those that are present. Why dost thou not 
readily do the same thing before thy wife? That thou 
mayest not insult her. So then thou abstainest from doing 
it, lest thou shouldest insult thy wife ; and dost thou not 
blush at insulting God ? For He is every where present, 
and heareth all things. 

Be not drunken, saith He. For this very thing of itself, 
is it not a chastisement ? He did not say. Put thy body 
on the rack, but what ? Do not make it so wild ^ as to take ^ifcrpax-n- 
away the authority of the mind : on the contrary make not ^'^^^ 
provision for the lusts thereof. xiii. 14. 

Do not (saith He) seize by violence what is not thine 
own ; do not over-reach ; perjure not thyself. What la- 
bours do these things require ! what sweatings ! 

Speak evil of no man (saith He) nor accuse [any] falsely. 
What toil is there here? Nay rather the contrary is a ' 
labour. For when thou hast spoken ill of another, imme- 
diately thou art in danger, in suspicion, [saying] Did he of 
whom I spake, hear ? whether he be great or small. For 
should he be a great man immediately thou wilt be indeed 
in danger ; but if small, he will requite thee with as much, 
or rather with what is far more grievous ; for he will say 
evil of thee in a much greater degree. It is nothing diffi- 
cult, nothing burdensome which we have enjoined on us, 
if we have the will. And if we have not the will, even the 
easiest things will appear burdensome to us. What is more 
easy than eating ? but from great effeminacy many persons 
make a difficulty even of this, and I hear many say, that it is 
weariness even to eat. None of these things is wearisome if 
thou hast but the will. For every thing depends on the will- 
ing, after the grace from above. Let us then be willing to 
do things that are good, that we may attain also to the good 
things which are eternal, in Christ Jesus our Lord, whom 
to the Father and also to the Holy Ghost be glory, might 
honour now and for ever, and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. viii. 1, 2. 

Now of the things which ive have spoken this is the sum. 
We have such an High Priest ; who is set down at the 
right hand of the throne of the majesty in the heavens : 
a minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle 
which the Lord pitched, and not man. 

Paul mixes the lowly things with the lofty, ever imitat- 
ing his own Master, so that Avhat is lowly becomes the path 
to what is lofty, and through the former we are led by the 
hand to the other, and when we are amid the great things 
we learn that these [lowly ones] were a condescension. 
This accordingly he does here also. After declaring that 
He offered up Himself, and shewing Him to be a High 
Priest, what does he say ? But as the sum of ivhat has 
been spoken, we have such an High Priest, who is set doivn 
on the right hand of the throne of the majesty. And yet 
this is not [the act] of a Priest, but of Him to whom the 
other ought to be Priest. 

A minister of the sanctuary, not simply a minister but a 

minister of the sanctuary. And of the true Tabernacle, which 

the Lord pitched and not man. Thou seest the condescen- 

' See sion. Did he not a little before make a wdde separation ^, 

supm l" saying : Are they not all ministering spirits ? and for this 

14. cause (he saith) it is not said to them, Sit thou on my right 

' ' hand, on the view that He that sitteth is not a minister. 

How is it then that he here says, a minister, and a minister 

of the Sanctuary ? for he means here the Tabernacle. 

See how he raised up the minds of those Jews who be- 
lieved. For as it was likely that they would b^e imagining, 
that we have no such tabernacle [as they had], see here 

Chris fs Priesthood real ; iiecessarnly exercised in Heaven, 175 

(saith he) is our Priest, Great, yea, much greater than that HE.viii.3. 

other, and who has offered a more admirable sacrifice. But 

[they might say] is not all this mere talk ? is it not a boast, 

and merely said to win over our minds ? on this account 

he established it first from the oath, and afterwards also 

from the tabernacle. For this difference too was manifest : 

but the Apostle thinks of another also besides, which (saith 

he) the Lord pitched [or made firm] and not man. Where 

are they who say that the heaven whirls round ^ ? where 

are they who declare that it is spherical ? for both of these 

notions are overthrown here. 

But (saith he) for the sum of what has been spoken. By 
the sum is always meant what is most important. Again 
he brings down his discourse ; having said what is lofty, 
henceforward he speaks fearlessly. 

[2.] In the next place that thou mayest understand that 
he used the word minister of the manhood, observe how 
he again gives a further intimation of it : For (saith he) 
every high priest is ordained to offer both gifts and sacri- 
fices, ivheref ore it is necessary that this one also have some- 
lohat to offer. 

Do not now, because thou hearest that He sitteth, sup- 
pose that His being called High Priest is mere idle talk ^ ^ '''^'^'"' 
For the former, viz. His sitting, belongs to the dignity of 
the Godhead-, but this other to His great loving-kindness ' T^sa^i- 
toward man, and His tender care for us. On this account ©jr 
he repeatedly urges'^ this very thing, and particularly dwells ' ^'^"'"^^ 
upon it : for he feared lest that other [truth] should over- 
throw it^. On this account he again brings down his 
discourse to this subject: since some were enquiring for 
what purpose He died. He was a Priest. But there is no 
Priest without a sacrifice. It is necessary then that He 
also should have a sacrifice. 

And in another way ; Having said that He is on high, 
he affirms and proves that He is a Priest from every con- 
sideration, from Melchisedec, from the oath, from offering 

* Sive?o-0at. The common editions Sun Moon and Stars moved throug-h it. 
read kiueladai. Savile observes that •> That is, lest the belief of His God- 
it was the opinion of S.Chrys. that the head should undermine our belief in 
heaven was stationary, and that the His true Manhood. 

176 Our Sacraments and Services are the Heavenly things, 

HoM. 14. sacrifice. From this last point he next frames another 
necessary syllogism. For if (saith he) He had been on 
earth, He would not be a Priest, seeing that there are priests 
who offer the gifts according to the Law, If then He is a 
Priest (as He really is), we must seek some other place for 
Him. For if He had been indeed 07i earth, He ivould not 
have been a priest. For how [could He be] ? He offered 
no sacrifice, He ministered not in the Priest's office. And 
with good reason, for there were the priests. Moreover 
he shews, that it was not even possible that [He] should 
be a priest upon earth. For how [could He be] ? There 
was no rising up against [the appointed Priests], he means. 
[3.] At this point it is necessary to apply our minds at- 
tentively, and to consider the Apostolic wisdom. For 
again he points out the difference of the Priesthood. JVho 
(he saith) serve the example ^ and shadow of the heavenly 

What are the heavenly things he is here speaking of? 
The spiritual things. For although they are performed 
on earth, yet are they nevertheless worthy of the Heavens. 
^ e<T({>ay- For whcn our Lord Jesus Christ lies slain ^ [as a sacrifice], 
Revfv.^r when the Spirit is with us ^, when He who sitteth on the 
9,i2.xiii. right hand of the Father is here^, when sons are made by 
2'jrapayl- tlic Washing, when they are fellow-citizens of those in 
vvrat ^ Heaven, when we have a country, and a city [a home], and 
^ej/Tov. o ^j^^2;enship there, when we are strangers as to things here, 
* how can all these be other than heavenly things? But what ! 

Are not our Hymns heavenly ? Is it not [the fact] that the 
very things which the divine choirs of unbodied powers 
sing on high, these we also who are below utter in concert 
with them? Is not the altar also heavenly ? How? It hath 
nothing carnal, all the things which are placed there ^ be- 
come spiritual. The sacrifice does not disperse into ashes, or 
into smoke, or into steamy savour, it makes [the elements] 
that are placed there bright and splendid. How again can 
the rites which we celebrate be other than heavenly ? For 

s. John when He says. Whosoever sins ye retain they are retained, 
XX. 23. 

•= v-iro^elyiJ.ari Xarpevovcri. " shadow," 

i.e. " do service to and minister in *■ to irpoKelfxeva. The Sacred Ele- 
" that system which is a sample and ments there set before God. 

All tended to shew the superiority of the New Covenant, 177 \ 

ivhosoever sins ye remit, they are remitted : when they HE.viii.6. • 

have the keys of heaven, how can all be other than \ 

heavenly ? 

Who (saith he) serve the sample and shadow of heavenly 
things, as Moses ivas teamed, ivhen he was about to finish \ 

the tabernacle, for see, saith He, thou shall make all things '\ 

according to the pattern shelved to thee in the mount. In- 
asmuch as our hearing is less ready of apprehension than 
our sight (for the things which we hear we do not in such \ 

wise lay up in our soul, as those which we see with our 
very eyes}, He shewed him all. Either then it is this that 
he means by the sample and shadow, or else he [speaks] of 
the Temple. For, he went on to say, ^ee (His words are), , 

thou shall make all things according to the pattern^ shewed ^rvirov \ 

to thee in the mount. Was it then only what concerned the I 

furniture of the temple that he saw, or was it also what J 

related to the sacrifices, and all the rest ? Nay, one would j 

not be wrong in saying even this ; for The Church is hea- 
venly, and is nothing else than Heaven. 

[4.] (ver. 6) But now hath He obtained a more excellent 
ministry ^, by how much also He is Mediator of a better ^^''^o'^P- \ 

covenant. Thou seest (he means) how much better is the vice as I 

one ministration than the other, if one be a sample and ^''^^** 
figure, and the other truth [and reality] . But this did not \ 

at all profit the hearers, nor cheer them. On this account 1 

then he says what especially cheered them : Which has 
been established upon better promises. Having raised them 
up by speaking of the place, and the priest, and the sacri- 
fice, he next lays down also the wide difference of the 
covenants, having indeed before also said that [the first] 
was weak and unprofitable. see supra 

And observe what safeguards he sets down, when in- * ' ! 

tending to find fault with it. For in that other place after \ 

saying, according to the power of an endless life, he then supra , 

said that there is a disannulling of the commandment going ijJJ'jg/ | 

before; and then after that, he set forth somewhat great, 
saying, by which ive draw nigh unto God. And in this place, ib. 19. 
after leading us up into Heaven, and shewing that instead 
of the temple, we have Heaven, and that those things were • 

figures of ours, and having by these means exalted the j 

VOL. VII. N i 

178 The New Covenant ; the better promises. 

HoM.14. Ministration [of the New Covenant]^ he then proceeds 
naturally to exalt the priesthood. 

But (as I said) he sets down that which especially cheers 
them, in the words, Which has been established upon better 
promises. Whence does this appear? Inasmuch as the 
one was cast out, and the other introduced in its place : 
for the reason why it is of force is that it is better. For 

supi-a vii. just as he says. If perfection were by it, lohat further need 

^^' were there, that a different priest should arise, after the 

order of Melchisedec ? so also in this place he used the 
same syllogism saying (ver. 7) For if that first covenant 
had been faultless, there should have been no place sought 
for the second; [faultless'], that is, if it made men faultless. 
For it is because he is speaking of this that he did not say, 
But finding fault ivith it, but (ver. 8, 9) But finding fault 
with them. He saith, Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, 
when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel 
and with the house of Judah: not according to the covena it 
that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them 
by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt: because 
they continued not in My covenant, and I regarded them not, 
saith the Lord. 

Yea verily. And whence does it appear that [the first 
Covenant] came to an end ? He shewed it indeed also from 
the Priest, but now he shews more clearly by express words 
that it has been cast out. 

But how is it upon better promises ? For in what way, 
tell me, can earth and heaven be equal ? But do thou con- 
sider % how he speaks of promises there [in that other cove- 
nant] also, that thou mayest not bring this charge against 

ib. 19. it. For in that former place also, he says a better hope, by 
which ive draw nigh unto God, indicating that there was a 
Hope there also ; and in this place better promises, inti- 
mating that there also He had made promises. 

But inasmuch as they were for ever making objections, 
he says. Behold! the days come, saith the Lord, when I 
will establish a new covenant with the house of Israel and 
with the house of Judah, He is not speaking of any old 

" 0€(ipei used of contemplating and discerning' tlie mystical sense of the Old 

The New Covenant expressly promised; is the Christian. 179 

Covenant : for, that they might not have [occasion] to heMu.10. 
assert this, he determined the time also. Thus he did not 
say simply, according to the covenant which I made with 
their fathers, lest thou shouldest say [it was] the one made 
with Abraham, or that with Noah : but he declares what 
[covenant it was], not according to the covenant which I 
made ivith their fathers in the Exodus. Wherefore he 
added also, in the day that I took them by the hand, to lead 
them forth out of the land of Egypt; because they continued 
not in My covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord. 
Thou seest that the evils begin first £rom ourselves (they 
themselves first, saith he, continued not in [the covenant^ ) 
and the negligence is from ourselves, but the good things 
from Him; I mean the [acts] of loving-kindness. He here 
introduces, as it were, an apology shewing the cause why He 
forsakes them. 

[5.] (ver. 10) For this, saith he, is the covenant which I will 
make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; 
I will put ^ My laws into their heart, and on their miyids will ^ give 
I lurite them, and I ivill be to them a God, and they shall be 
to Me a people. Thus it is concerning the New [covenant] 
that He says this, because His words are, 7iot according to 
the covenant which I covenanted. 

But what other difference is there beside this^? Now 
if any person should say that the difference is not in this 
respect, but in respect to its being put into their hearts ; 
[saying that] He makes no mention of any difference of 
ordinances^ but points out the mode of its being given : for 
no longer (he saith) shall the covenant be in writings, but 
in hearts ; let the Jew in that case shew that this was ever 
carried into effect. However he would not find it [possible 
to do so] ; for it was made a second time in writings after 
the return from Babylon. But I, on the other hand, shew 
that the Apostles received nothing in writing, but received 
[it] in their hearts through the Holy Ghost. And for this 

f That is, besides the covenant being- ference, and that the promise in the 

in itself a new one, different from the Prophecy is that the Mosaic law shall 

Mosaic, there is also, he says, the dif- be given into the heart, and that this 

ference in the mode of giving it, the was fulfilled by the reformation of the 

one being written, the other put into people : as for instance after the Cap- 

the heart. The Jew is supposed to tivity. 
allege that this second is the only dif- 

N 2 

180 Other interpretations of the voord New ; 

HoM. 14. cause also Christ said. When He cometh, He ivill bring all 
^: *^g|l" things to your remembrance^ and He shall teach you. 

[6.] (ver. 11; 12) And they shall not teach (saith he) every 
man his countryman ^, and every man his brother, saying, 
Know the Lord : for they shall all know Me from the least of 
them even to the greatest of them. For I ivill be merciful to 
their unrighteousnesses, and their iniquities and their sins 
I will remember no more. Here is also another sign. From 
the least even to the greatest of them (he says) they shall 
know Me, and they shall not say, Knoiv the Lord. At what 
time hath this been^ulfilled save at the present ? For our 
[religion] ^ is manifest : but theirs [i. e. the Jews^] was not 
manifest, but had been shut up in a corner. 

[A covenant] is then said to be new, when it is a different 

one and shews that it has some advantage over the old. 

'Nay surely, says one ^, it is new also in this case when part 

' of it has been taken away, and part not. For instance, 

' when an old house is ready to fall down, if a person leaving 

' the whole, has patched up the foundation, straightway we 

' say, he has made it new, when he has taken some parts 

2 see Is. ^ away, and brought others into their place. For even the 

^^ V 'l^^^ven also is thus called new'^, when it is no longer of 

XXVUL23. ' brass, but gives rain ^ ; when it is not unfruitful; not, when 

STToAirrji/. The common editions have interpretation of the "new heaven" is 

■TTArjo-ioi/, as has the common text of the incorrect, iii. That the Prophecy dis- 

New Testament, hut there also Scholz, tinctly foretells a substitution. The 

Lachmann, Tischendorf read iroXiT-nvy common editions have changed the 

which is the word used in Jeremiah, character of the passage by substitut- 

according to the Vatican MS. It is ing 6.KKws Se Kaivh for Kaivr] two lines 

used by the LXX. to translate the above, and /catj/r? 5e Kal avTTjr. for 'l5oy 

Hebrew for " neighbour." Kaivr) r. in this place ; by omit- 

^ 'iSoi;, (p-ncrl, koL avrr) kolivt] rvyxa- ting cprjal at the end of the objection; 

veL. This is the argument of an objec- and substituting 'iva SeL^fj for iav ovv 

tor, who alleges that the promise of a Set|aj. 

New Covenant was fulfilled by the ' The Verona edition, one Catena, 

modification and renewed efficacy of the MSS. which Mr. Field usually fol- 

the Mosaic system, such as occurred lows, and the Latin Versions of Mu- 

after the Captivity: He alleges two tianus and the later translator, all give 

senses in which the word " New " the text which is here translated : orav 

might be applied without implying the /xtik^ti xa^Kovs ^, ctAA.' uerhuSiS^' orav 

substitution of another system in place /u?? aKapnos, ovx orav fx^ra^ArjOfj, ovx 

of the old, (i) as a repaired house is said bVay ra /xeu avrov i^atpedij, ra Se jueVp. 

to be new, and (ii) according to his in- Mr. Fieldsays that he hnsnolens volens 

terpretation, as the Heavens are new, admitted into the text the "amended" 

when after long drought tlTfey again readings of the common editions, cJraj/ 

give rain. S. Chrys. replies, i. That firfK^ri X' V, a. v. 5i5<^, koI t] yo ofioicos 

after the Captivity the Covenant was Kaivr),oTav fx^^ovxorav jxiiTafiKriSfi, 

still, as of old, unfruitful. ii.That this Koi oJkos ovtw Kaivhs '6rav rafikvK. A. 

inadmissible, 181 

^ it has been changed ; not, when portions of it have been HE.vm.i2 . 

' taken away, and portions remain. And in this sense, says 

' he ^, he hath well termed it a New Covenant.^ ^'^T^' 

If then I shew that that covenant had become Old in this Sav. &c. 
respect, that it yielded no fruit ? And that thou mayest ^™-*^^^ 
know this exactly, read what Haggai says, what Zachariah, 
what the Messenger^ [says], when the return from the ^ 6 •'A77e- 
Captivity had not yet fully taken place ; and what charges achi^^'" 
Esdras brings. How then did [the people] receive him ^^ ? 
And how did no man enquire of the Lord, inasmuch as they ^SeeMal. 
[the priests] themselves also transgressed, and knew it not ch.ii, iii. 

even themselves ^} Dost thou see how thy [interpretation] ^^f^'- 
is broken down*, whilst I maintain my own: that this [cove- rh <t6v; 
nant] must be called New in the proper sense of the word? '^^ ^'^T . 

And besides, I do not concede that the words the heaven is. ixv. 
shall he new were spoken concerning this. For why, when ^'^' 
saying in Deuteronomy the heaven shall he of brass, did he 
not set down this in the contrasted passage^, "but if ye^eVr^Si- 
" hearken, it shall be new." sTJ'dL. 

And further He says that He will give another Covenant, xxviii. 
on this account because they did not continue in the first, ' ' 

" when it is no longer of brass, but which had been previously suspended. 

" g-ives rain : [and the earth in like On the other hand the introduetion 

"manner is new,] when it is no longer of "the newearth"b\ the interpolatoi- 

" unfruitful, not when it has been is out of place: inasmuch as unfruitful 

"changed: [and in this sense the g-round would represent the people not 

" house is new] , when portions of it the Law ; neither does S. Chrys. in 

"have been "&c. There does not how- the refutation which follows refer at 

ever appear to beany need for this: on all to this point of "new earth." The 

the contrary, while the old text is introduction of the "house" is simply 

simple and intelligible, the additions needless repetition, 

bring in matters which are out of place, ^ ttoos oiv %Ka^eu avTou; The Catena 

[The other Catena however, that of has ttcDs (ruj'eAaySoj/ai'ToV; which Muti- 

Niketas, Archbishop of Heraklea, one anus read, translating it, "Quomodo 

of Mr. Field's valuable authorities, has corripuerunt eum ?" Mr. Field thinks 

the bracketed bits.] that neither reading- g-ives a suit- 

The words orav fA.7] aKapiros apply able meaning". If the reading adopted 

naturallytotheheaven,whenitdoesnot by Mr. F. and followed in the transla- 

supply the moisture necessary for pro- tion be the true one, it must be sup- 

ducing fruit. This argument from the posed that S. Chrys. had in mind the 

"new heaven"is alleged bytheobjector condition in which Ezra, or perhaps 

as distinct from that of the " new Nehemiah, found the Jews. The words 

house:"it is an instance, he would say, ri Se ''Ecrdpas iyKaX^l ; seem more ap- 

of the word "new" being applied, when propriate to Nehemiah than to Ezra: 

there was neither change nor substitu- and the reception of Nehemiah on his 

tion, as S. Chrys. interprets the pro- second visit to Jerusalem may have 

phecy ; nor even partial alteration as in been the circumstance of which the 

the analogy of the "new house;" but orator was thinking-, 
only a renewal of fertilizing action ' 

182 The Old Covenant gave place as being inefficient. 

HoM. 14. This I shew by what he says (For what the laiv could not 

Rom.vm. ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ tueak through the flesh; And again. Why 

Acts XV. tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, 

which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?) But 

they did not continue therein, he says. 

In this place he shews that God counts us worthy of 

Ps. xix. greater and of spiritual [privileges] : for it is said their sound 

X. 18. loent out into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of 

the ivorld. That is [the meaning of] they shall not say each 

Hab. ii. man to his neighbour Know the Lord. And again, the earth 

shall be filled ivith the knoidedge of the Lord as much water ^ 

to cover the seas. 

[7.] In calling it a neio {^covenant^ (he says), He hath 
made the first old: but that which decayeth and waxeth 
old is ready to vanish away. See what was hidden [in that 
word] ; how he hath laid open the very mind of the prophet! 
He honoured the law, and was not willing to call it old in 
express terms : but nevertheless this he did call it. For if 
the former had been new, he would not have called this 
which came afterwards new also. So that by granting 
something more full and different, he implies that it was 
waxen old. Therefore it is done away and is perishing, and 
no longer exists. 

Having taken from the prophet his boldness of speech, 
he attacks it with more suitableness™, pointing out that 
our [dispensation] is now flourishing. That is, he shewed 
that the other was old : then taking up the word old, and 
adding of himself another [circumstance], the [character- 
istic] of old age, he took up what was omitted by the other, 
and says ready to vanish away. 

You see then that the New has not simply caused the 
old to cease, but only as it had become aged, as it was not 
supra vii. [any longer] useful. For on this account he said, /br the 
nf'l9 weakness and unprofitableness thereof, and, the law made 
supra nothing perfect; and that if that first had been faultless, 
^^^' then should no place have been sought for the second. And 
faultless ; that is, useful ; not as though it [the old Cove- 

' TToXv y'Swp, is the readings of the the LXX. 
Alex. MS. of the LXX: but KaraKa- '" jxaWov ahrov KaQiimrai crvfKpe- 

\v\pai 6a\d(T(ras is substituted by pofTws. 

S. Chrys. for|/ei alrovs of . 

Be renewed; by forgetting past evil ways, 183 

nant] was obnoxious to any charges, but as not being ^^i^^H:!^. 
sufficient. He used a familiar form of speech. As if one 
should say, the house is not faultless, that is, it has some 
defect, it is decayed : the garment is not faultless, that is, 
it is now coming to pieces. He does not therefore here 
speak of it as evil, but only as having some fault and de- 

[8.] Thus then we also are new, or rather we were made 
new, but now are become old, and for this cause we are 
near to vanishing away, and to destruction. Let us rub off" 
this old age. It is indeed no longer possible to do it by 
the Washing [of baptism], but by repentance it is possible 
here [in this life] ^. If there be in us anything old, let us i ^vravQa 
cast it off. If [there be] any ivrinkle, if any stain, if any Eph. v. 
spot, let us wash it away and become fair : that the King ^^- ^^^^ 
may desire our beauty. li- 

lt is possible for those even who have fallen into the 
extremest deformity ^ to recover that beauty of which David 
says that the King shall desire thy beauty. Hearken, ib^- 10, 
daughter and consider; and forget thy people and thy father's 

" airo^iKTooixev : alluding- to the Poetic phrase ^vcrai anh yripas hXoiov. 

" [There was one who sold his patrimony, 
A dear-bought dower 
That had come down from high 

In a golden shower. 
It was a loss that gold could never mend. 

The heart-blood of a Friend, 
From out the world's dark den he came aside, 

A monster for the sun to see. 
All hideous soiled with foulest leprosy, 
And he sat down upon the grass and cried. 

Is there no fountain that can wash again ? 

There is a fount where holy men do say 

He that doth look for aye 
He shall become like that he doth behold. 
Borrowing a light more pure than gold. 
There is a glass whereon he that doth bend 

Shall see pourtrayed the Heaven, 
Till he forget what earth hath best to lend 
In the sweet hope that he may be forgiven. 

The Rev. Isaac Williams, Thoughts in Past years, 
The Penitent, p. 151 ed. 2. 1842.] 

184 By remembering God; specially at daivnand in the night- 

^■^^^' ^^•. house : and the King shall greatly desire thy beauty. And 
yet forgetting doth not produce beauty. Yea verily : [it 
produces] the beauty of the soul. What sort of forgetting? 
The forgetting sins. For he is speaking in reference to the 
Church from among the Gentiles, exhorting her not to 
remember the things of her fathers, that is [of] those that 
sacrificed to idols ; for from such was it gathered. 

And he said not, ' Go not after them,' but what is more. 
Do not admit them into thy mind ; which he says also in 
Ps. xvi.4. another place, / zt;?// not make mention of their names through 
Ps. xvii. my lips. And again. That my mouth may not talk of the 
' • deeds of men. As yet is this no great virtue ; nay, rather, 
it is indeed great, but not such as this [which is here spoken 
of] . For what saith he in that place ? He says not ; ' Talk 
' not of the things of men, neither shalt thou speak of the 
' things of thy fathers ; ' but, Do not even recall them in 
thought, nor admit them into thy mind. Thou seest to 
how great a distance he would have us removed from wick- 
edness. For he that remembers not [a matter] will not 
think of it, and he that does not think, will not speak of 
it : and he that does not speak of it, will not do it. Seest 
thou from how many paths he hath as it were walled us 
off! by what great intervals he hath removed us far away ! 
even to a very great [distance] . 

[9.] Let us then also hearken and forget our own evils. 
I do not say the things which we have done amiss, for 
Is. xiui. (He saith) Remember thou first, a7id I ivill not remember. I 
LXX. niean for instance, Let us no longer remember rapacity, 
but even restore the former [plunder] . This is to forget 
wickedness, and to cast out the very thought of rapacity, 
and never at any time to admit it, to wipe away even the 
things which have been already done amiss. 

But by what n^eans shall we attain to a forgetting of 
wickedness ? By remembering good things, by remember- 
ing God. If we are continually remembering God, we 
Ps. ixiii. cannot remember those other things also. For (saith he) Ij 
^' I remembered Thee upon my bed, if I thought upon Thee in 

the morning dawn. We ^ght then to have God always in 
remembrance, but at that time especially, when thought is 
undisturbed, when by means of that remembrance [a man] 

If IV e pray to Him, He ivill be our safeguard. 185 

is able to condemn himself^ when he can retain [things] in HE.vm.i3 . 
memory. For in the day-time indeed, if we do call these 
things to mind, other cares and troubles entering in after, 
drive the thought out again : but in the night it is possible 
to remember continually, when the soul is calm and at 
rest ; when it is in the haven, and under a serene sky. The Ps. iv. 4 
things which you say in your hearts be ye grieved for on your ^^^• 
beds, saith he. 

For it were indeed right to retain this recollection through 
the day also. But inasmuch as you are always full of cares, 
and distracted amidst the things of this life, at least at 
that time remember God on your bed; at the morning 
dawn meditate upon Him. 

If at the morning dawn we meditate on these things, 
we shall go forth to our business with much security. If 
we have first made God propitious by prayer and suppli- 
cation ^, going forth thus we shall have no man our enemy, i eVreulei 
Or if thou shouldest, thou wilt laugh him to scorn, having 
God propitious to thee. There is war in the public places; 
the affairs of every day are a fight, they are a tempest and 
a storm. We have therefore need of arms : and prayer is 
a great weapon. We have need of favourable winds ; we 
should be acquainted with every thing, so as to go through 
the length of the day without shipwrecks and without 
wounds. For every single day the rocks are many, and 
oftentimes our boat strikes against them and is sunk. For 
this cause have we most especially need of prayer morning 
and evening. 

[10.] Many of you have many times been spectators of 
the Olympic games : and not only have been spectators, 
but have been zealous partizans and admirers of the com- 
batants, one of this [combatant], one of that. You know 
then that both during the days of the contests, and during 
those nights, all night long the herald ^ thinks of nothing 2 ^-^pv^ 
else, has no other anxiety, than that the combatant should 
not disgrace himself when he goes forth. For those who 
sit by the trumpeter admonish him not even to speak to 
any one, that he may not spend his breath and get himself 
laughed at. If therefore he who is about to engage in a 
contest before men, uses so great forethought, much more 


Night w at chings for good, and for evil. 

HoM. 14. will it befit us to be continually thoughtful, and anxious, 
since our whole life is a contest. Let every night then be 
a night of devotion i^, and let us be careful that when we 
go out in the day we do not make ourselves ridiculous. 
And would that it were only making ourselves ridiculous. 
But now the Judge of the contest is seated on the right 
hand of the Father, hearkening diligently that we utter not 
any false note, any thing out of tune. For He is not the 
Judge of actions only, but of words also. Let us watch 
through the night ^, beloved ; we also have those that are 
eager for our success, if we will. Near each one of us An- 
gels are sitting; and yet we snore through the whole night. 
And would that it were only this. But many do even many 
licentious things, some going to the very common brothels^, 
and others making their own houses places of whoredom by 
taking courtesans thither. Yes most certainly. For is it 
not so ? It is in a pretty way that they are anxious about 
their contest. Others are drunken and speak amiss ^; others 
make an uproar. Others keep vigil through the night in 
an evil way, and worse than those who sleep, by arranging 
schemes of deceit ; others by calculating usurious interest ; 
others by bruising themselves with cares, and doing any- 
thing rather than what is suited to the contest [in which 
they are engaged] . Wherefore, I exhort you, let us lay 
aside all [other] things, and look to one only, how we may 
obtain the prize, [how we may] be crowned with the Chap- 
let ; let us do all by which we shall be able to attain to the 
promised blessings. Which may we all attain in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, with Whom to the Father and also to the 
Holy Ghost be glory, might honour now and for ever and 
world without end. Amen. 

p -wavvvxl-^' The term applied by Christians to whole nights spent in 
Rsalmody and Prayer; " vigils." 

' iravvv- 


^ irapa- 


Heb. ix. 1 — 5. 

Then verily the first [coveyianf] had also ordinances of divine 
service, and a ^ worldly Sanctuary, For there ivas a taber- ^ the 
nacle made the first, wherein was the Catidlestick, and the 
Table, and the Sheiv-bread, which is called the Sanctuary. 
And after the second veil, the tabernacle ivhich is called 
the Holiest of all; which had the golden censer and the 
Ark of the Covenant overlaid round about ivith gold : 
wherein loa^ the golden pot that had ^ manna, and Aaron's " ^'^^f^ '''^ 
rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant : and over 
it the Cheruhims of glory, shadowing the Mercy -seat : of 
which we cannot now speak particularly . 

■^ [a7io, 

He has shewn from the Priest, from the Priesthood, J''e*"^'"<^- 
from the Covenant, that that [dispensation] was to have an ^ \^6.-yia 
end. From this point he shews it from the fashion of the "^^J^^J" 
tabernacle itself. How ? This, he says, [was] the Holy ^ holiest 
and the Holy of Holies ^. The holy place then is a symbol f^^l%^ 
of the former period (for there all things are done by Cyr. 
means of sacrifices) ; but the Holy of Holies of this that ^^^ 
is now present. (hristus 

And by the Holy of Holies he means Heaven; and by ^'^-j ' 
the veil, Heaven, and also the Flesh^ ; ivhich entereth ^into supra vi. 
that within the veil ; that is to say, through the veil of His -^^^^.^ ^ 
flesh. 20. 

It were however well to take up this passage from the 

» This passage is translated as if instead of after them, as in Heb. x. 

there was a point between t^j/ trapKa 20. S. Chrys. says that " the veil " re- 

and ela-cpxofj^evvv : and as if in the presents both Heaven and "the Flesh" 

next clause rovr^ffri was a part of the of our Lord ; and cites the two places 

citation, being put by S. Chrys. before where it is so interpreted by the Apos- 

the words Sm tov KaTair^rdafxaTos, tie, vi. 19,x.20. Seebelow [4.] p. 191. 

188 The Tabernacle and what it contained, exjjlained. 

HoM. 15. very beginning, and so to speak of it. What then does he 
say? Then verihj the first also (the first what? [The fir sf] 
Covenant) had ordinances of Divine service. 

What are ordinances ? symbols or rites. Had then ^^, as 
(he means) it has not now. He indicates that it had 
already given place to the other, for (he says) it had at 
that time ; so that now although it is standing, it is not. 

And the worldly Sanctuary. He calls it worldly, inas- 
much as it was permitted to all to tread it, and in the 
same house the place was manifest where the priests stood, 
[as also] where the Jews, the Proselytes, the Grecians, the 
Nazarites [stood]. Since therefore even Gentiles were 
permitted to tread it, he calls it worldly. For surely the 
Jews were not the world. 

For (saith he) there was a tabernacle made ; the first, 
ivhich is called holy, wherein ivas the Candlestick, and the 
Table, and the Sheiv-br'ead. These things are symbols of 
the world. 

And after the second veil (There was then not one veil 
[only], but there was a veil without also) the tabernacle, 
ivhich is called holy of holies. Observe how everywhere 
he calls it a tabernacle in regard of [God's] dwelling there 

^ irapajh as in a tent ^. 

ff^rj^oi/v ff/hich had (saith he) a golden Censer, and the ark of the 
Covenant overlaid round about with gold: wherein ivas 
the golden pot that held the manna, and Aaron's rod that 
budded, and the tables of the covenant. All these things 
were venerable and conspicuous memorials of the Jewish 
ingratitude ; and the tables of the covenant (for they brake 
them) And the manna (for they murmured. And for this 
cause handing on the memory thereof to their posterity. 
He commanded it to be laid up in a golden pot). And 
Aaron's rod that budded. 

And over it, the Cherubim of glory. What is, the Cheru- 
bim of glory ? He either means Hhe glorious,' or those 

2t^ {,iro. which are under God ^ shadoiving the mercy-seat. 

Kara} rod , . , , , . , . , . 

®eov ^ Tore. Mr. Field seems to think clause begins was emphasised m 

that the Expositor read rSre in>the delivery, the explanation of the word 

sacred text : though, as he observes, " ordinances" being parenthetical : 

he presently has t6 re. Perhaps the and the rSre being implied in the past 

difficulty is avoided by supposing that tense elxe- 
the word elx^, had, with which the 

TheHighPriest onceentering in figures our One Sacrifice. 189 

But in another point of view also he extols these things Heb.jx.T. 
in his discourse, in order to shew that those which come 
after them are greater. Of ivhich (he saith) ive cannot 
now speak particularly. In these words he hints that these 
was not merely what was seen, but that they were also a 
sort of figures with hidden meaning -. Of ivhich (he saith) ' atvlyfia- 
we ca7inot noio speak particularly, perhaps because they 
needed a long discourse. 

[2.] ver. 6. N'ow when these things had been thus or- 
dained, the priests go in always into the first tabernacle 
accomplishing the ser^vices \_of God] . That is, these things 
indeed were [there], but the Jews had no enjoyment of them: 
they saw them not. So that they were no more theirs than 
[ours] for whom the foreshewing as by prophecy was made *'. 

(ver. 7) Bid into the second the High Priest alone once ^ ^ 'd-na^^ 
in the year, not without blood, which he offers for himself, ^[^ 
and for the ignorances of the people. Thou seest that the 
types have been ah^eady first laid down as a foundation ? 
for, lest they should say, ' how is there [but] one sacrifice ?' 
he shews that this was so from the beginning, since at least 
the more holy and the aweful [sacrifice] was [but] one. 
And how is it that [our] High Priest offered once for all ? 
Thus were they wont [to do] from the beginning, for 
then also (he saith) the High Priest offered once for all. 

And well said he, not without blood. (Not indeed without 
blood, yet not this blood, for the matter they were engaged 
in was not so great.) He signifies that there shall be 
a sacrifice, not consumed by fire, but rather distinguished 
by blood. For inasmuch as he called the Cross a sacrifice, 
though it had neither fire, nor logs, nor was offered many 
times, but had been offered in blood once for all ; he shews 
that the ancient sacrifice also was of this kind, was offered 
once for all in blood. 

Which he offers for himself; again,/or himself; and for the 
ignorances of the people. He said not " sins;'^ but ignorances, 
that they might not be high-minded. For even if thou hast 
not sinned intentionally, yet unintentionally thou hast com- 
mitted sins of ignorance ^, and from this no man is pure. ^ vyv6-n- 

'^ fj oTs irpoecprjTeveTo, or, " for whom they were foreshewn " &c. : for this the 
common editions have irpo^rvnovTo, " the foreshadowing as in a type." 

190 For himself. Insufficiency of 

HoM. 15, And on every occasion [he adds] the for himself, signi- 
fying that Christ is much greater. For if He be far sepa- 
rated from our sins, how did He offer for Himself ? Why 
then saidst thou these things (saith one) ? Because this is 
[a mark] of One that is superior. 

1 0e«pia [3.] Thus far there is no mystical interpretation^. But 

2 0ea>/j6r from this point he contemplates it spiritually ~ and says, 

(ver. 8) The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the ivay into 
the Holiest of all was 7iot yet made manifest, ivhile as the 
first tabernacle luas yet standing. For this cause (saith he) 
have these things been thus ordained, that we might learn 
that the Holy of Holies, that is, Heaven, is as yet inacces- 
sible. Let us not then think (saith he) that because we 
do not enter them, they have no existence : inasmuch as 
neither did we enter the Most Holy [place]. 

3 KaBea- Ycr. 9. The which (saith he) luas established^ as a figure 
^'''(2) /^^* ^^^ ^^^^'"^ present ^. What does he mean by the time 

4 ive<TT- present ? That before the coming of Christ : For after the 
'""^'^,"' coming: of Christ, it is no longer a time present % For how 

or close o ^ .iii-ii> 

at hand [could it be], having arrived, and being ended ? 

There is too something else which he indicates, when he 

says this, which las'] a figure for the time present, that is, 

became the Type. 
^ Ka6)' U During ivhich ^ are offered both gifts and sacrifices, that 
[Kaiphv] «re not able to make him that doth the service perfect, as 

pertaining to the conscience. Thou seest now what is [the 
supra vii. meaning of] The Law made notlmig perfect, and If that first 
}^' ... y [covenantl had been faultless. How? As pertaining to the 
e^Vi'eo-af conscience. For the sacrifices did not put away ^ the defile- 
orforgive ^^^^^ which [came] from the soul, but still were concerned 
ib. ^li. with the body: after the law of a carnal commandment, 
16. Yov certainly they could not put away '^ adultery, nor murder, 

TkcpUvai ^^^^ sacrilege. Seest thou? Thou hast eaten this. Thou 

hast not eaten that, which ai*e matters of indifference. 

[Which stood'] only in meats and drinks, and divers tvash- 

ings. "Thou hast drunk this,^' saith he: and yet nothing 

had been ordained concerning drink, but he said this, 

treating them as trifles '^^ 

^ e'leureAiCwv. As if they were so were no precepts. S. Chrys. hadper- 

immaterial, that he did not think it haps overlool«ed the law of the Naza- 

worth while to be accurate, and men- rites. Numb. vi. 3. 
tioned " drinks '' about which there 

their Sacrifices: what the Veilfiijures. 191 

ver. 10. And [m] divers washings, and carnal ordinances He.jx.h. 
imposed till the time of reformation ^. For this is the right- ^ ^^^p^^- 
eousness of the flesh. In this place he casts down the ting 
sacrifices J shewing that they had no efficacy^ and that they **'^''' 
existed till the time of reformation, that is, they waited for 
the time that reformeth all things. 

[4.] ver. 11. But Christ being come an High Priest of 
the good things that are come to pass ^ by the greater and 
more perfect tabernacle not made ivith hands. Here he 
means the flesh. And well did he say, greater and more 
perfect, since God The Word and all the power of The 
Spirit dwells therein ; For Godgiveth not the Spirit by mea- s. John 
sure [imto Him] . And more perfect, as being both un- "^' ^^* 
blameable, and accomplishing greater things. 

That is, not of this creation. See in what sense [he said] 
greater. For it would not have been of the Spirit, if man S. Matt, 
had constructed it. Nor yet [part] of this creation, that is, *' ^^* 
not of these created things but of a spiritual [creation] ; 
[derived] of- the Holy Ghost. 2 ^^ 

Thou seest how he calls heaven and the Body ^ both ta- 
bernacle and veil; By the greater and more perfect taberna- infra x. 
cle, through the veil, that is. His flesh. And again, into that g^^* ^^-^ 
within the veil. And again, entering into^ the Holy of Holies, 19- 
to appear before the face of God. For what cause then infra ver. 
doth he this ? According as one thing or a different one " 
is signified. I mean for instance, the Heaven is a veil, for 
it walls off" the Holy place ; the flesh is a veil, [as] con- 
cealing the Godhead ^^; and likewise a tabernacle, [as] hold- 
ing the Godhead. Again, Heaven [is] a tabernacle : for 
the Priest is there within. 

« yej/o/xeucou : Here and afterwards substitute it for rh, we have a g-ood 

IxeWdvTuu has been substituted in the sense,in accordance with the four texts 

modern editions of S. Cln-ys. 76j'o/ie- cited by S.Chrys. and the explanations 

yw;/ is considered by Lachmann to be which he afterwards gives. 
the true reading in the Epistle. s daepxo/x4ur]u : probably used by S. 

f A slight alteration of Mr. Field's Chrys. as if tt/j/ aapKa had preceded, 
text seems needed here. The text of ^ The pointing has been changed in 

the Homily which he gives in accord- this place. In Mr. Field's edition the 

ance with all the authorities is : Spas passage stands thus : /caTaTreVao-^a 6 

TTOos Koi (TKyjUTiu Koi KUT aiT 4t acT jxa kolL ovpav6s' ucTTrep yap aTrorcLxiC^t ra ayia 

ovpavhv rh aw/xa waAeT. But there is Kara-K^raajxa, 7} aap^ Kpi/irrovaa r)]v 

no appearance that the Apostle called deSrvra. The translation is made as if 

Christ's body heaven, nor do any of the pointing was raayta- KaTOTreTao-jua 

the texts cited shew it. If however r] (rap^, Kpuivrovcra t^j/ 0. otherwise we 

we introduce Koi before rb aufxa^ or must supply 7} aap^ before Sxrwep. 

1 92 Christ's Sacrifice purifying the Conscience. 

HoM.15. [5.] But Christ (he saith) being come an High Priest: he 

did not say, being, but being come, that is, having come 

for this very purpose, not having been successor to another. 

He did not come first and then become [High Priest], but 

\h.\\'ay.a game and became at the same time ^. And he did not say 

or, but being come an High Priest of things which are sacrificed, 

[became |^^^ ^y ^j^^ g^^^ things that are come to pass, as if his dis- 

soonL course had not power to put the whole before us. 

He came Neither by the blood, saith he, of goats and calves (All 

things are changed) but by His own Blood (saith he) He 

2 4<pdTra^ entered in once for alP into the Holy place. See thus he 

called Heaven. Once for all (saith he) He entered into 
the Holy place, having found eternal redemption. And this 
[expression] having found, was [expressive] of things very 
difficult, and that are beyond expectation, how by one 
entering in. He found everlasting redemption. 

[5.] Next [comes] that which is calculated to persuade. 
For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an 
heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the 
flesh; how much more shall the Blood of Christ, Who through 

3 hyiov so fj^Q ffgiy 3 Spirit offered Himself ivithout spot to God, purge 
and Ben.' your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God. 

For (saith he) if the blood of bulls is able to purify the 
flesh, much rather shall the Blood of Christ wipe away the 
defilement of the soul. For that thou mayest not suppose 
when thou hearest [the word] sanctifieth, that it is some 

4 i-Kiat). o-rga^ thing, he marks out* and shews the difference between 
Tal"" each of these purifyings, and how the one of them is high 

and the other low. And says it is [so] with good reason, 
since that is the blood of bulls, and this the Blood of Christ, 

Nor was he content with the name, but he sets down 
also the manner of the offering. Who (saith he) through 
the Holy ' Spirit offered Himself ivithout spot to God, that is, 
the victim was without blemish, pure from sins. For this 
is [the meaning of] through the Holy Spirit, not by means 
of fire, nor of any other things. 

Shall purify your conscience (saith he) from dead works. 
And well said he from ikad ivorks ; if any man had touched 

i Here and a^ain below the Catena and Mutianus read ^' eternal," and so 
one MS. a priori mnnn. 

Dead works. Sin makes men disgusting and shameless. 193 

a dead body, he was polluted ; and here, if any man touch a HE.ix.i4. 1 

dead ivork, he is defiled through his conscience. To serve 
(he saith) the Living and true God, Here he declares that \ 

it is not [possible] while one has dead loorks to serve the i 

Living and true God, for they are both dead and false ; and ■ 

with good reason [he does this] . ] 


[6.] Let no man then enter in here with dead works, (3) \ 

For if it was not fit that one should enter in who had ! 

touched a dead body, much more one that hath dead works : 
for this is the most grievous pollution. And dead works 
are, all which have not life, which breathe forth an ill odour. i 

For just as a dead body is useful to none of the senses, but j 

is even annoying to those who come near it, so sin also at ] 

once strikes our thinking faculties^, and does not allow the i rh xoyi. i 

mind itself to be quiet, but disturbs and troubles it. ~ o-tikSu - 

And it is said too that a plague at its very commence- ; 

ment thoroughly corrupts ~ the living bodies ; of such a 2 riKrS- 
nature also is sin. It differs in nothing from a plague, not ^f*'^* , 
[indeed] corrupting the air first, and then the living bodies, ' ^'^" \ 

but darting at once into the soul. Seest thou not how ! 

persons affected with the plague, are swollen and inflamed : 
how they writhe about, how they are full of an ill scent, 
how disfigured are their countenances : how wholly unclean 
they are ? Such are they also that are sinning, though they ! 

see it not. For, tell me, is not he who is possessed by the \ 

desire of riches or carnal lust, worse than any one that is 1 

in a fever ? Is he not more unclean than all these, when 
he does and submits to all shameless things ? I 

[7.] For what is more degraded than a man who is in 
love with money? So many things as women that are 
harlots or on the stage refuse not to do, neither does he 
[refuse] . Nay it is even probable that they would refuse ] 

[to do] a thing, rather than he. He even submits to do j 

things suited only to slaves, flattering those whom he ought | 

not; again he is overbearing where he ought not to be, j 

being inconsistent in every respect. He will sit by them, 
flattering wicked people, and oftentimes depraved old men, 
that are of much poorer and meaner condition than him- 
self; and will be insolent and overbearing to others that ] 
are good and in all respects virtuous. Thou seest in both 

VOL. VII. o 

194 The degrading character of Covetousness, 

HoM.15. respects his unseemly conduct, his shamelessness : he is 
both humble beyond measure, and boastfully arrogant. 

Harlots however stand in front of their house, and the 
charge against them is that they sell their body for money : 
yet, one may say, poverty and hunger compel them (al- 
though at the most not even is this a sufficient excuse : for 
they might gain a livelihood by work). But the covetous 
man stands, not before his house, but before the city, mak- 
ing over to the devil not his body but his soul ; so that 
he [the devil] is in his company, and goes in unto him, 
as in very deed to an harlot : and having satisfied all his 
lust, departs ; and all the city sees it, not two or three 
persons only. 

And this again is the peculiarity of harlots, that they 
are his who gives the gold. Even if he be a slave or a gla- 
diator ^, or any person whatever, yet if he offers their hire, 
they receive him. But the free, even should they be more 
noble than all, they do not accept without the money. 
This same do these men also do. They turn away right 
thoughts when they bring no money : but they cherish 
such as are abominable, and truly like those that fight 
' e-npio/xd- with wild beasts ^, for the sake of the gold, and cohabit with 
^'"^ them in an unseemly way and destroy the beauty of the 
soul. For as those women are naturally of odious appear- 
^(pvffci ance ^ and black, and awkward and gross, formless and ill- 
€jSexae7s g^apcd, and in all respects disgusting, such do the souls of 
these men become, not able even to conceal their deformity 
3 iTTirpiiJL. by their paintings ^. For when the ill look ^ is extreme, 
fxacri whatever things they may devise, they cannot succeed in 
Uiey their feigning. 

rub on. YoY that it is shamelessness which constitutes harlots, 
Jer. iii. hear the prophet saying. Thou wert shameless towards all; 
^' thou hadst a harlofs countenance. This may be said to 

^ [jLouofxdxos. The -reading of the (bestialibus Mut.) just below, for 
common editions is k&j' iX^vOepos, k&v which eeo/jLcixois had been substituted 
/xSvaxos. The word /xSvaxos had been in the Common texts. Both conjec- 
at a very early period written by some tures are now confirmed by MS. 
copyists for /xovo/jlolxos (Mutianus has authority. The gladiators, especially 
monacfms), and the interpolator mis- the bestiarii, who fought with wild 
apprehending the drift of the passage beasts, were regarded as a most de- 
had inserted Khv iXcveepos. Mr. Field graded class. 

many years ago in earlier volumes of ' SvcreiSla. Mut. and one MS. have 

his edition, suggested the true reading SvcrwSia, "ill savour." 
here, as also the word dripiofidxois 

Laughing in Church by the professedly religious, 195 

the covetous also : Thou ivert shameless towards all, not HE.ix.i4. 
towards these or those, but towards all. How ? Such an 
one has no respect either for father, or son, or wife, or 
friend, or brother, or benefactor, absolutely not for any 
person whatever. And why do I say friend, or brother, or 
father ? He has no respect for God Himself, but thinks 
that all [we believe] is a fable ; and he laughs : intoxicated 
by his excessive lust, and not even admitting into his ears 
any of the things which might profit him. 

But O ! their absurdity ! and then what things they say ! 
" Woe to thee O Mammon, and to him that has thee not." 
At this I am torn to pieces with indignation : for woe be 
to those who say these things, even though they say them 
in jest. For tell me, has not God uttered such a threat as 
this, saying. Ye cannot serve tivo masters ? And dost thou g. Matt, 
set at nought ^ the threat ? Does not Paul say that it is \\ 24. 
Idolatry, and does he not call the covetous man an Idolater ? Eph. v. 

[8.] And thou standest laughing, raising a laugh after ^• 
the manner of women of the world, those [I mean] that ^ ' 
are on the stage. This has overthrown, this has cast 
down every thing. Our Christianity ^ is turned into laugh- 2 to ^ywe- 
ing, and politeness ^ and facetiousness ; there is nothing V^oJ^^^.^fy_ 
steady, nothing grave. I say not these things to men of /x6s 
the world only ; but I know those whom I am hinting at. 
For the Church has been filled with laughter. If such an 
one says a witty thing, laughter immediately arises in those 
who are sitting [here] : and the strange thing is that many 
do not leave off laughing even during the very time of the 
prayer. Everywhere the Devil leads the dance ^, he has ^ xop^^^<- 
entered into all, is master of all. Christ is dishonoured, 
is thrust aside ; the Church is made no account of. Do ye 
not hear Paul when he saith. Let filthiness and foolish ib. 4. 
talking and jesting, be taken away from you ? He places 
jesting along with filthiness, and dost thou laugh ? What 
is foolish talking ? that in which there is nothing profitable. 
And dost thou laugh at all and relax thy countenance, 
thou that art devoted to a solitary life? thou that art 
crucified? thou that art a mourner? tell me, dost thou 
laugh ? Where dost thou hear of Christ- doing this ? No- 
where : but that He was sad indeed oftentimes. For even 

o 2 

196 Laughing, its use, inconsistent with penitential acts. 

HoM. 15. when He looked on Jerusalem, He wept ; and when He 
thought on the Traitor He was troubled ; and when He 
was about to raise Lazurus, He wept ; and dost thou laugh ? 
If he who grieves not over the sins of others deserves to 
be accused, of what consideration will he be worthy, who 
is without any feeling of sorrow for his own sins, yea laughs 
at them ? This is the season of grief and tribulation, of brui- 
sing and bringing under [the body], of conflicts and sweat- 
ings, and dost thou laugh ? Dost not thou see how Sarah was 
S. Luke rebuked? dost thou not hear Christ saying. Woe to them that 
VI. 25. laugh, for they shall iveep ? Thou chantest these things every 
day, for, tell me, what dost thou say ? ' I have laughed ?^ 
Ps. vi. 6. By no means ; but what ? / laboured in my groaning. 

But perchance there are some persons so dissolute and 
silly as even during this very rebuke to laugh, because for- 
sooth we thus discourse about laughter. For indeed such 
is their misguided folly, such their madness, that it is not 
even sensible of the rebuke. 

The Priest of God is standing, offering up the prayer of 

all : and art thou laughing, having no fears ? And while 

he is offering up the prayers in trembling for thee, thou 

art despising all. Hearest thou not the Scripture saying, 

cf. Acts Woe, ye despisers ! dost thou not shudder ? art thou not 

xiii. 41 subdued ? Even when thou enterest a royal palace^ thou 

Hab. i. 5. orderest thyself in dress, and look, and gait, and all other 

respects : and here where there is the true Palace of the 

King indeed, and things like those of heaven, dost thou 

laugh ? Thou indeed, I know, seest [them] not, but hear 

thou that there are angels present every where, and in the 

house of God especially they stand by the King, and all is 

filled by those incorporeal Powers. 

This my discourse is addressed to women also, who in 
the presence of their husbands indeed do not dare readily 
to do this, and even if they do it, it is not at all times, but 
during a season of relaxation, but here they do it always. 
Tell me, O woman, dost thou cover thine head and laugh, 
when thou art sitting in the Church ? Didst thou come in 
here to make confession of thy sins, to fall down before 
God, to entreat and to supplicate for the transgressions 
thou hast wretchedly committed, and dost thou do this with 
laughter ? How then wilt thou be able to propitiate Him ? 

True mourning now leads to true joy hereafter. 197 

[9.] But (saith one) what harm is there in laughter? There HE.ix.i4. 
is no harm in laughter; the harm is when it is beyond 
measure, and out of season. Laughter has been implanted 
in us, that when we see our friends after a long time, we 
may laugh ; that when we see any persons downcast and 
fearful, we may relieve them by our smile ; not that we 
should burst out violently ^ and be always laughing. Laugh- ^ avanay- 
ter has been implanted in our soul, that the soul may x"^'^^^" 
sometimes be refreshed, not that it may be quite relaxed. 
For carnal desire also is implanted in us, and yet it is not 
by any means necessary that because it is implanted in us, 
therefore we should use it, or use it immoderately: nay 
rather we hold it in subjection, and say not. Because it is 
implanted in us, let us use it. 

Serve God with tears, that thou mayest be able to wash 
away the sins which thou hast committed. I know that 
many persons make a mock at us -, saying, 'Tears directly.' ^5m/i«. 
For this very cause it is a time for tears. I know also 
that they are disgusted, who say. Let us eat and drink, for i Cor. 
to-morrow we die. Vanity of vanities, all is vanity. It is ^'f\ 2 
not I that say it, but he who had had the experience of all 
things saith thus: I builded for me houses, I planted ?;me- lb. ii. 4. 
yards, I made me pools of water, [/ had^^ men servants and ih. 6, 7. 
ivomen servants. And what is it that he saith after all this ? 
Vanity of vanities, all is vanity. ib x.ii. 8. 

Let us mourn therefore, beloved, let us mourn in order 
that we may laugh indeed, that we may rejoice indeed in 
the time of unmixed joy. For with this joy here grief is 
altogether mingled : and never is it possible to find it pure. 
But that other is simple and undeceiving joy : it has not 
in it anything treacherous, nor any admixture. In that 
joy let us delight ourselves ; that let us pursue after. And 
it is not possible to obtain this in any other way, than by 
choosing here not what is pleasant, but what is profitable, 
and by voluntarily afflicting ourselves a little, and bearing 
all things with thanksgiving. For thus we shall be able to 
attain also to the Kingdom of Heaven, of which may we 
all be counted worthy, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom 
to the Father together with the Holy Ghost be glory now 
and for ever and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. ix. 15—18. 

^ of him 
made it 
• in the 
case of 
the dead 
'^ whence 
■* inaugu- 

And for this cause He is the Mediator of the New Testament, 
that by means of death for the redemption of the trans- 
gressions that were under the first Testament, they ivhich 
are called might receive the promise of an eternal inherit- 
ance. For where a testament is, there ynust also of ne- 
cessity he the death of the testator ^ For a testament is 
of force when men are dead"^, since it hath no force at all 
whilst the testator liveth. Whereupon ^ neither ivas that 
first [testament~\ dedicated"^ without blood. 

^ inr6Seiy 

It was probable that many of those who were more weak 
in disposition would distrust the promises of Christ for 
this reason especially, because He had died. Paul accord- 
ingly out of a superabundance [of proofs] introduced this 
illustration ^, deriving it from common custom. Of what 
kind is it ? ^ Nay rather (he says) on this very account we 
ought to be of good courage.' On what account ? Because 
testaments are established and obtain their force when 
those who have made them are not living, but dead. And 
for this cause, saith he, is He the Mediator of the Neiv Tes- 
tament, A Testament is made towards the last day, [the 
day] of death. 

And a testament is of this character : It has some that 
are heirs, and some that are disinherited. So in this case 
also: / ivill that where I am, saith Christ, these also may 
be. And again of those who are disinherited, hear Him say- 
ib. 20. ing, I pray not for all, but for them that believe on Me through 
their word. Again, a tisstament has some things belonging 
to him who makes the disposition, and some to those who 
receive ; so that they have some things to receive, and some 

S. John 
xvii. 24. 

Death necessary; for the Testament; Mediation; typified, 199 

to do. So also in this case. For after having made pro- HE.ix.i5. 
mises innumerable, He demands also what is [to come] from 
them, saying, a new commandment I give unto you. Again, S.John 
a testament ought to have witnesses. Hear Him again ^"^' ' 
saying, / am one that hear witness of Myself, and He that |^- ^"'• 
sent Me heareth ivitness of Me. And again. He shall testify ib. xv. 
of Me, speaking of the Comforter. The twelve Apostles ^^* 
too He sent, saying, Bear ye ivitness before God ^. 

[2.] And for this cause (saith he) He is the Mediator of 
the Neiv Testament. What is a Mediator ? A mediator is 
not owner of the thing, in respect whereof he is mediator, 
but the thing belongs to one person, and the mediator is 
another : as for instance, the mediator in regard to a mar- 
riage is not the person who contracts matrimony, but he 
who aids him who is about to take a wife. So then it is in 
this instance also. The Son became Mediator between 
the Father and us. The Father willed not to leave us this 
inheritance, but was wroth against us, and was displeased 
[with us] as being estranged [from Him] ; He accordingly 
became Mediator between us and Him, and gained Him 

And what then ? How did He become Mediator ? He 
brought words from [Him] and brought [them to us], con- 
veying over ^ what came from the Father to us, and adding [i siaTropd- 
His own death thereto. We had offended : we ous^ht to m^i^o'i', 

*^ SC6 cibovc 

have died : He died for us and made us worthy of the Tes- p. 40 note 
tament. In thil way is the Testament secure, in that ^-^ 
henceforward it is made unto those that are not unworthy. 
At the beginning indeed. He made His dispositions as a 
father for sons ; but after we had become unworthy, there 
was no longer place for a testament, but there was need of 

Why then (he would say) art thou proud on account of 
the law ? For it placed us in a condition of so great sin, 
that we could never have been saved, if our Lord had not 
died for us^; the law would not have had power, for it is 

» This is not a citation of any words are those of 1 Tim. v. 21 : thrown into 
of our Lord : but probably S. John xv. the imperative form. 
27, wliicli is substantially equivalent, ^ Mr. Field points the passage thus : 
was the passage intended ; the words "wecouldneverhavebeensaved; if our 

200 What is signified by sprinkling all ivith Blood ^c» 

HoM. 16. [3.] And he established this no longer from common 
custom only, but also from the things which had actually 
happened in [the case of] the old [Testament] : which es- 
pecially influenced them. There was no one [it might be 
objected] who died there : how then could that Testament 
be firm? In the same way (saith he). How? For there also 
there was blood, just as there is blood here. And if it was 
not the blood of the Christ, do not be surprised ; for it was 
a figure. Wheiice, saith he, neither ivas the first [Testamenf] 
inaugurated without blood. 

What is loas inaugurated? was confirmed, was ratified, 
so Horn. The word ivhence ^ means " for this cause.'^ It was needful 
V. 5. p. 69 that the symbol of the Testament should be [the symbol] 

on ch. iii. , ^ , *'^, i. j j 

1. also 01 death. 

(2) For otherwise (tell me) for what object is the book of the 

testament sprinkled ? (ver. 19, 20) For when Moses had 

spoken to all the people every precept according to the law, 

he took the blood of calves, with ivater, and scarlet tvool, 

and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself arid all the 

people, saying, This is the blood of the testament, which 

God hath enjoined unto you. Tell me then for what object 

is the book of the testament sprinkled, and also the people, 

except on account of the precious blood, figured from the 

first ? 

2 Kpa. Why with hyssop ? It is close and retentive ^ ^ And why 

TTjTiK V ^^^ y;ater ? It indicates also the cleansing by water. And 

why the wool? this also [was used], that* the blood might 

be retained. In this place blood and water indicate the 

same thing ^, for baptism is His passion ^. 

[4.] ver. 21, 22. Yea and in like manner too he sprinkled 

with blood the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministi^y, 

wemav ^^^ according to the law, almost ^ all things are purged ivith 

almost blood, and without blood-shedding no remissio?i takes place. 

Zlord! Why the almost > why did he qualify it ? Because those 

ing- 8fc. [ordinances] were not a perfect purification, nor a perfect 

" Lord had not died for us, the Law rov al/xaros " of the blood." 
"would not have had power"&e. The ^ The common editions add Sj/, de- 
translation follows the Bened. point- termining the meaning- to be "he, [or 
ing, as giving" the meaning rt>»st in " it] shews that blood and water are 
accordance with S. Chrys. teaching. " the same thing." 

•= The common text, besides other ^ See above on ch.-vi. 6. 
fliiditions, adds the explanatory words, 

The sprinklmg of Chrisfs Blood, 201 

remission, but half-complete and in a very small degree. HE.ix.22. 
But in this case He saith, This is the blood ^ of the New S. Matt. 
Testainent, lohich is shed for you, for remission of sins. 

Where then is the book ? He purified their minds. They 
themselves then were the books of the New Testament. 
But where are the vessels of the ministry ? These are them- 
selves. , And where is the tabernacle ? Again, it is them- 
selves; for / ivill dwell in them, He saith, and ivalk m2Cor. vi. 

[5.] But they were not sprinkled with scarlet ivool, nor yet 
ivith hyssop. Why was this ? Because the cleansing was not 
bodily but spiritual, and the blood was spiritual. How? 
It flowed not from the bodies of irrational animals, but 
from the Body which had been framed by the Spirit. With 
this blood not Moses but Christ sprinkled us, through the 
word which was spoken ; This is the blood of the New 
Testament, for the remission of sins. This word, instead 
of Hyssop, having been dipped in the blood, sprinkles all. 
And there indeed the body was cleansed outwardly, for the 
purifying was bodily ; but here, inasmuch as the purifying 
is spiritual, it entereth into the soul, and cleanseth it, not 
being simply sprinkled over, but springing up like a foun- 
tain in our souls. They who have been initiated know what 
I am speaking of. And in their case indeed [the Priest] 
sprinkled just the surface; and, on the other hand, the 
person who was sprinkled washed it off; for surely he did 
not go about continually stained with blood. But in the 
case of the soul it is not so, but the blood is mixed up with 
its very substance, making it vigorous and pure, and lead- 
ing it to the very unapproachable perfection of beauty. 

[6.] Henceforward then he shews that His death is the 
cause not only of confirming [the Covenant], but also of 
purification. For inasmuch as death was thought to be 
an odious thing, and especially that of the cross, he says 
that it wrought a purification, and a precious purification, 
and under greater conditions. For this cause the sacrifices 
preceded, because of this blood. For this cause [w^ere] the 
lambs"; every thing was done for this cause. 

f Or as the position of (p-qcX after af^a would seem to imply was the 
interpretation of S. Chrys. : " This blood is that of the New Testament &c." 

202 Our Heavenly things. What is Heaven F How we 

HoM. 16. 
^ uiroSet- 

- or 
" sam- 
" means 
of shew- 

Phil. iii. 


3 TliTrtf 


^ cxeVet 
Koi oIkci- 

ver. 23. It was therefore necessary that the Patterns ^ 
(he says) of the things in the heavens should be purified v)ith 
these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacri- 
fices than these. 

And how are i\\Qy patterns^ of things in the heavens? 
And what does he mean by the things in the heavens at 
this time ? Does he [mean] Heaven ? Or is it possible that 
he means the Angels ? None of these, but our [Christian 
rites] s. It follows then that our [services] are in Heaven, 
and our [services] are heavenly, even though they be ac- 
complished on earth ; since angels also are on earth, yet 
they are called Heavenly. And the Cherubim appeared 
on earth, but yet they are heavenly. And why do I say 
'appeared ? ' nay rather they dwell on earth, just as they did 
in Paradise : but this is nothing ; for they are heavenly. 
And, Our conversation is in Heaven, and yet we live here. 

But the heavenly things themselves, that is, the philoso- 
phy which exists amongst us ; those who have been called 

With better sacrifices than these. What is better is better 
than something [else] that is good. Therefore the patterns 
also of things in the heavens have been proved good ; for 
not even the patterns could have been evil : else the things 
whereof they are patterns would also have been evil. 

[7.] If then we are heavenly, and have obtained such a 
sacrifice '^, let us fear. Let us no longer continue on the 
earth ; for even now it is possible for him that wishes it, 
not to be on the earth. For to be on the earth and not 
to be, is the effect of moral disposition and choice. For 
instance; God is said to be in Heaven. Wherefore? not 
because He is confined by space ^, God forbid, nor as 
having left the earth destitute of His presence, but by His 
close relation to and intimacy with * the Angels. If then 
we also are near to God, we are in Heaven, For what care 
I about Heaven when I see the Lord of Heaven, when I 

s The Greek is ra rj/j-erepa, induding 
all our sacraments, services, relations, 
life and conversation. seeHom.xiv. [3.] 

'' Ovcrias. Mr. Field adopts the read- 
ing of the later MSS. (and common 

Editions) oixrlas "substance," or "pos- 
session." But the three MSS. vrhich 
he usually follows and the Old transla- 
tion read dvcrlas, which has been fol- 
lowed in the translation. 

on earth may be in Heaven, 203 

myself am become a Heaven ? For, He saith, We ivill come, HE.ix.23. 

S. John 
xiv. 23. 

I and the Father^ and will make our abode with him, ^' ''^^^ 

Let us then make our own soul a Heaven. The heaven is 
naturally bright ; for not even in a storm does it become 
black, for it does not itself change its appearance, but the 
clouds run together and cover it. Heaven has the Sun ; j 

we also have the Sun of Righteousness. I said it is possible \ 

[for us] to become a Heaven ; and I see that it is possible I 

[for us] to become even better than Heaven. How ? when 
we have the Lord of the Sun. Heaven is throughout pure 
and without spot ; it changes not either in a storm or in 
the night. Neither let us then be so influenced, either by i 

tribulations or by the wiles of the devil, but let us continue Eph. vi. ^ 

spotless and pure. Heaven is high and far distant from the " < 

earth. Let us also effect this [as regards ourselves] ; let us : 

withdraw ourselves from the earth, and exalt ourselves 
to that height, and remove ourselves far from the earth. 
Heaven is higher than the rains and the storms, and is 
reached by none of them. This we also shall be able to 
do, if we will. ■ 

It does however appear [to be affected by changes] , but \ 

it is not so affected. Neither then let us be affected [by j 

them], even if we appear to be so. For just as in a storm, i 

people in general know not the beauty of the heaven, but 
think that it is changed, while philosophic men know that J 

it is not affected at all, so with regard to ourselves also 
in our afflictions ; the many think that we are changed with : 

[changing circumstances], and that our affliction has 
touched our very heart, but philosophers know that it has 
not touched us. 

[8.] Let us then become heaven, let us mount up to ! 

that height, and so we shall see men nowise differing from J 

ants. I do not speak of the poor only, nor the many. But j 

even if there be a great general there, even if the emperor j 

be there, we shall not distinguish the emperor, nor the 
private person. We shall not know what is gold, or what ' 

is silver, or what is silken or purple raiment : we shall see 
all things as if they were flies, if we be seated in that height , 

above. There is no tumult there, no disturbance, nor 

204 Example of S. Paul. It is difficult, but possible. 

Ho^t- ^6. And how is it possible (saith one) for him who walks on 
the earth, to be raised up to that height ? I do not tell it 
thee in words, but I shew thee in fact those who have ar- 
rived at that height. Who then are they ? 

I mean such as Paul, who being on earth, [yet] spent 
their lives in heaven. But why do I say "in heaven?" They 
were higher than the Heaven, yea than the other heaven, 

Rom. and mounted up to God Himself. For, who (he saith) 
shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, 
or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, 

2 Cor. iv. or sivord ? And again, while we look not at the things which 
are see?i, but at the things ivhich are not seen. Thou seest 
that he did not even see the things that are here. But to 
shew thee that he was higher than the heavens, hear him 

Rom. saying himself. For I am persuaded that neither death, 

gg ' ' nor life, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, 
nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate 
us from the love of Christ. 
(4) Thou seest how thought hurrying past all things, made 
him higher not than this creation only, not than these 
heavens [only], but even [than any other also] if any other 
there were. Thou hast seen the elevation of his mind ? 
Thou hast seen what the tent-maker became, because he had 
the will, he who had spent his whole life in the market-place? 
[9.] For there is no hindrance, no not any, but that we 
may rise above all men, if we have the will. For if we are 
so successful in arts that are beyond the reach of the gene- 
rality, much more in that which does not require so great 

For, tell me, what is more difficult than to walk along a 
tight rope, just as on level ground, and when walking on 
high to dress and undress yourself, as if you were sitting 
on a couch ? Does not the performance seem to us to be 
so frightful, that we are not even willing to look at it, but 
are terrified and tremble at the very sight ? And tell me, 
what is more difficult than to hold a pole upon your face, 
and when you have put a child up upon it, to perform in- 
numerable feats and detight the spectators ? And what 

^ (T(paipi. is more difficult than to play at ball ^ with swords ? And 
tell me what is harder than thoroughly to search out the 

All depends on our willing, and exerting ourselves. 205 

bottom of the sea ? And one might mention innumerable HE.ix.23^ 
other arts. 

But easier than all these, if we have the will, is virtue, 
and the going up into Heaven. For in this case it is only- 
necessary to have the will, and all [the rest] follows. For 
we may not say, I am unable : this would be to accuse the 
Creator. For if He made us unable, and then gives us 
commands, it is an accusation against Himself. 

[10.] How is it then (some one says) that many are not 
able ? How is it then [tell me] that many are not willing? 
For, if they be willing, all men will be able. For this 
cause also Paul saith, / would that all men ivere even as 1 1 Cor. 
myself, since he knew that all were able to be as himself. ^"' ^* 
For he would not have said this, if it had been impossible. 
Dost thou wish to become [such] ? only lay hold on the 

Tell me now, in the case of any arts, when we wish to 
attain them, are we content with wishing, or do we also 
engage with the things themselves ^? As for instance, does 
any man wish to become a pilot, he does not say, I wish, 
and content himself with that, but he also puts his hand 
to the work. Does he wish to become a merchant, he 
does not merely say, I wish, but he also takes the matter in 
hand. Again he wishes to travel abroad, and he does not 
say, I wish, but he applies himself to the very thing itself. 
Is it then so, that in every thing wishing alone is not 
sufficient, but we must needs add action also ; and when 
thou wishest to mount up to heaven, dost thou merely say, 
' I wish ?' 

How then is it (saith he) that thou saidst that willing is 
sufficient ? [I meant] willing j oined with deeds, the [willing] 
when one lays hold on the thing itself; when one has 
laboured [at it]. For we have God working with us, and 
acting with us. Only let us make our choice, only let us 
apply ourselves to the matter as to a [real] work, only let 
us be anxious about it, only let us lay it to heart, and all 
follows. But if we sleep on, and as we snore expect to 

' awToix^da Twv Trpayfxarwv. The that follow: in the translation it is 
expression (toG irpdyixaros uTmrai) is varied, 
repeated in each of tlie three instances 

206 We cannot succeed without eosertion. 

HoM.16. enter into heaven, how shall we be able to obtain possession 
of the heavenly inheritance? 

Let us therefore be willing, I exhort you, let us be will- 
ing. Why do we carry on all our traffic with reference to 
the present life, which to-morrow we shall leave ? Let us 
make choice then of that Virtue which will suffice us through 
all eternity : wherein we shall be continually, and shall enjoy 
the everlasting good things, which may we all attain, in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the Father together 
with the Holy Ghost be glory power honour now and for 
ever and world without end. Amen, 


Heb. ix. 24—26. 

For Christ is not entered into the holy places made ivith 

hands, which are the figures ^ of the true, but into Heaven i avrl- 

itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us. Nor '^^'^°- 

yet that He should offer Himself often, as the High Priest 

enter eth into the Holy place every year with blood of others, 

for then must He often have suffered since the foundation 

of the world. But now, once ^, at the end of the world, ^ ""^"^ 

hath He appeared to put away ^ sin by the sacrifice of all 

Himself, ^ or an- 

•^ ml 

The Jews greatly prided themselves on the temple and 
the tabernacle. Wherefore they said. The temple of the Jer. vii. 
Lord, The temple of the Lord, The temple of the Lord, For 
neither was there anywhere else in the earth a temple con- 
structed such as this, either for costliness, or beauty, or 
anything else. For God who ordained it, commanded that 
it should be made with great magnificence, inasmuch as 
they also were more drawn and allured by things material. 
For it had bricks of gold in the walls ; and any one who 
wishes may learn this well in the second [book] of Kings, 
and in Ezekiel, and how many talents of gold were there 

But the second [temple] was a more glorious building, 
on account both of its beauty, and in all other respects. 
Nor was it on this account alone an object of reverence, 
but also from its being One. For they were wont to resort 
thither from the uttermost parts of the earth, whether from 
Babylon or from Ethiopia. And Luke shews this when 
he says in the Acts : There were dwelling there Parthians, Acts u.5, 
and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, ' 

208 Christ has appeared in the very presence of God, for us, 

HoM. 17. in Judea and Cappadocia, in Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and 
Pamphylia, in Egypt and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene. 
They then who lived in all parts of the world assembled 
there, and the fame of the temple was great. 

What then does Paul do ? The very same which [he did] 
in the instance of the sacrifices, this also he does here. For 
just as there he set against [them] the death of Christ, so 
here also he sets the whole heaven against the temple. 

[2.] And not by this alone did he point out the differ- 
ence, but also by adding that The Priest is become more 

1 T65 irpo- near to God : for he saith, to appear in the preseiice ^ of God. 

ajiTzc^he- gQ ^1^^^ ]^g made the subject one of awe and reverence, not 

fore the •' ' 

Face only by the [consideration of] heaven, but also by [that of 
Christ's] entering in [there]. For not merely through 
symbols as here, but God Himself He sees there. 

Thou seest that it is for condescension's sake that the 
lowly things have been said throughout ? How dost thou 
then any longer wonder that He intercedes, there where He 
places Himself as a High Priest ? Nor yet, that He should 
offer Himself often, as the High Priest. 

For Christ is not entered into the Holy Places made ivith 

"avTirvtra hands (he saith) which are the figures ^ of the True. (Those 

3 rvTtoi then are true ; and these are figures ^, for the temple too 

4 /core- has been so arranged"*, as the Heaven of Heavens.) 
<xK€va(TTai \^q^at sayest thou ? He who is every where present, and 

who filleth all things, doth not He appear^ [in God's 
presence] unless He enter into Heaven? Thou seest that 
all things pertain to the flesh. 

To appear, he saith, in the presence of God for us. What 
is for us ? He went up (he means) with a sacrifice which 
had power to propitiate the Father. Wherefore (tell me) ? 
Was He an enemy [to us] ? The angels were enemies. He 
was not an enemy. For that the Angels were enemies, hear 
Col. i. 20. thou what he saith. He made peace as to things on earth and 
things in Heaven ^\ So that He also entered into Heaven, 

" ifx(pavi(€Tai. " He makes Himself Heaven, between us and the Ang-els. 

visible," " apparent ;" so " presents See his Homily on Col. i. 20. [pp. 212 

Himself" or ""appears in pr^ence:" sqq. O.T.] By introducing this subject 

in His Human Nature. of the Father not being inimical to us, 

^ S. Chrys. understands this passage he seems to guard against any misin- 

as meaning that peace was made be- terpretation ofwhathehad said, Horn, 

tween things on earth and those in xvi. [2.] 


As there is one death, so ther-e is one Sacrifice for all. 209 

now to appear in the presence of God for us. He now HE.ix.28. 
appear eth, but it is for us. 

[3.] Nor yet that He should offer Himself often, as the High 
Priest entereth into the Holy place every year with blood 
of others. Thou seest how many are the differences between 
often and once, between the blood of others, and His own ^ 
Great is the interval. He is Himself then both victim and 
Priest and sacrifice. For if it had not been so, it would have 
been necessary also to offer many sacrifices. He must have 
been many times crucified. Since He in that case must 
often have suffered since the foundation of the world. 

In this place he has also veiled over ^ something. But 
now once in the end of the world. Why at the end of the 
world ? After the many sins. Now if indeed it had taken 
place at the beginning, and after that no man had believed, 
and He must not die a second time, all would have been 
useless. But inasmuch as at a later time the transgressions 
[of men] were many, it was with reason that He then ap- 
peared : which he expresses in another place also. Where Rom. v. 
sin abounded, grace did much more abound. But now once ^^• 
at the end of the ivorld, hath He been manifested for the 
putting away of sin by the sacrifice of Himself. 2 airt^Ke* 

[4.] (ver. 27) And as it is appointed ^ unto men once for all rat laid 
to die, but after that. Judgement. He next says also why ^'^^^v 
He died once [only] : because He became a ransom -price 
of one death. It had been reserved (saith he) /or men once 
for all to die. This then is [the meaning of] He died once ^, ^ aira^ 
for all at once^. (What then ? Do we no longer die that ] ^y^P 
death? We do indeed die [that death], but we do not con- 
tinue in it : which is [the same thing as] not to die at all. 
For the tyranny of death, and death indeed, is when he who 
has died is never more allowed to return to life. But when 
after dying it is [possible] to live, and that a better life, 
this is not death, but sleeping.) Since then death was to 
have possession of all men, for this cause He died that He 
might deliver us. 

ver. 28. So Christ also having been once for all ^ offered. ^ aira^ 
By who-m offered ? evidently by Himself. Here he not only 

•^ The Apostle has here stated something covertly. What this is S. Chrys, 
proceeds to explain. 



310 Distinction of the Outline and the very Image of Blessings, 

HoM. 17. says that He is Priest, but Victim also, and what is sacri- 

1 edfia Koi ficed ^. On this account are [the words] having been offered. 
Upuov Having been once for all offered (he says) to bear^ [or 

present^ the sins of many. Why of many, and not " of all?" 
Because not all believed. For He died for all indeed, that 

2 avrlppo- is for His part : for that death was a counterbalance ^ 
^^^ against the destruction of all men. But He did not bear 

the sins of all men, because they were not willing. 

And what is [the meaning of] He bare [He presented'] 
the sins ? Just as in the Oblation we bring up [and present] 
our sins and say, " whether we have sinned voluntarily or 
"involuntarily do Thou forgive %" that is, we make mention 
of them first, and then ask for their forgiveness. So also 
was it done here. Where has Christ done this? Hear 

S. John Himself saying. And for their sakes I sanctify ^ Myself. Lo ! 

xvii. 19. jje brought up the transgressions. He took them from 
men, and presented them to the Father; not that He 
might determine any thing against them [mankind], but 
that He might remit them [the sins]. 

The second time without sin shall He appear (saith he) to 
them that look for Him, unto salvation. What is without 
sin ? it is as much as to say. He sinneth not. For neither 
did He die as owing the debt of death, nor yet because 
of sin. But how shall He appear ? To punish, you say. 
He did not however say this, but [what was] cheering ; 
without sin shall He appear to them that look for Him, unto 
salvation. So that for the time to come they no longer 
need sacrifice to save themselves, but do this by works. 

[5.] (chap. X. 1) For (he saith) the Law having a shadow 
of the good things to come, not the very image of the things; 
i. e. not the very truth [the reality itself] . For as in 
painting so long as one [only] draws the outline-marks, it 
is a sort of shadow: but when one has added the bright 
painting and laid in the colours, then it becomes an image 

^ aveveyKelv. Lit. to bring or bear bally in the " prayer of Trisag-ion," 

up : hence to refer to or bring before in S. Chrys. liturgy. See Dr. Neale's 

a person, to present. The word is Liturgies of S.Mark &e. p. 121. Hayes 

used in the Epistle to the^ebrews 1859.] 

for " oflfer " as a sacrifice, vii. 27 ; xiii. i ayid(a} "devote as a Sacrifice." 

15. See S. Chrys. Homily on the words, 

e [This occurs, not absolutely ver- S. John xvii. 19. 

The Sacrifice being offered once only, proves its Power. 211 

[or exact representation']. Something of this kind also Heb.x.9. 
was the Law. 

For (he saith) the Law having a shadow of the good things 
to come, not the very image of the things, i.e. of the sacrificCj 
of the remission : by those same sacrifices ^' by ^ which they ^ "'f • ^^ 
offer continually can never make the comers thereunto perfect. Ben.Sav. 
(ver. 2 — 9) For in that case would they not have ceased to 
be offered, because that the worshippers having been once for 
all purged, would have had no more conscience of sins ? But 
in them there is a remembrance again made of sins every 
year. For it is impossible that blood of bulls and goats should 
take aivay sins. Wherefore ivhen He cometh into the world, 
He saith. Sacrifice and offering Thou wouldest not, but a body 
hast Thou prepared Me. In burnt-offerings and sacrifices 
for sin Thou hast had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo ! I 
come, in the volume of the book it is written of Me, to do Thy 
will, O God. Above when He said. Sacrifice, and offering, and 
burnt-offerings, and [offering] for sin Thou ivouldest not, 
nor hadst pleasure therein, ivhich are offered according to the 
Law, then He said, Lo ! I come to do Thy will, O God! He 
taketh away the first that He may establish the second. 

Thou seest again the superabundance [of his proofs] ? 
This sacrifice (saith he) is one; whereas the others were 
many : for from this very fact [it follows that] they had 
not strength, because they were many. For, tell me, what (3j 
need were there of many, if one had been sufficient ? so 
that their being many, and offered continually, proves that 
they [the worshippers] were never made clean. For just 
as a medicine, when it is powerful and productive of health, 
and able to remove the disease entirely, effects all after 
one application ; just, I say, as, if being once applied it 
accomplishes the whole, it proves its own strength in being 
no more applied, and this is its work, to be no more ap- 
plied ; whereas if it is applied continually, it is evident that 
this is a proof of its not having strength. For it is the 
excellence of a medicine to be applied once, and not often. 
So is it in this case also. 

s The common editions have Kar^ lation of 3Iutian. : but it is omitted in 
iviavThu year by year, before to?? the best MSS. 
avTois dvaiaLs : as has tlie old Trans- 


212 Sin of old shewn forth, now put away. 

HoM. 17. Why forsooth are they continually being cured with the 
same sacrifices ? For if they were set free from all their 
sins, the sacrifices would not have gone on being offered 
every day. For they had even been appointed to be con- 
tinually offered in behalf of the whole people, both in the 
evening and in the day. So that what was done was an 
arraignment of sins, and not a release from sins ; an arraign- 
ment of weakness, not an exhibition of strength. For 
because the first had no strength, another also was offered : 
and since this effected nothing, again another; so that it was 
an evidence of sins. While then their being offered was an 
evidence of sins, their [being offered] continually was an 
evidence of weakness. But with regard to Christ, it was 

^avrlrxma the contrary : He was offered once for all. The types ^ 
therefore contain the figure only, not the power ; just as in 
images, the image has the figure of the man, not the power. 
So that the truth [reality] and the type have [somewhat] 
in common with one another. For the figure exists equally 
in both, but not the power. So too also is it in respect of 
Heaven and of the tabernacle, for the figure was equal : for 
there was the Holy place, but the power and the other 
things were not the same. 

What is. For the putting away of sin by the sacrifice of 
Himself, He hath been manifested^^? What is this putting 
away ? it is making contemptible. For sin has no longer 
any boldness ; for it is made of no effect in that when it 

2 o(|)ef\- ought to have exacted ^ punishment, it did not exact it : 

ovffoairo. ^^^^ ^g^ j^ suffered violence : when it expected to destroy all 
men, then it was itself destroyed. 

By the sacrifice of Himself (saith he) He has been ma?ii- 

fested, that is. He was manifested unto God, and drew near 

[unto Him]. For do not [think] because the High Priest 

was wont to do this oftentimes in the year * * * i. go that 

^ S. Chiys. here reverts to ch.ix.26, lacuna and the next sentence the fol- 

to supply an explanation of the words lowing' : " that it was done simply and 

els a0cTr]cnv rri^ a/xapTias Siarris Ovcrias "not becauseof weakness. Forif itwere 

avTov Tr€(pav€puTai,which he had omit- " not done because of weakness, why 

ted before : deeTTjo-ts is properly " an- " was it done at all ? For if there are 

nulling," "rendering invalid and of "no wounds, neither is thereafterwards 

noefrect,"thenceitisusedfof*^'despis- " need of medicines for the patient." 

ing," " treating as nothing worth." Mr. Field prefers leaving it as it stands 

' This is an imperfect sentence; without conjecturing what is omitted: 

the interpolator substitutes for the only observing that the words " this is 

The Eucharistic Sacrificerepeated; OneivUhthat of the Cross. 213 

henceforward this is done in vain, although it is done ; for HE.ix.26. 
what need is there of medicines where there are no wounds ? 
On this account He ordained that the offerings be con- 
tinually made, because of their want of power, and that a 
remembrance of sins might be made. 

[6.] What then? do not we offer every day? We offer 
indeed,, but making a remembrance of His death, and this^ ^ «^t^ 
[sacrifice] is one and not many. How is it one, and not 
many ? Inasmuch as that ^ [Sacrifice] was once for all - e/cetyrj 
offered, [and] carried into the Holy of Holies. This [rite] 
is a figure of that [sacrifice] and this [sacrifice] of that ^. 
For we always offer the same Person^, not one sheep now ^y^" 
and to-morrow another, but ever the same ^ : so that the 4 ^^ ^vt)) 
sacrifice is one. Since by this reasoning, inasmuch as the 
offering is made in many places, there are many Christs. 
God forbid ; but Christ is one every where, being complete 
here and complete there also, one Body. Just then as while 
offered in many places, He is one body and not many 
bodies ; so also [is there ^] one sacrifice. He is our High ^ ^^ [is 
Priest, who offered the sacrifice that cleanses us. That 
[sacrifice] we offer now also, which was then offered, which 
cannot be exhausted. This is done in remembrance of what 
was then done. For (saith He) do this in remembrance of S- Luke 
Me. It is not another sacrifice that we offer ^, as the High 6^^"/oG J^ 
Priest [of old], but always the same, or rather we perform f>r make 
a remembrance of a Sacrifice. 

[7.] But inasmuch as I have mentioned this sacrifice, I W 
wish to say a little in reference to you who have been in- 
itiated ; little in quantity, but possessing great force and 
profitableness, for what we say is not our own, but the 
Divine Spirit's. What then is it ? Many partake of this 
sacrifice once in the whole year, others twice ; others many 
times. Our discourse then is [addressed] to all; not to 
those only who are here, but to those also who are settled 
in the desert ''. For they partake once in the year, and 'jj^^i^ 
often indeed at intervals of two years. 

What then? which shall we approve? those [who receive] 

"done" refer to the Levitical sacrifices ''" tovto iKelvr)s rviros eVri, /col aurr} 
continued after the completion of that iKelvrjs. 
on the Cross. 

214 Frequency of Communion, and preparation for it, 

HoM. 17. once [in the year] ? those who [receive] many times? those 
who [receive] few times? Neither those [who receive] 
once, nor those [who receive] often, nor those [who receive] 
seldom, but those [who come] with a pm-e conscience, from 
a pure heart, with an irreproachable life. Let such [as 
these] draw near continually ; but those who are not such, 
not even once. Why, you will ask ? Because they receive to 
themselves judgement, yea and condemnation, and punish- 
ment, and vengeance. And do not thou wonder [at this]. 
For just as food being by its nature apt to nourish, yet if 
it is received by a person of ill digestion, ruins and corrupts 
all [the system], and becomes an occasion of disease, so 
surely is it also with respect to the awful mysteries. Dost 
thou feast at a spiritual table, a royal table, and again 
pollute thy mouth with mire ? Dost thou anoint thyself 
with sweet ointment, and again fill thyself with ill savours ? 
Tell me, I beseech thee, when after the lapse of a year 
thou partakest of the Communion, dost thou think that 
the Forty Days ^ are sufficient for thee for the purifying of 
the sins of all that time ? And again, when a week has 
passed, dost thou give thyself up to the former things ? 
Tell me now, if when thou hast been well for forty days 
after a long illness, thou shouldst again give thyself up to 
the food which caused the sickness, hast thou not lost thy 
former labour too ? For if things natural admit of altera- 
tion, much more those which depend on moral choice. As 
for instance, by nature we see, and naturally we have healthy 
eyes ; but oftentimes from a bad habit [of body] our power 
of vision is injured. If then the things of nature admit of 
alteration, much more those of moral choice. Thou assign- 
est forty days for the health of the soul, or perhaps not 
even forty, and dost thou expect to propitiate God ? Tell 
me, art thou in sport ? 

These things I say, not as precluding you from the one 
and annual coming, but as wishing you to draw near con- 

[8.] It is to the holy that these things have been given. 
This the Deacon also men proclaims when he calls on the 

' Lent; devoted to preparation for the Easter Communion. 

Meaning of the Proclamation, Holy things for the Holy, 215 

holy ™ ; even by this call searching the faults of all. For HE.ix.26. 

as in a flock, where many sheep are in good health, and 

many are full of the scab, it is needful that these last should 

be separated from the healthy ones; so is it also in the j 

Church : since some sheep are healthy, and some diseased, ■ 

by means of this voice he separates the one from the other, ■ 

the priest [I mean] going round on all sides by means of 

this most awful cry, and calling and drawing on ^ the holy. ^ ^^«<>"' 

For inasmuch as it is not possible that he being a [mere] 

man should know the things of his neighbour, (for what 1 Cor. ii. 

man, saith he, knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit 

of man which is in him ?) this voice he utters after the | 

whole sacrifice has been completed, that no person should 

come to the spiritual fountain carelessly and in a chance 

way. For in the case of the flock also, for nothing prevents 

us from again using the same example, the sickly ones we 

shut up within, and keep them in the dark, and give them j 

different food, not permitting them to partake either of 

pure air, or of simple grass, or of the fountain without , 

[the fold]. In this case then also this voice is instead of | 

a bond. j 

Thou canst not say, ^ I did not know, I was not aware 
^ that danger attends the matter.^ Nay surely Paul too es- 
pecially testified this. But wilt thou say, ^I never read it ? ' 
This is not an apology, but even an accusation. Dost thou \ 

come into the Church every day and yet art ignorant of '\ 

this ? \ 

However, that thou mayest not have even this excuse to (5) \ 

offer, for this cause, with a loud voice, with an awful cry, 
like some herald lifting up his hand on high, standing aloft, 
conspicuous to all, and after that awful silence crying out : 

aloud, he invites some, and some he forbids, not doing j 

this with his hand, but with his tongue more distinctly I 

than with his hand. For that voice, falling on our ears, 
just like a hand, thrusts away and casts out some, and in- 
troduces and presents others. 

Tell me then, I beseech [you], in the Olympic games does 
not the herald stand, calling out with loud and uplifted voice, j 

™ After the Oblation was made and before the Communion the deacon pro- 
claimed ra. ayia to7s ayiois, " The Holy things for the holy." 

216 The Holiness necessary for the Communicant, 

H0M.17. saying, ^^ Does any one accuse this man ? Is he a slave ? Is 
"he a thief? Is he one of wicked manners ? " And yet, those 
contests for prizes are not of the soul, nor yet of good 
morals, but of strength and the body. If then where is 
[merely] exercise of bodies, much examination is made 
about moral character, how much rather here, where the 
soul is alone the combatant. Our herald then even now 
stands, not holding each person by the head, and drawing 
him forward, but holding all together by the head within ; 
he does not set against them other accusers, but themselves 
against themselves. For he saith not, ^ Does any one accuse 
this man ? ' but what ? ' If any man accuse himself.' For 
when he saith. The Holy things for the holy, he means 
this : ' If any is not holy, let him not draw near.' 

He does not simply say, "pure from sins," but, "holy." 
For it is not merely freedom from sins which makes a man 
holy, but also the presence of the Spirit, and the wealth of 
good works. I do not merely wish (saith he) that you 
should be delivered from the mire, but also that you should 
be fair and beautiful. For if the Babylonian King, when 
he made choice of the youths from the captives, chose out 
those who were beautiful in form, and of fair countenance : 
much more is it needful that we, when we stand by the 
foyal table, should be beautiful in form, [I mean] that of 
the soul, having our ornaments of gold, our robe pure, 
our shoes royal, the face of our soul well-formed, that the 
golden ornament should be put around it, even the girdle 
of truth. Let such an one as this draw near, and let him 
touch the royal cups. 

But if any man clothed in rags, filthy, squalid, wish to 
enter in to the royal table, consider how much he will suffer, 
the forty days not being sufficient to ^Vash away the offences 
which have been .committed in all the time. For if hell is 
not sufficient, although it be eternal (for therefore also it 
is eternal), much more [is] not this short time [sufficient] . 
For we have not displayed a strong repentance, but a weak. 

[9.] Eunuchs especially ought to stand by the King : by 
eunuchs, I mean those who are fair in their mind, having no 
wrinkle nor spot, lofty in mind, having the eye of the soul 
gentle and quick-sighted, active and sharp, not sleepy nor 

The Spiritual purification of the senses. 217 

supine ; full of much freedom, and yet far from impudence HE.ix.26. 
and overboldness, wakeful, healthful, neither very gloomy 
and downcast, nor yet dissolute and soft. 

This eye we have it in our own power to create, and to 
make it quicksighted and beautiful. For when we direct 
it, not to the smoke nor to the dust (for such are all human 
things), but to the delicate breeze, to the light air, to things 
supernal and high, and full of much calmness and purity, 
and of mach delight, we shall speedily recover it, and shall 
invigorate it, as it luxuriates in such contemplation. Hast 
thou seen covetousness and great wealth ? do not thou lift 
up thine eye thereto. The thing is mire, it is smoke, an 
evil vapour, darkness, and great oppressiveness, and suffoca- 
ting cares. Hast thou seen a man cultivating righteousness, 
content with what is his own, and having abundant space 
for recreation, having no cares, no anxieties about things 
here? Fix [thine eye] there, and lift [it] up on high; 
and thou wilt make it far the most beautiful, and more 
splendid, feasting it not with the flowers of the earth, but 
with those of virtue, with temperance, moderation, and 
all the rest. For nothing so troubles the eye as an evil 
conscience fMine eye, it is said, was troubled by reason of Ps. vi. 7. 
anger) ; nothing so darkens it. Set it free from this injury, 
and thou wilt make it vigorous and strong, ever nourished 
with good hopes. 

And God grant that we all may make both it and also 
the other energies of the soul, such as Christ desires, that 
being made worthy of the Head who is set over us, we may 
depart thither where He wishes. For He saith, / will that s. John 
where I am, they also may be with Me, that they may behold xvii. 24. 
My glory. Which may we all enjoy in Christ Jesus our 
Lord, with Whom to the Father and also to the Holy 
Ghost be glory might honour now and for ever and world 
without end. Amen. 


Heb. X. 8—13. 

Above when He said, Sacrifice and offering, and burnt-offer- 
ings, and[ofering'] for sin. Thou wouldest not, neither hadst 

^accord- pleasure [therein'] , which are offered by ^- the Law, then 
said He, Lo ! I come to do Thy will, God, He taketh 
away the first, that He may establish the second. By the 

2 have which will we are ^ sanctified, by the offering of the body 

of Jesus Christ, once for all. And every priest standeth 
daily ministering, and off^ering oftentimes the same sacri- 
fices, which can never take away sins. But this [man~\ 
after He had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat 
down on the right hand of God, from henceforth expecting 

^afoot- till His enemies be made His footstool^. 

stool for 

His feet j^ what has gone before he had shewn that the sacrifices 
were unavailing for perfect purity^ and that they are a 
figure, and greatly defective. Since then there was this 
objection to his argument. If they are figures, how is it 
that after the truth is come, they have not ceased, nor 
given place, but are still performed ? he here accordingly 
labours at this very point, shcAving that they are not any 
longer performed, even as a figure, for God does not accept 
them. And this again he shews not from the New [Testa- 
ment], but from the prophets, bringing forward from times 
of old the strongest testimony, that it [the old system] 
comes to an end, and ceases, and that they do all in vain, 

Actsvii. ahv ay resisting the Holy Ghost, 

^^' And he shews over and above that they ceased not now 

[only], but at the very coming of the Messiah, nay rather, 
even before His coming : and how it was that Christ did 
not abolish them at the last, but they were abolished first, 
and then He came ; first they were made to cease, and then 

Their sacrifices proved to be valueless bff ore Christ came. 219 
He Himself appeared. For that they might not say, Even Hi 

without this sacrifice, and by means of those others, we 
could have been well pleasing unto God, He waited for 
these sacrifices to be convicted [of weakness], and then He 
came Himself; for (He saith) sacrifice and offering Thou 
wouldest not. Hereby He took all away ; and having spoken 
generally. He says also particularly. In hurnt-off^erings and 
[sacrifice] for sin Thou hast had no pleasure. Now all that 
was besides the sacrifice was an " offering." Then said I, 
Lo ! I come. Of whom was this spoken ? of none other 
than the Christ. 

In this place he does not at all blame those who oiFer, 
pointing out that it is not because of their wickednesses 
that He does not accept them, as He saith elsewhere, but 
on account of the thing itself being henceforward exposed 
and discovered to have no strength, nor any suitableness to 
the times ^ What then has this to do with the sacrifices \'^P<^'^- 
being offered ? Not only from their being ofte7i- Tatphy 
times [offered] (he means) is it manifest that they are weak, 
and that they effected nothing, but also from God's not 
accepting them, as being unprofitable and useless. And in 
another place it is said. If Thou hadst wished for sacrifice I Ps. li. 16. 
would have given it. Wherefore by this also he makes it 
plain that He does not desire it. It follows accordingly 
that it is not sacrifices that God wills, but the abolition 
of sacrifices. Wherefore they sacrifice contrary to His will. 

What is To do Thy ivill ? To give up Myself, He means : 
This is the will of God. By which Will we have been sancti- 
fied. Or he even means something still further, that it is 
not the sacrifices which make men clean, but the Will of 
God. It follows then that to ofifer sacrifice is not the will 
of God. 

[2.] And why dost thou wonder that it is not the will of 
God now, when it was not His will even from the begin- 
ning? For who, saith He, hath required this at your hands? Isaiah i. 

How is it then that He Himself enjoined it ? [He did it] ]^-, 
in condescension. For just as Paul says, / wouW- that all l Cor. 
men were even as I myself in respect of continence, and on J^^' I' 
the other hand says, / ivill ^ that the younger ivomen marry, ixai 
hear children ; and so sets down two wills, yet the two are 1/^"^' ^' 

220 Will of God tiv of old. Witness to the New Covenant. 

HoM. 18. not both his own, although he gives an injunction ; but the 

one indeed is his own, for which cause also he sets it down 

without expressing any reason. While the other is not 

his own, though he wishes it, on which account also it is 

added with a reason. For having previously accused them, 

1 Tim. V. because they had waxed wanton against Christ, he then 

lb. 14. says, / will that the younger women marry, bear children. 

So in this place also it was not His leading will that the 

Ezek. sacrifices should be offered. For, as He says, / wish not 

j^^"^* the death of the sinner, as that he should turn unto [Me'] and 

live: and in another place says that He not only wished, 

but even desired ^ this : and yet these are contrary to each 

other : for intense wishing is desire. How then dost Thou 

not wish? how dost Thou in another place desire, which 

is a sign of vehement wishing ? So is it in this case also. 

By the which will we have been sanctified, saith he. How 

sanctified? through the offering of the Body o/ Jesus Christ 

once for all. 

[3.] And every priest standeth daily ministering and 
offering oftentimes the same sacrifices. (To stand therefore 
is a sign of ministering; accordingly to sit, is a sign of 
being ministered unto.) But this [man] having offered one 
sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of 
God, from henceforth expecting till His enemies be made a 
footstool for His feet, (ver 14, 15) For by one off'ering He 
hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. And the 
Holy Ghost also beareth witness to us. He had said that 
those [sacrifices] are not offered, he reasoned from what is 
written, [and] from what is not written ^', moreover also he 
put forward the prophetic word which says, sacrifice and 
offering Thou wouldest not. He had said that He had for- 
given their sins. Again this also he proves from the testi- 
mony of ScripturCji for the Holy Ghost (saith he) witnesseth 
to us : for after that He had said, (ver. 16—18) This is 
the covenant, which I will make with them, after those days, 
saith the Lord: I will put My laws into their hearts, and 
on their minds will I write them, and their sins and their 


'^ S. Chrys. seems to refer to some had in view, 

place wliere it is said tliat God desired •» That is from other arguments 

(iTreev/xr]<re) the deatli of the wicked, than the words of the Old Testaments 
It does not appear what passage he 

Christ's enemies to be subjected. Who they are. 221 

iniquities will I remember no more. But where remission He.x.13. 
of these is there is no more offering for sin. So then He 
forgave their sins, when He gave the Covenant, and He 
gave the Covenant by sacrifice. If therefore He forgave 
the sins through the one sacrifice, there is no longer 
need of a second. 

He sat on the right hand of God, henceforth expecting. 
For what purpose is the delay ? that His enemies be put 
under His feet. For by one offering He hath perfected for 
ever them that are sanctified. But perhaps some one might 
say ; Wherefore did He not at once put [them under His 
feet] ? For the sake of the faithful who should afterwards 
be brought forth and born. Whence then [does it appear] 
that they shall be put under ? By the saying He sat down. 
He called to mind again that testimony which saith, until see above 
I put His enemies under His feet. But His enemies are the ^- 1^- 
Jews. Then inasmuch as he had said, Till His enemies be 
put under His feet, and they [to whom he wrote] were vehe- 
mently urgent, for this cause he introduces all that follows 
after this ; all his discourse concerning faith. But who are 
the enemies? All unbelievers: the daemons. And intimating 
the greatness of their subjection, he said not " are sub- 
jected," but are put under His feet. 

[4.] Let us not therefore be [of the number of] His 
enemies. For not they alone are enemies, the unbelievers 
and Jews, but those also who are full of unclean living. 
For the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not Rom.viii. 
subject to the law of God, for neither can it be. What then 
(you say) ? this is not a ground of blame. Nay rather, it 
is very decidedly a ground of blame. For the wicked man 
as long as he is wicked, cannot be subject [to God's law] ; 
he can however change and become good. 

Let us then cast out carnal tempers. But what things (2) 
are carnal ? Whatever make the body flourish and do well, 
and injure the soul: as for instance, wealth, luxury, glory 
(all these things are of the flesh), carnal love. Let us not 
then "be desirous of the larger share [of goods], but ever 
follow after poverty : for this is itself a great good. 

But (you say) it makes one low and of little account. 

232 Poverty not an evil; the boldness given by it. 

HoM. 1 8. [True :] for we have need of this, for it contributes much 
Ta xx\ ^^ ^^^ benefit. Poverty (it is said) humbles a man. And 
S.Matt.* again Christ [saith], Blessed are the poor in spii^it. Dost 
^' ^' thou then grieve on this account, that thou art upon a path 

which leads to virtue ? Dost thou not know that this gives 

us great confidence ? 
Eccles. But, saith one, the wisdorn of the poor man is despised. 

^^^Qy' And again another saith. Give me neither riches nor poverty, 
XXX. 8. and, Deliver me from the furnace of poverty ^. And again, 
xWiii! 10. i^ riches and poverty are from the Lord, how can either 

poverty or riches be an evil ? For what end then were these 

1 or in, iu things said? They were said under ^ the Old [Covenant], 

where there was much account made of wealth, where 

there was great contempt of poverty, where the one was a 

curse and the other a blessing. But now it is no longer so. 

But dost thou wish to hear the praises of poverty? 

S. Matt. Christ sought after it, and saith. But the Son of Man hath 

Tor ^et ^^^ ivhere to lay His head. And again He said to His dis- 

Ib. X. 9, ciples. Provide " neither gold, nor silver, nor two coats. And 

2 Cor. vi. Paul in writing said. As having nothing and yet possessing 
1^- all things. And Peter said to him who was lame from his 
Acts iii, birth. Silver and gold have I none. Yea and under the Old 

[Covenant] itself, where wealth was held in admiration, 
who were the admired persons ? Was not Elijah, who 
had nothing save the sheep-skin ? Was not Elisha ? Was 
not John ? 

Let no man then be humiliated on account of his poverty : 
It is not poverty which humiliates, but wealth, which com- 
pels us to have need of many, and forces us to be under 
obligations to many. 

And what could be poorer than Jacob (tell me), who 

Gen. said, If the Lord give me bread to eat, and raiment to put 

xxviii.20. ^^ p Were Elijah and John then wanting in boldness^? Did 

P^aiaaTOL not the onc reprove Ahab, and the other Herod ? The lat- 

S. Mark tcr Said, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother Philip's 

^^- \^- wife. And Elias said to Ahab with boldness. It is not I 

xviii" 18. that trouble Israel, but^hou and thy father's house. Thou 

seest that this most especially produces boldness, poverty 

[I mean] ? For while the rich man is a slave, being subject 

'^ The words of the LXX are " He took me out of the furnace of poverty." 

Blessedness and independence of the voluntarily poor. 223 

to loss, and affording [opportunity] to every one who will, He.x.13. 
to do him hurt, he who has nothing, fears not confiscation, 
nor fine. So, if poverty had made men wanting in boldness 
Christ would not have sent His disciples with poverty to 
a work that required great boldness. For the poor man is 
very strong, and has nothing wherefrom he may be wronged 
or evil entreated. But the rich man is assailable on every 
side : just in the same way as one would easily catch a man 
who was dragging many long ropes after him, whereas a 
man naked one could not readily lay hold on. So here also 
it falls out in the case of the rich man : slaves, gold, lands, 
affairs innumerable, innumerable cares, difiacult circum- 
stances, necessities, make him an easy prey to all. 

[5.] Let no man then henceforth esteem poverty a cause (3) 
of disgrace. For if virtue be there, all the wealth of the 
world is, no not clay, nor even a mote in comparison of it. 
This then let us follow after, if we would enter into the 
kingdom of heaven. For, He saith, Sell that thou hast, and S- Matt. 
give to the poor, and thou shall have treasure in Heaven. ^^'^^' 
And again. It is hard for a rich man to enter into the King- lb. 23. 
dom of Heaven. Dost thou see that even if we have it not, 
we ought to draw it to us ? So great a good is Poverty. 
For it guides us by the hand, as it were, on the path which 
leads to Heaven, it is an anointing for the combat, a kind 
of exercise great and admirable, a tranquil haven. 

But (you say) I have need of many [things], and am un- 
willing to receive a favour from any. Nevertheless, even 
in this respect the rich man is inferior to thee ; for thou 
perhaps askest the favour for thy support, but he shame- 
lessly [asks] for ten thousand things for covetousness' sake. 
So that it is the rich that are in need of many [persons], 
yea oftentimes those who are unworthy of them. For in- 
stance, they often stand in need of those who are in the 
rank of soldiers, or of slaves : but the poor man has no need 
even of the Emperor himself, and if he should need him, 
he is regarded with admiration because he has placed him- 
self in this [condition], when he might have been rich. 

Let no man then accuse poverty as being the cause of 
innumerable evils, nor let him contradict Christ, who as- 
serted it to be the perfection of virtue, saying, If thou wilt l^. 21. 

224 The poor are more truly rich than the wealthy. 

HoM. 18. he perfect [&c]. For this He both uttered in His words, 
and shewed by His acts, and taught by His disciples. Let 
us therefore follow after poverty, it is the greatest good to 
the sober-minded. 

Perhaps some of those who hear me, avoid it as a thing 
1 ovK of ill omen. I can readily believe it ^. For widely spread is 
aTTio-Tw ^^^^^ disease among the generality of men, and so excessive 
is the tyranny of wealth, that they do not endure the re- 
nunciation of it, even as far as words, but even abominate 
it. Far be this from the Christian's soul : for nothing is 
richer than he who chooses poverty of his own accord, and 
with forwardness of mind. 

[6.] How ? I will tell you, and if you please I will prove 
that he who embraces poverty of his own accord is richer 
even than the king himself. For he indeed needs many 
[things], and is in anxiety, and is fearful lest the supplies 
requisite for the maintenance of his army should fail him ; 
but the other has everything in abundance, and is fearful 
about nothing, and if he be fearful, it is not about so great 
matters. Who then, tell me, is the rich man? he who is 
daily making demands, and earnestly labouring to gather 
much together, and is fearful lest at any time he should fall 
short, or he who gathers nothing together, and is in great 
abundance and hath need of no one ? For it is virtue and 
the fear of God, and not wealth which gives confidence. 
For they even reduce one to slavery. For it is said. Gifts 
and presents blind the eyes of the wise, and like a muzzle 
on the mouth turn away reproofs. 

Consider how that poor man Peter chastised the rich 
Ananias. Was not the one rich and the other poor ? But 
. behold the one speaking with authority and saying. Tell me 
whether ye sold the land for so much, and the other saying 
with submission. Yea, for so much. And who (you say) will 
grant to me to be as Peter? It is open to thee to be as 
Peter if thou wilt ; cast away what thou hast. Disperse, 
give to the poor, follow Christ, and thou shalt be such as he. 
How? he (you say) wrought miracles. Is it this then, tell 
me, which made Peter an object of admiration, or the bold- 
ness which arose from his manner of life ? Dost thou not 
hear Christ saying. Rejoice not because the devils are subject 

XX. 29. 

Acts V. 8. 

Ps. cxii 

S. Luke 
x. 20. 

The Blessedness of Ahnsyivmg at the Last Day. 225 

unto you ; If thou wilt be perfect [&c] . Hear what Peter He.x.13. 
saith : Silver and gold have I none, but what I have give I Actsiii.6. 
thee. If any man have silver and gold, he hath not those 
other gifts. 

"Why is it then, you say, that many have neither the one 
nor the other ? Because they are not voluntarily poor : since 
they who are voluntarily poor have all things that are good. 
For although they do not raise up the dead nor the lame, 
yet, what is greater than all ; they have confidence towards 
God. They will hear in that day that blessed voice, Come s. Matt. 
ye blessed of My Father, (what can be better than this ?) ™'^^~~' 
inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation 
of the world: for I was an hungred and ye gave Me meat : 
I was thirsty and ye gave Me drink : I was a stranger and 
ye took Me in : I ivas naked and ye clothed Me : Iiuas sick 
and in prison and ye visited Me. Inherit the kingdom pre^ 
pared for you from the foundation of the world. Let us then 
flee from covetousness, that we may attain to the kingdom 
[of Heaven] . Let us feed the poor, that we may feed Christ : 
that we may be made fellow-heirs with Him in Christ Jesus 
our Lord, with Whom to the Father and also to the Holy 
Ghost, be glory power honour, now and for ever and world 
without end. Amen. 



Heb. X. 19—33. 

Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest 
J by the blood 0/ Jesus, by a new and living way which He 

made or hath consecrated ^ for us, through the Veil, that is to say, 
^rateT' His flesh, and having an High Priest^ over the house of 
^ a great God, let US draw near with a true heart, in full assurance 
Priest of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil con- 
science, and our bodies washed luith pure water, let us 
3 confes. holdfast the profession ^ of our hope without wavering, 

(1) [1.] Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the 

holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a neiv and living way ivhich 
He hath consecrated for us. Having shewn the interval 
[between them] as to the High Priest, and the sacrifices, 
and the tabernacle, and the Covenant, and the promise, 
and that the interval is great, seeing that those are tem- 
poral, but these eternal, those near to vanishing away, these 
permanent, those powerless, these perfect, those figures, 
supra vii. these reality, for (saith he) not according to the law of a 
carnal commandment, but according to the power of an end- 
ib. V. 6. less life. And Thou art a Priest for ever. Behold the 
continuance of the Priest. And concerning the Covenant, 
ib. viii. That (saith he) is old (for that which decayeth and waxeth 
old is ready to vanish away) but this is new ; and has re- 
mission of sins, while that [other has] nothing of the kind: 
ib.vii.l9. for (saith he) the Law made nothing perfect. And again, 
ib. X. 5. sacrifice and offering Thou wouldest not. That [tabernacle] 
ib.ix. 11. is made with hands, while this is not made with hands: that 
ib. 12. has the blood of goats, this of the Lord ; that has the Priest 
standing, this sitting. Since therefore all those are inferior 

Ground for drawing near with full assurance. 227 

and these greater, for this cause he saith, Having therefore, He.x.22. 
brethren, boldness. 

[2.] Boldness : from whence ? Just as sins (he means) 
produce shame, so the having all things forgiven us, and 
being made fellow-heirs, and enjoying so great Love, [pro- 
duces] boldness [and confidence]. 

For the entrance into the holiest. What does he mean 
here hj entrance? Heaven, and the access to the spiritual 

Which He hath inaugurated, that is, which He prepared, 
and which He began ; for the beginning of using is thence- 
forth called the inaugurating ; which He prepared (he means) 
and by which He Himself passed. 

A new and living way. Here he expresses the full assur- 
ance of hope. A neiv \}oay\ he saith. He is anxious to 
shew that we have all things greater ; since now the gates 
of Heaven have been opened, which was not done even in 
the case of Abraham. A new and living way. For the first 
way was [a way] of death, leading to Hades, but this [is a 
way] of life. And yet he did not say, " of life,^^ but called it 
living, (the ordinances that is,) that which abideth ^. 

Through the veil (he saith) [even] His flesh. For this 
flesh first cut that way, by this He inaugurated it, in that 
He walked [along it]. And with good reason did he call 
the flesh a veil ^. For when it was lifted up on high, then 
the things in heaven appeared. 

Let us draw near (he saith) ivith a true heart. To what 
should we draw near ? To the holy things, to the faith, to 
the spiritual service. With a true heart, in full assurance 
of faith ; [o//«i/A], inasmuch as nothing is seen; neither 
the priest henceforward, nor the sacrifice, nor the altar. 
And yet neither was that priest visible, but himself stood 
within, and they all without, [even] all the people. But 
here not only has this taken place, that the priest has en- 
tered into the holy place, but that we also enter in. On 

» aXXa C(i(Tav avTTjv eKaAece' rov- corrupt; the parenthetic words seem 

rea-TL, to. ■KpoaTciyfj.aTa, t7]v fxivovcrau. added to explain that it is the Christian 

This is the reading of all the best MSS, ordinances, which he understands by 

the Catena, and ancient Translation, the way that abideth. 

The later editions omit ToureVrt, to. ^ [See above p. 187and S.Cyril Alex. 

irpoffTdytxara and add ovtw Sr]\S)u. Quod Unus Christus 761 C D] 
Mr. Field thinks the passage may be 

Q 2 

228 Faith, life. Advantages of assembling together, 

HoM. 19. this account he says, in full assurance of faith. For it is 
possible absolutely to believe while doubting, as there are 
even now many who say, that of some there is a resurrection 
and of others not. But this is not faith. In full assurance 
of faith (he says) ; for we ought to be so persuaded as [we 
are] concerning things that we see : nay, even much more, 
for here it is possible to be deceived in the things that are 
seen, but there not : here we trust to the senses, there to 
the Spirit. 

Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience. He 
points out that not faith only, but a virtuous life also is re- 
quired, and the not being conscious to ourselves of any evil. 
Since those who are not thus disposed the holy [places] 
do not receive with full assurance ; For they are holy, and 
the holy of holies ; and where no profane person enters. 
Those others were sprinkled as to the body, we as to the 
conscience, so that we may even now be sprinkled over; 
[that is], with virtue itself. And having our body washed 
with pure water. Here he speaks of the Washing, which 
no longer cleanses the bodies but the soul. 

For He is faithful that promised. That promised what ? 
That we are to depart thither and enter into the kingdom. 
Be then in nothing over-curious, nor demand reasonings. 
^ Tai)fj.€- Our [religion^] needs faith. 

"^^'^^ [3.] (ver. 24, 25) And (he saith) let us consider one an- 

other to provoke unto love and to good ivorks. Not forsak- 
ing the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of 
2 or en- some is, but exhorting ^ one another and so much the more 
Tn^ ^^ y^ ^^^ th^ ^^y approaching. And again in other places, 
Phil. iv. y^g Lord is at hand ; be careful for nothing. For now is 
Rom.xiii. our salvation nearer: Henceforth the time is short. 
11- .. What is, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together? 
29. He knew that much strength arises from assembling and 

S. Matt, gathering together. For where two or three (it is said) are 
xviii. 20. gdiJiQy^d together in My name, there am I in the midst of 
S.John them; And again, That they may be One, as we also are; 
xvii. 11. ^n(]^ They had all one heart and [one'] soul. And not this 
32. only, but also because" love is increased by the gathering 

[of ourselves] together; and love being increased, of ne- 
ib. xii. 5. cessity the things of God must follow also. A7id earnest 

mutual encouragement. Sprinkling of the heart, ^c, 229 

prayer (it is said) was made by the people. As the manner He.x.24. 
of some is. Here he not only exhorted, but also blamed i iUirapo- 
[them]. It: 

And let us consider one another, he says, to provoke unto^ sharpen- 
love and to good ivorks. He knew that this also arises from ^^fi^^^^^f 
gathering together. For as iron sharpeneth iron, so also Proy. 

association increases love. For if a stone rubbed ao^ainst 


a stone sends forth fire, how much more soul mingled with 
soul ! But not unto emulation (saith he) but unto the 
sharpening of love. What is unto the sharpening of love ? 
unto the loving and being loved in a greater degree. And 
of good works; that so they might acquire zeal. For if 
acting has greater force for instruction than speaking, ye 
also have in your number many teachers, who effect this 
by their deeds. 

What is let us draw near with a true heart ? that is, 
without hypocrisy ; for woe he to a fearful heart, and faint Ecclus. 
hands: let there be (he means) no falsehood among us ; ' 
let us not say one thing and think another; for this is 
falsehood ; neither let us be fainthearted, for this is not 
[a mark] of a true heart. The being weak-spirited arises 
from not believing. But how shall this be ? If we fully 
assure ourselves through our faith. 

Having our hearts sprinkled : why did he not say " having 
been purified ?" because he wished to point out the differ- 
ence of the sprinklings : the one he says is [the act] of 
God, the other our own. For the washing and sprinkling 
the conscience is God's [act] ; but the drawing near ivith 
truth and in full assurance of faith is our own. Then he 
also gives strength to their faith from the truth of Him 
that promised. 

What is and having our bodies washed with pure water? 
With water which makes persons pure, or which has no 
blood [with it] . 

Then he adds the perfect thing, charity. Not forsaking 
the assembling of ourselves together, which some (saith he) 
do, and divide the assemblies ; this he forbids them [to do] . 
For a brother helped by a brother is as a strong city. Proy. 

But let us consider one another to provoke unto love, (lxx.)* 
What is. Let us consider one another? For instance if any 

230 Love, How ive may love other's as ourselves : examples. 

HoM.19. be virtuous, let us imitate him, let us look on him so as to 

love and to be loved. For from Love good works proceed. 

(2) For the assembling is a great good : since it makes love 

more warm ; and out of love all good things arise. For 

nothing is good which is not done from love. 

2(;onii.8. [4.] This then let us confirm^ towards each other. For 
Honi.xiii. /^^g ig the fulfilling of the law. We have no need of labours 
or of sweatings if we love one another. It is a natural 
pathway? leading towards virtue. For as on the public 
highway, if any man find the beginning, he is guided by it, 
and has no need of one to take him by the hand ; so is it 
also in regard to Love : only lay hold on the beginning, 
lb. and at once thou art guided and directed by it. Love luork- 

1 Cor. eth no ill to his neighbour; thinketh no evil. Let each man 
xhi. 5. q£ i^ijnself consider himself, how he is disposed toward 
himself. He does not envy himself; he wishes all good 
things for himself; he prefers himself before all; he is 
willing to do all for himself. If then we were so disposed 
towards others also, all grievous things are brought to an 
end ; there is no enmity ; there is no covetousness : for 
who would choose to over-reach himself? no man : but on 
the contrary we shall possess all things in common, and 
shall not cease from assembling Ourselves together. And 
if we do this, the remembrance of injuries would have no 
place : for who would choose to remember injuries against 
himself? who would choose to be angry with himself? do 
we not make allowances for ourselves most of all ? If we 
were thus disposed towards our neighbours also, there will 
never be any remembrance of injuries. 

And how is it possible (you say) that one should so love 
his neighbour as himself ? If others had not done this, thou 
hadst reason to. think it impossible : but if they have done 
it, it is plain that it is from indolence that it is not done 
by ourselves. 

And besides, Christ enjoins nothing impossible, seeing 
that many have even gone beyond His commands. Who 
hath done this ? PaulT'Peter, all the company of the Saints. 
Nay, indeed if I say that they loved their neighbours, I say 
no great matter : they loved their enemies so, as no man 

Loving our enemies, even the wicked, our own gain, 231 

would love those who were of one soul with himself. For He.x.25. 
who of us would choose for the sake of those even that are 
as his own soul, to go away into Hell, when he was about 
to depart unto a Kingdom ? No man. But Paul chose this 
for the sake of his enemies, for those who stoned him, those 
who scourged him. What pardon then will there be for 
us, what excuse, if we shall not exhibit towards our friends 
even [what tends] to the very smallest portion of that love 
which he displayed towards his enemies ? 

And before him too, the blessed Moses was willing to be 
blotted out of God's book for the sake of his enemies who 
had stoned him. David also when he saw those who had 
stood up against him slain, saith, / the shepherd have See 
sinned, but these, what have they done ? And when he had xxiv"l7. 
Saul in his hands, he would not slay him, but saved him ; 
and this when he was himself about to be in danger. But 
if these things were done under the Old [Covenant] what 
excuse shall we have who live under the New, and do not 
attain even to the same measure with them ? For if, un- s. Matt. 
less our righteousness exceed that of the Scribes and Phari- ^- ^^• 
sees, tve shall not enter into the kingdom of Heaven, how 
shall we enter in when we have even less than they ? 

[5.] Love your enemies. He saith. Love thou therefore ib. 44. 
thy enemy : for thou art doing good not to him, but to 
thyself. How ? Thou art becoming equal to God. He, if 
he be loved of thee, hath reaped no great gain, for he is 
[but] beloved by a fellow-slave. But thou, if thou love 
thy fellow-slave, hast gained much, for thou art becoming 
like unto God. Seest thou that thou art doing a kindness 
not to him but to thyself ? for He appoints the prize not 
for him, but for thee. 

What then if he be evil (you say) ? So much greater is 
the reward. Even for his wickedness thou oughtest to 
feel grateful to him : even should he be evil after receiving 
ten thousand kindnesses. For if he were not exceedingly 
evil, thy reward would not have been exceedingly increased ; 
so that the cause [thou assignest] for not loving him, the 
sayiiig that he is evil, this same is a cause for loving 
him. Take away the adversary and thou takest away the 
opportunity of [obtaining] the crowns. Seest thou not the 

232 Endurance gives might to our souls. 

HoM.19. athletes, how when they have filled the bags with sand, 
they so exercise themselves ? But there is no need for thee 
to practise this. Life is full of those that exercise thee, 
and make thee strong. Seest thou not the trees too, the 
more they are shaken by the winds, so much the more do 
they become stronger and more firm ? We then, if we be 

Prov.xiv. long-sufiering, shall also become strong. For it is said, a 
man who is long-suffering abounds in wisdom, but he that 
is of a little soul is strongly foolish. Seest thou how great 
is his commendation of the one, seest thou how great his 
censure of the other ? Strongly foolish, i. e. very [foolish] . 
fiiKpo- Lg^ ^g ^Qj^ i\iQY\ be meanly contentious ^ one towards an- 
other : for this does not arise from enmity, but from having 
a little soul. Inasmuch as if the soul be strong, it will 
endure all things easily, and nothing will have power suffi- 
cient to sink it but will lead it into the tranquil havens. To 
which may we all attain, by the grace and loving-kindness 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the Father and 
also to the Holy Ghost, be glory power honour, now and 
for ever and world without end. Amen. 



Heb. X. 26, 27. 

For if we sin wilfully, after we have received the knowledge 

of the truth, there remaineth no more ^ sacrifice for sins, ^ ovkIti 
but a certain fearful looking for of judgment, and fiery - ^}t. in- 
indignation ^ ivhich shall devour the adversaries. Yhn^o/ 


Trees which have been planted, and have had the advan- 
tage of all other due care, and the hands and the labours 
of the cultivator, and yet yield no return for his labours, 
are pulled u by the roots, and handed over to the fire. 
So sonlewhat of this kind takes place also in the case of 
our Illumination ^. For when Christ has planted us, and ^.i-e.Bap- 
we have enjoyed the watering of the Spirit, and then 
shew no fruit ; fire awaits us, even that of Hell and flame 

Paul therefore having exhorted them to love, and to the 
bringing forth the fruit of good works, and having urged 
them from the kindlier [considerations] (what are these? 
that we have an entrance into the holy place, the new way supra 
which He hath inaugurated for us), does the same again from ^^^' ' 
the more gloomy ones, speaking thus. For having said, not ib. 25. 
forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the man- 
ner of some is, but exhorting * one another, and so much the ^J"^f!!" 
more, as ye see the day approaching, this [day] even being 
sufficient for consolation, he added. For if we sin wilfully 
after we have received the knowledge of the truth. There is 
need, he means, of good works, yea, very great need. For 
if we sin wilfully after we have received the knowledge of 
the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins. Thou 
wast cleansed ; thou wast set free from the charges against 

234 Novatian errors. It is Baptism that cannot be repeated. 

HoM. 20. thee, thou hast been made a son. If then thou return to 
thy former vomit, there awaits thee on the other hand ex- 
communication and fire and whatever such things there 
are. For there is no second sacrifice. 

[2.] At this place we are again assailed by those who 
take away repentance % and by those who delay to come to 
baptism. The one saying, that it is not safe for them to 
come to baptism, since there is no second remission : And 
the other asserting that it is not safe to impart the mys- 

l^-^^^ teries ^ to those who have sinned, if there is no second re- 
Holy Eu- . . ^ 
diarist, mission. 

What shall we say then to them both ? Why, that he 
does not take away repentance, nor the propitiation [which 
is obtained] through repentance, nor does he thrust away 
him that hath fallen, and cast him down with despair. He 
is no such enemy of our salvation, but what ? he takes away 
2 ovKeTi the second Washing. For he did not say, no more ^ is there 
repentance, or no more is there remission, but no more is 
there a sacrifice, that is, there is no more a second Cross ^. 
For this is what he means by sacrifice. For by one sacrifice, 
saith he, He hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified, 
not like the Jewish rites. For it is for this cause that he 
treated so much throughout concerning the Sacrifice, that 
it is one, and [that it is] one ; Not wishing to point out 
this only, that herein it differed from [and surpassed] the 
Jewish [rites], but also to make [men] more cautious that 
they might no more expect another sacrifice after the man- 
ner of the Jewish law. 

For, saith he, if tve sin wilfully. See how he is disposed 
to pardon. He says ifive sin wilfully , so that there is pardon 
for those [who sin] not wilfully. After the knowledge of 
the truth : He either means, of Christ, or of all doctrines. 
There remaineth no more a sacrifice for sins, but what ? a 
certain fearful looking for of judgment and indignation of 
fire which shall devour the adversaries. 'By Adversaries he 
means not the unbelievers, but those also who practise what 
is adverse to virtue ; or [else he means] that the very same 


* The Novatians, who refused to admit to Penitence and the Sacraments, 
those who had fallen into deadly sin after Baptism. 

b Compare Hom. ix. [5.Jpp. 119, 120. 

ver. 14 

Greater guilt of sinning amid Christian privileges. 235 

fire shall receive them of the household, which [receives] He.x.29. 
the adversaries too. Then expressing its devouring nature, 
he, as it were, gave it life, saying, indignation of fire which 
shall devour the adversaries. For just as a wild bei^t 
when irritated and very fierce and made quite savage, 
would not rest till it had laid hold on some one and eaten 
him up, so that fire too, like a person goaded by indigna- 
tion, whatever it catch hold of, does not let it go but 
devours and tears it to pieces. 

[3.] Next he adds also the reason of the threat, that it 
is on good grounds, that it is justly [made] ; which very 
thing contributes to conviction, when [I mean] we shew 
that [the threat] is made justly. 

For, saith he, (ver. 28) He that hath despised Moses' law 
dies without mercy, under two or three ivitnesses. Without 
mercy, he says ; so that there is no pardon, no pity there : 
and yet the law is [only] that of Moses ; for the most [of 
it] he ordained. 

What is under two or three ? If two or three have borne 
witness he means, they [the accused] immediately sufiered 

If then under the Old [Covenant], where it is the law 
of Moses that is set at nought, there is so great punishment, 
(ver. 29) Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall 
he he thought ivorthy, loho hath trodden underfoot the Son 
of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant an un- 
holy [a common] thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit 
of grace. 

And how does a man tread underfoot the Son of God ? m 
AVhy (he would say), when partaking of Him in the mys- 
teries, he has wrought sin, has he not trodden Him under 
foot ? has he not despised ilim ? For just as we make no 
account of those who are trodden under foot, so also, they 
who sin have made no account of Christ ; and so they have 
sinned. Thou art ^ become the Body of Christ, and thou ' or Art 
givest thyself to the devil, so that he treads thee under dos^thou 
foot. give ? 

And accounted the blood a common thing, saith he. What 
is common ? It is '^unclean," or the having nothing beyond 
the others. 

236 Fearfulness of the Punishment of tvicked Christians. 

HoM. 20. And done despite unto the Spirit of grace. For he that 
accepts not a kindness, does despite to him that does the 
kindness. He made thee a son: and thou wishest to 
become a slave ? He came to dwell with thee, and thou 
introducest besides Him wicked imaginations ? Christ was 
willing to stay with thee : and thou treadest Him down by- 
surfeiting, by drunkenness ? 

Let us listen, whoever of us partake of the mysteries 
unworthily : let us listen whoever approach that Table 

s. Matt, unworthily. Give not (saith He) holy things to the dogs, 

^"* ' lest at any time they trample them under their feet /th^t is, 
lest they despise, lest they repudiate [them] . Yet he said 
not this, but what was more fearful than this. For he 
constrains their souls by what is fearful. For this also is 
calculated to convert, no less than consolation is. And he 
at the same time both points out the difference, and declares 
the chastisement, and the judgment upon them, as though 
it were an evident matter. Of how much sorer punishment, 
suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy ? Here also he ap- 
pears to me to hint at the mysteries. 

[4.] Next he subjoins a testimony [from the Scripture] 
saying (ver. 31, 30) It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands 
of the Living God. For it is written : Vengeance [belong- 
etK\ unto Me, I ivill recompense, saith the Lord. And again, 

Kcclus.ii. The Lord shall judge His people. We will fall, saith one, 
into the hands of the Lord, and not into the hands of men. 
But if ye repent not, ye shall fall into the hands of God : 
that is fearful : this other is nothing, to fall into the hands 
of men. When, he means, we see any man punished here, 
let us not be terrified at the things present, but let us 
shudder at the things that are to come. For according to 

lb. V. 6. His mercy, so is His wrath ^, And, His indignation will rest 
upon sinners. 

At the same time too he insinuates somewhat else in 
these words. For Vengeance [belongeth'] unto Me, he says, 
/ will recompense. This is said in regard to their enemies, 
who are doing evil, not to themselves who are suffering 

•= S. Chrys. may have had in mind with the first part of the verse he 

the latter part of the verse just cited next cites, Ecclus. v. 6. " For mercy 

Ecclus. ii. 18, " for as His majesty is, " and vv^rath come from Him &c." 
*' so is His mercy," and combined it 

Folly of guar ding anxiously without using our possessions . 237 

evil. Here he is consoling them too, all but saying, God He.x.31. 
abideth for ever and liveth, so that even if they receive 
not [their reward] now, they will receive it hereafter. They 
ought to groan, not we : for we indeed shall fall into their 
hands, but they into the hands of God. For neither is it 
he that suffers who suffers the ill, but he that does it ; nor 
is it he who receives a benefit that is benefited, but he that 
does it. 

[5.] Seeing then that we know these things, let us be pa- 
tient as to suffering evil, forward as to performing kindness- 
es. And this will be, if we hold wealth and honour in con- 
tempt. He that hath stripped himself of those affections, 
is of all men most generous, and more wealthy even than 
he who wears the purple. Seest thou not how many evils 
arise on account of money ? I do not say how many arise 
from covetousness, but merely from our attachment to these 
things. For instance, if a man has lost his money, he leads 
a life more wretched than any death. Why grievest thou, 
O man? why weepest thou? Is it because God has de- 
livered thee from excessive watching ? because thou dost 
not sit trembling and alarmed ? Again, if any one chain 
thee to a treasure, commanding thee to sit there perpetually, 
and to keep watch for other peoples' goods, thou art vexed, 
thou art annoyed : And dost thou, after thou hast bound 
thyself with most grievous chains, vex thyself when thou 
art delivered from the slavery ? assuredly our sorrows and 
our joys are [matters] of fancy ^. For we keep guard over ^ ■^pox-n- 
[our goods] just as if we had what belonged to others. 

Now my discourse is directed to the women. A woman 
oftentimes will have a garment inwoven with gold, and 
this she shakes, wraps up in linen, keej^s with care, trembles 
for it, and has no enjoyment of it. For either she dies, or 
she becomes a widow. Or, even if none of these things 
happen, yet from her fear lest wearing it out by continual 
use, she should deprive herself of it, she deprives herself 
of it in another way, by her sparing it. But she passes it 
on [you say] to another. But neither is this clear: and 
even if she should pass it on, the other again also will use 
it in the same way. And if any one will examine in their 

238 Ours ivorse than Egyptian bondage. Povertij 

HoM. 20. houses^ he will find that the most costly garments and 
other things of superior excellence, are tended with special 
honour, as if they were living masters. For she does not 
use them habitually, but fears and trembles, driving away 
moths and the other things that are wont to eat them, and 
laying most of them among perfumes and spices, nor per- 
mitting all persons to be counted worthy of the sight of 
them, but oftentimes carefully putting them in order her- 
self with her husband. 
(3) Tell me : was it not with reason that Paul called covetous- 
Col. Hi. 5. ness idolatry ? For as great respect as they exhibit towards 
their idols, so great do these persons also [exhibit] towards 
their garments, towards their golden [ornaments] . 

[6.] How long shall we go on stirring up the mire ? how 
long shall we be rivetted to the clay and the brickmaking ? 
For just as they toiled for the King of the Egyptians, so 
do we also toil for the devil, and are scourged with stripes 
that are far more severe. For as much as the soul is more 
important than the body, so much is anxiety than the weals 
of scourging. We are scourged every day, we are full of 
fear, in anxiety, in trembling. But if we be willing to 
groan, if we be willing to look up to God, He sendeth to 
us, not Moses, nor Aaron, but His own Word, and com- 
punction. When this [word] has come, and hath taken 
hold of our souls. He will free from the bitter slavery. He 
will bring us forth out of Egypt, our earnest devotion that 
is unprofitable, and toils in vain ; from this slavery which 
brings no gain : For they indeed went forth after having at 
least received golden [ornaments], the wages for their build- 
ing work, but we [receive] nothing : and would it were 
nothing. For indeed we also receive, not golden ornaments, 
but the evils of Egypt, sins and chastisements and punish- 

Let us then learn to be benefited, let us learn to be spite- 
fully treated, this is the part of a Christian. Let us think 
lightly of golden raiment, let us think lightly of money, 
that we may not think lightly of our salvation. Let us 
think lightly of money and not think lightly of our soul. 
For this it is which is chastised, this it is which is punished: 
those things remain here, but the soul departeth yonder. 

and Losses to be home with trust and thankfulness. 239 

For what purpose, tell me, dost thou cut thyself to pieces, He.x.31. 
without perceiving it ? 

[7.] These things I say to those who are covetous and 
over-reaching. And it is well to say also to those of whom 
they take advantage : Bear their over-reachings in a generous 
way; they are ruining themselves, not you. You indeed 
they defraud of your money, but they strip themselves of 
the good will and help of God. And he that is stripped 
of that, though he clothe himself with the whole wealth of 
the world, is of all men most poor : just as he too who is 
the poorest of all, if he have this, is the wealthiest of all. 
For the Lord (it is said) is my shepherd, and I shall lack Ps. xxiii. 
nothing. ^' 

Tell me now, if thou hadst had a husband, a great and 
admirable man, who thoroughly loved thee and cared for 
thee, and then knewest that he would live continually, and 
not die before thee, and would give thee all things to enjoy 
in security, as if they were thine own : wouldst thou then 
have wished to acquire any possessions ? Even if thou hadst 
been stripped of all, wouldst thou not have thought thyself 
the richer for this ? 

Why then dost thou grieve ? Because thou hast no pro- 
perty? But consider that thou hast [thereby] had the 
occasion of sin taken from thee. But is it because thou 
hadst [property] and hast been deprived of it ? But thou 
hast acquired the good will of God. And how [does it 
appear] that I have acquired it (you say) ? He has said. 
Wherefore do ye not rather suffer ivrong ? He hath said, i 
" Blessed are they who bear all things with thankfulness "^P ^• 
Consider therefore how great good will thou wilt enjoy, if 
thou shewest forth those things by [thy] works. For one 
thing only is required from us, in all things to give thanks 
to God, and [then] we have all things in abundance. I 
mean, for instance : hast thou lost ten thousand pounds of 
gold? forthwith give thanks unto God, and thou hast 
acquired ten times ten thousand, by that word and thy 

<^ It does not appear what passage "'ev^ery thing- g-ive thanks.' He hath 
of Scripture S. Chrys. referred to : the " said, ' Blessed are the poor in spirit.' " 
altered text has, "He hath said; 'In 

240 The blessedness and the temptations of Job. 

HoM.20 . [8.] For tell me when dost thou account Job blessed ? 
When he had those many camels, and flocks, and herds. 

Job i. 21. or when he uttered that saying: The Lord gave, The Lord 
hath taken aivay ? For it is for this cause also that the 
Devil causes us losses, not that he may take away our goods 
only, for he knows that this is nothing, but that through 
them he may compel us to utter something blasphemous. 
So in the case of the blessed Job too, he did not earnestly 
endeavour after this only, to make him poor, but also to 
prove him a blasphemer. At least when he had stripped 
him of every thing, observe what he says to him through 

lb. ii. 9. his wife, ^ay some word against the Lord, and die. And 
yet, o accursed one! thou hadst stripped him of every thing. 
^But (says he) this is not what I was labouring for; for I 
*have not yet accomplished that for which I did all. I was 
'labouring to deprive him of God's help : for this cause I 
'deprived him of his goods too. This is what I wish, that 
'other is nothing. If this be not gained also, he not only 
'has not been injured at all, but has even been benefited.' 
fA\ Thou seest that that wicked demon ever knows how great is 
the loss in this matter ? 

And see too that he contrives his treacherous assault [on 
Job] through his wife. Hear this, ye husbands, as many 
as have wives that are fond of money, and compel you to 
blaspheme God. Call Job to mind. But let us see if it 
please you, his great moderation, how he silenced her. 

lb. 10. Wherefore (saith he) hast thou spoken as one of the foolish 

1 Cor. XV. ivomen [speaketh'] ? Of a truth evil communications corrupt 

^^' good manners, at all times indeed, but particularly in case 

of calamities : then they who give evil advice have strength. 
For if the soul is even of itself ready to become indignant 
and impatient, how much more, when there is also some 
one to advise it. so to do. Is he not being thrust into a 
pit ? A wife is a great good, as also a great evil. For be- 
cause a wife is a great [good], observe from what point he 
[Satan] wishes to break through the strong wall. 'The 
'depriving him of his property (saith he) did not take him ; 
'the loss has produced no great effect :' On this account 

Job ii. 5. he says. If indeed he ivill bless thee to thy face. You see 
whither he was aspiring^. 


On ivhai principle temporal goods are given or withheld. 241 

If then we bear [losses] thankfully, we shall recover He.x.31. 
even these things, and if we should not recover them, our 
reward will be greater. For when he had wrestled nobly, 
then God restored to him these things also. When He had 
shewn the devil, that it is not for these things that he serves 
Him, then He restored them also to him. 

[9.] For such is He. When God sees that we are not 
rivetted to things of this life, then He gives them to us. 
When He sees that we set a higher value on things spirit- 
ual, then He also bestows on us things carnal. But not 
first, lest we should break away from things spiritual : and 
to spare us He gives us not things carnal, in order to keep 
us away from them, even against our v»^ill. 

Not so (you say) but if I receive [them], I am satisfied, 
and am the more thankful. It is false, O man, for then 
especially wilt thou be easy and careless. 

Why is it then (you say) that He gives [them] to many ? 
Whence is it evident, that it is He that gives [them] ? 
But who else, you say, gives ? Their overreaching, their 
plundering. How then is it that He allows these things 
to happen ? Just as He also [allows] murders, thefts, and 
acts of violence. 

What then (you will say) as to those who receive by 
succession an inheritance from their fathers, being them- 
selves full of evils innumerable ? And what of this ? How 
is it (you say) that God suffers them to enjoy these things ? 
Surely just as He allows thieves, and murderers, and other 
evil doers. For it is not now the time of judgment, but 
of the best course of life. 

And what I just now said, that I repeat, that they shall 
suffer greater punishment, who, when they have even had 
the enjoyment of all good things, do not even so become 
better. For all shall not be punished alike ; but they who, 
even after His benefits, have continued evil, shall suffer a 
greater punishment, while they who have been in poverty, 
not so. And that this is true, hear what He says to David, 
Did I not give thee all thy masters goods ? Whenever then 2 Sam. 
thou seest a young man that has received a paternal in- 
heritance without labours and has continued wicked, be 
assured that his punishment is increasing, and the ven- 


243 Consider which class ivill be blessed eternally, 

HoM.20. geance is made more intense. Let us not then emulate 

these ; but if any man has succeeded to virtue, if any man 

has obtained spiritual wealth, [him let us emulate] . For (it 

*^v ^^A is said) Woe to them that trust in their riches : Blessed are 
xlix. Q. ' 

Ps. they that fear the Lord, To which of these, tell me, wouldst 

cxxvm.l. ^j^^^ belong? Doubtless to those who are pronounced 
blessed. These therefore emulate, not the other, that thou 
mayest also obtain the good things which are laid up for 
them. Which may we all obtain, in Christ Jesus our Lord, 
with whom to the Father together with the Holy Ghost, 
be glory, now and for ever, and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. X. 32—34. 

But call to remembrance the former days, in which after ye 

were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions^ ; ' Traerifid- 
partly, whilst ye were made a gazing stock both by re- ^"^ 
proaches and afflictions ^, and pai^tly lohilst ye became ^ Q^'^'P^o't 
companions of them that were so used. For ye had com- 
passion on those who were in bonds % and took joyfully the 
spoiling of your goods, knowing that ye have for your selves^ 
in heaven a better and an enduring substance. 

The best Physicians after they have made a deep in- 
cision^ and by the wound have caused the pains to be more 
intense, soothing the afflicted part, and giving rest and 
refreshment to the disturbed soul^ proceed not to make a 
second incision, but rather soothe that which has been 
made with gentle remedies, and such as are calculated to 
remove the violence of the pain. This Paul also did after 
he had shaken and cast down their souls, and pierced them 
with the recollection of Hell, and convinced them, that 
beyond all doubt he must perish, who does despite to the 
grace of God, and after he had shewn from the laws of 
Moses, that they shall be destroyed and that too in a higher 
degree ; and confirmed it by other testimonies, and had said. 
It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the Living God : supra 
then, in order that the soul might not despond through^"* * 
excessive fear, and be swallowed up with grief, he soothes 

a rois SecT/xlois. This is held to be but not in the body of the Homily, 

the true reading of the sacred text : ^ eavroTs without eV is the approved 

ToTs Sea-fxols /xov was substituted in reading of the sacred text, and is 

some MSS. and in the editions of found in all the MSS. and Edd. of 

S. Chrys. before the Benedictine, here, S. Cln-ys. 

r> 9 

244 He recals their suffering and sympathy for others, 

HoM.2]. them by his commendations and his exhortation; and he 
applies [as a remedy] zeal derived from their own conduct. 
For, he saith, call to remembrance the former days, in which 
after ye had been enlightened, ye endured a great fight of 
afflictions. Powerful is the exhortation which is derived 
from deeds [already done] : for he who begins a work 
ought to go forward and add to it. It is as if he had 
^h"ny(. said, when ye were brought in^ [to the Church], when ye 
'^^^ were in the rank of learners, ye displayed so great readiness 

of mind, so great nobleness, but now it is no longer so. 
And he who encourages, does thus especially encourage 
them from their own example. 

2 &e\v<rii' And he did not simply say, ye endured a fight ^ but a 
asThar*^ ^?'efl!^ [figl^t]- Moreover he did not say "temptations" but 
of v/rest- fight, which is an expression of commendation and of very 

lers. J 

great praises. 

Then he also enumerates them particularly, amplifying 

his discourse, and multiplying his praises. How ? Partly 

(saith he) whilst ye were made a gazing-stock by reproaches 

and afflictions, for reproach is a great thing, and calculated 

to pervert the soul, and to darken the judgment. For hear 

Ps. xlii. what the prophet saith '^ : While they daily say unto me, 12. VFhere is thy God? And again. If the enetny had reproached 

me, I would have bor^ie it. For inasmuch as the race of 

men are exceedingly vain-glorious, for this cause are they 

also easily overcome hereby. 

And he did not simply say by reproaches, but expressed 

that even with great intensifying, being made a gazjng-stock 

3 ecaipi- [a public display'] ^. For when a person is reproached 
CSiievot being by himself, it is indeed painful, but far more so w^hen 

it is in presence of all. For tell me how great an evil was 
it, that men who had departed from the meanness of Juda- 
ism, and gone over, as it were, to the best course of life, 
and despised the things of their fathers, should be ill treated 
by their own people, and have no help ! 

[2.] I cannot say (saith he) that ye even suffered these 
things and were grieved, but ye even rejoiced exceedingly. 
And this he expressed by saying. Whilst ye became com- 
panions of them that loere so used, and he brings forward 

•= The common editions have tlie entire text, .My tears Jiave been rny meat 
day and night, ivliile Sfc. 

They retain firmly their faith and confidence. 245 

the very Apostles themselves. Not only (he means) were He.x.3 4. 
ye not ashamed of your own sufferings^ but ye even shared 
with the others who had suffered these things. This too 
is the language of one who is encouraging and exhorting 
them. He said not Bear my afflictions, share with me, 
but respect your own afflictions. 

Ye had compassion on them that were in bonds ^. Thou 
seest that he is speaking concerning himself and the rest 
who were in prison. Thus ye did not account bonds to be 
bonds : but as noble wrestlers so stood ye : for not only 
did ye need no consolation in your own [distresses], but 
ye also even became a consolation to others. 

And ye took joyfully the spoiling of your goods. O ! what 
full assurance of faith ! Then he also sets down the supra 
motive, not only exhorting them for their struggles, but 
also that they should not be shaken from the Faith. When 
ye saw your property plundered (he means) ye endured ; 
for already ye saw Him who is invisible, as though He were 
visible : which was the effect of genuine faith, and ye dis- 
played your faith by your deeds themselves. 

Well then, the plundering was perhaps dependent on the 
force of the plunderers, and no man could have prevented 
it ; so that as yet it is not manifest, that ye endured the 
plundering for the faith's sake (Although this too is mani- 
fest. For it was in your power if you had wished it, not to 
have been plundered, by not believing). But ye did what 
is far greater than this; the enduring such things even 
with joy ; which was altogether apostolical, and worthy of 
those noble souls, who rejoiced when they had been scourged. 
For, it says, they departed from the presence of the council, Acts v. 
rejoicing that they were counted ivorthy to suffer shame for 
the Name ^. But he that endures with joy, shews that he 
has some reward, and that the matter is no loss but a gain 
to him. 

Moreover the expression ye took unto yourselves ^ shews ' Trpoee. 
their voluntary endurance, because, he means, ye chose 
and accepted. 

^ a catena, the Verona editions and aTifiaa-drjuai. The common editions 

perhaps one MS. have "with my of S. Chrys. as the common text of 

bonds." the New Testament, add avTov, " His 

« Karr}^iu>6r]arav vircp tov oySfiaros Name," in this and in other places. 


246 Have only to continue waiting patiently for their crown, 

HoM.2i. Knoiving (he saith) that ye have for yourselves, a better 
substance in heaven and an enduring ; instead of saying, 
firm, not perishing, as this [earthly substance] is. 
(2) [3.] In the next place after having praised them, he says, 
(ver. 35) Cast not away therefore your confidence, ivhich 
hath great recommence of reward. What meanest thou? 
he did not say, 'ye have cast it away, and recover it :' but, 
which tended much more to strengthen them, ' ye have it,' 
he saith. For to recover again that which has been cast 
away, requires more labour : whereas not to lose that which 
is held fast does not. But to the Galatians he says the 
Gal. iv. very opposite : My children, of ivhom I travail in birth 
again, till Christ be formed in you ; and with reason ; for 
they were rather supine in disposition : whence they needed 
a sharper word ; but these were more faint-hearted, so that 
they rather needed what was more soothing. 

Cast not away therefore (saith he) your confidence, so 
that they were in great confidence towards God, ivhich hath 
(he saith) great recompence of reward. " And when shall 
'^ we receive them (some one might say) ? behold ! all things 
" [which were to be done] by ourselves have been [done] :'' 
on this account he anticipated them on their own supposi- 
tion, all but saying. If ye know that ye have in heaven 
a better substance, seek nothing here. 

For ye have need of patience, not of an}" addition [to your 
labours], that ye may continue in the same state, that ye 
may not cast away what has been put into your hands. Ye 
have no need of anything else, but only so to stand as ye 
have stood, that when ye have come to the end, ye may 
receive the promise. 

(ver. 36) For (he saith) ye have need of patience, that 
after ye have done the will of God, ye may receive the pro- 
mise. Ye hav.e need of one thing only, to bear with the 
delay; not, to fight again. Ye are [close] at the very 
crown (he means); ye have borne all the combats of bonds, 
of afflictions ; your goods have been spoiled. What then ? 
Henceforward ye are standing to be crowned : endure this 
only, the delay of th> crown. O the greatness of the con- 
solation ! It is as if one should speak tq an athlete who 
had overthrown all, and had no antagonist, and then was 

Waiting-time short. Faith what. 247 

to be crowned, and yet endured not that time, during which Heb.xLI. 
the president of the games comes, and places the crown 
[upon him] ; and as if he were unable to endure patiently, 
was wishing to go out, and escape as though he could not 
bear the thirst and the heat. 

He then also hinting this what does he say ? (ver 37) 
Yet a little ivhile and He that cometh loill come, and ivill 
not tarry. For lest they should say. And when will He 
come ? he comforts them from the Scriptures. For thus 
also when he says in another place, Now is our salvation Rom.xiii. 
nearer, he comforts them on the ground that the time which 
remained was but short. And this he says not of himself 
but from the Scriptures ^ But if from that time it was said. 
Yet a little ivhile, and He that cometh will come, and will 
not tarry, it is manifest that now He is nearer at hand. 
Wherefore also to wait [for Him] is no small reward. 

(ver. 38) But the just (he saith) shall live by faith, and 
if he draw back. My soul hath no pleasure in him. This is 
a great encouragement, when one points out that they have 
succeeded in the whole matter and are losing it through a 
little indolence, (ver. 39) But ive are not of them that draiv 
back unto perdition, but of them that believe to the saving of 
the soul, 

[4.] (ch. xi. 1, 2) But faith is the substance^ of things '^ substan- 
hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. For by it the ^*"^*^^ 
elders obtained a good report. O what an expression has 
he used, in saying, an evidence of things not seen. For [we 
say] there is evidence, in the case of things that are ex- 
ceedingly manifest °. Faith then is the seeing things not 
evident (he means), and brings what are not seen to the 
same full assurance with what are seen. So then neither 
is it possible to disbelieve in things which are seen, nor, 
on the other hand can there be faith, unless a man be more 
clearly convinced with respect to things invisible, than he is 
with respect to things that are seen. For inasmuch as the 

f It is to be observed that the words by adding- the article : o ipx<^i^euos, the 

" He that cometh will come and will well-known designation oftlieMessiah. 

not tarry," are from the prophet Ha- s Z-r]Kcov. Savil and Morell following- 

bakkuk ii.S : where the LXX has, iav some 31 SS. read aS-nXuv "obscure : " 

v(rrep7}(rr],vTr6iJ.^Lvoi'avThv(''Him'''r\ot but S. Chrys. means that we use the 

"it.") ori ipx^H-fvosri^ei,Kalovij.r]xpo- word eheyxos of a proof which makes 

viffri &c. The Apostle interprets this things most certain and evident. 

248 Faith the substance of things hoped for. Courage needed. 

HQ'^-^I- objects of hope seem to be unsubstantial^ Faith gives them 
VTT ara- g|i])gtantiality ^, or rather, does not give it, but is itself their 


ovaia substance^. For instance, the Resurrection has not come, 
nor does it exist substantially, but hope brings it into 
substantial existence in our soul. This is [the meaning 
of] the substance of things. 

If therefore it is an evidence of things not seen, why for- 
sooth do you wish to see them, so as to fall away from faith, 

^p*'' and from bein^ lust^? since Me just shall live bii faith, 
righteous 'c ' X. ^ ^x. ^i ■ i 

whereas ye, it ye wish to see these things, are no longer 

believing. Ye have laboured (saith he), ye have, struggled : 

I too allow this^ nevertheless, wait ; for this is Faith : do 

not seek the whole here. 

(3) [5.] These things were indeed said to the Hebrews, but 
they are a general exhortation [suited] to many also of those 
who are here assembled. How, and in what way ? to those 
who are fainthearted ; to those who are mean-spirited. For 
when they see the wicked prospering, and themselves faring 
ill, they are troubled, they bear it impatiently: while they 
long for the chastisement of the others, and the inflicting 
vengeance on them ; while they wait for the rewards of 
their own sufferings. For yet a little time, and He that 
Cometh will come. 

Let us then also say this to the slothful: Doubtless 

there will be punishment ; doubtless He will come, hence- 

^rhrrisa. forth the events of the * Resurrection are even at the doors. 

Whence [does] that [appear] (you say) ? I do. not say^ 
From the prophets ; for neither is my discourse now ad- 
dressed to Christians only ; but even should there be a 
heathen here, I am perfectly confident, and bring forward 
my proofs, and will instruct him. How (you say) ? 

Christ foretold many things. If those former things 
did not come to pass, then neither do thou believe these ; 
But if they all came to pass, why dost thou doubt concern- 
6 avieavov jj^g thosc that remain ? Although it were very unreasonable ^, 
if nothing had come to pass, to believe concerning those 
former ones, or wheH they all have come to pass, to dis- 
believe these others. 

But I will make the matter more plain by an example. 

Predictions fulfilled, guarantee those yet unfulfilled. 249 

Christ said, that Jerusalem should be taken, and should Heb.xI.I . 
be so taken as never was any city before, and that it should 
never be raised up any more : and in fact this prediction 
came to pass. He said, that there should be great tribula- s. Matt. 
tion, and it came to pass. He said that like a grain of ^^'^- ^l- 
mustard seed that is sown, so should the preaching [of the 
Gospel] be extended : and every day we see this running 
over" the world. He said, that they who have left father or 
mother, or brethren, or sisters, should have both fathers 
and mothers ; iVnd this we see fulfilled in facts. He said, 
i7i the world ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer, S. John 
/ have overcome the loorld, that is, no man shall get the ^^*" ^' 
better of you. And this we see by the events has really 
come to pass. He said that the gates of hell shall not pre- S. Matt. 
vail against the Church, and that, although it is persecuted, ^^^' ^^' 
and that no one shall quench the Preaching [of the Gospel]: 
and the experience of events bears witness to this predic- 
tion also : and yet at that time when He said these things, 
it was very hard to believe Him. Wherefore ? because all 
was [but] words, and He had not as yet given any proofs 
of the things which had been spoken. So that they now 
are become far more credible. He said that when the Gospel ib. xxiv. 
should have been preached among all the nations, then the ^^' 
end shall come, and lo ! now we have arrived at the end : 
for the greater part of the world hath been preached to, 
henceforth therefore the end is at hand. Let us tremble, 

[6.] But what, tell me. Art thou anxious about the end 
of all things ? For while it also itself is near, each man's 
life and his death is much nearer^'. For it is said, //«e Ps.xclO. 
days of our years, in them are seventy years ; but if [one bel 
in strength, four score years [&c.] The day of judgment is 
near. Let us fear. A brother doth not redeem; shall man p. xlix. 
redeem ? There we shall repent exceedingly, but in death ib. vi. 5. 
no man shall confess unto Him. Wherefore he saith. Let lb.xcv.2. 
us prevent His presence with confession, that is. His coming. 
For here [in this life] indeed, whatever we do has efficacy; 
but there, no longer. Tell me, if a man placed us for a little 

^ ^ Se kKaarov Cuh iyyvrepa ttoW^ Ka\ rj reAevTi^. But Mut. "sed et vitee 
finis uniuscujuscunque prope est." 

250 Sin of repeating ill reports, and of light talking, 

HoM. 21. while in a flaming furnace, should we not submit to an}^- 

thing in order to escape, even were it necessary to part 

with our money, nay to undergo slavery ? How many are 

there that have fallen into grievous diseases, who would 

gladly have chosen to give up all, to be delivered from them, 

if the choice had been offered them ? If in this world then, a 

disease which can be but of short duration so afflicts us, what 

shall we do yonder, when repentance will be of no avail ? 

[7.] Of how many evils are we now full, without being 

cf. Gal. conscious of them ? We bite one another, we devour one 

^' ^^' another, in wronging, accusing, calumniating, being vexed 

by the credit of our neighbours. 

^xa^fTrJ" And observe their mischievousness^. When a man wishes 

to destroy the character of his neighbour, he says, ' Such an 

'^one said this of him ; O God, forgive me, do not call me to 

^a strict account, I must give account of what 1 have heard ^' 

Why then dost thou speak of it at all, if thou dost not 

believe it ? why dost thou repeat it ? why dost thou make 

it credible by its being often reported ? why dost thou pass 

on the story which is not true ? Thou dost not believe it, 

and thou entreatest God not to call thee to strict account ? 

Do not repeat it then, but keep silence, and so free thyself 

from all fear. 

(4) But I know not from whence this disease has fallen upon 

' f^^'To- jjjgj^^ ^^Q ^j,g become tattlers, nothing remains ^ in our 

Ecclus. mind. Hear the exhortation of a wise man who saith, i^a^^ 

3^eWo- ^^^^ heard a ivord? let it die in^ thee, be bold ; it will not 

eaveraj burst thee. And again, A fool heareth a word, and trapail- 

* * * eth, as a luoman in labour of a child. We are ever ready to 

make accusations, prepared for condemning. Even if no 

other evil thing had been done by us, this were sufficient 

to ruin us, and to carry us away to Hell, this involves us 

in ten thousand evils. And that thou mayest know this 

Ps. 1. 20. certainly, hear what the prophet saith, Thoic satest and 

spakest against thy brother. 

But it is not I, you say, but the other [who told me]. 
Nay rather, it is thyself ; for if thou hadst not repeated it, 
another would not have ii^eard it : or even if he must have 

' Or might it he read, awofjs hSyov cxpclhw ; " am I responsible for what I 
*' hear, for common reports ?" 

Be silent as to others^ faults, and confess your own. 251 

heard it, yet still thou wouldest not have been the person HEB.xi.2. 
to be blamed for the sin. When we ought to shade over 
and conceal the failings of our neighbours, thou notwith- 
standing paradest them under a shew of zeal for goodness. 
Thou becomest, not an accuser, but a gossip, a trifler, a 
fool. O what cleverness ! without being aware of it, thou 
art bringing disgrace upon thyself as well as on him. 

And consider how great are the evils which arise from 
this. Thou provokest the wrath of God. Dost thou not 
hear Paul saying about widows, they not only (these are his 1 Tim. v. 
words) learn to be idle, but tattlers also and busy-bodies, ^^' 
going about from house to house, and speaking things which 
they ought not. So that even when thou believest the things 
which are said against thy brother, thou oughtest not even 
in that case to speak of them ; much less, when thou dost 
not believe them. 

But thou [forsooth] lookest to thine own interest ? thou 
fearest to be called to strict account by God ? Fear then, 
lest even for thy tattling thou be called to strict account. 
For here, thou canst not say, ^ O God call me not to a strict 
^ account for [my] light talking : ' for the whole matter is 
light talking. Why didst thou publish it ? why didst thou 
increase the evil ? This is sufficient to destroy us. On this 
account Christ said, Judge not, that ye be not judged, S. Matt. 

But vre pay no regard to this, neither are we brought to ^"' * 
our senses by what happened to the Pharisee. He said 
what was true, / am not as this PublicaJi, he said it too in s. Luke 
no man's hearing : yet was he condemned. If he were con- ^^'^^*- ^^* 
demned when he said what was true, and uttered it in no 
man's hearing, what fearful [punishment] shall not they 
suffer, who like gossiping women, carry about every where 
[stories] that are false, and which they do not themselves 
believe ? what shall they not have to endure ? 

[8.] Henceforward let us set a door and a bolt be/ore our Ecdus. 
tnouth. For innumerable evils have arisen from tattling ; ^''^'"'•^^' 
families have been ruined, friendships torn asunder, innu- 
merable other miseries have happened. Busy not thyself, 
O man, about the affairs of thy neighbour. 

But thou art a talkative person and thou hast a weakness 
[in this respect] ? Talk of thine own [faults] to God : thus 

252 Think of your own sins, ivhen you would judge another* 

HoM. 21 . thy defect will be no longer a defect, but an advantage. 
Talk of thy own faults to thy friends, those who are thorough 
friends and righteous men, and in whom thou hast con- 
fidence, that so they may pray for thy sins. If thou speak 
of the [sins] of others, thou art nowise profited, neither 
hast thou gained anything, but hast ruined thyself. If 
thou acknowledgest thy own [sins] to the Lord, great is thy 

Ps. xxxii. reward : for one says, / said, I will confess against myself 

^' mine iniquity to the Lord, and Thou forgavest the impiety 

of my heart. 

Dost thou wish to judge ? judge thine own sins. No 

1 iyKuXel one will accuse ^ thee, if thou condemn thyself : but he 
will accuse thee, if thou do not condemn thyself: he will 
accuse thee, unless thou convict thyself; will accuse thee 
of insensibility. Thou hast seen such an one in anger, ir- 
ritated, doing something else that is unreasonable ? Do 
thou thyself also at once turn thy thoughts on thy own 
[faults]: and thus thou wilt not vehemently condemn him, 
and wilt free thyself from the load of thy past transgres- 
sions. If we thus regulate our own conduct, if we thus 
manage our own life, if we condemn ourselves, we shall 
probably not commit many sins, and we shall do many 
good things, being fair and moderate ; and shall enjoy all 
the things that have been promised to them that love God : 
to which may all attain, by the grace and mercy of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the Father and also to 
the Holy Ghost, be glory power honour, now and for ever 
and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xi. 3, 4. 

Through faith we understand that the ivo7^lds ivere framed 
by the word of God ; so that things which are seen were 
not made of things which do appear. By faith Abel 
offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by 
which he obtained witness ^ that he luas righteous, God ^ «'«* tes- 
testifying of his gifts : and by it he being dead yet 
speaketh ^ 

The quality of Faith ^ has need of a soul generous and of ^ ^b ttjs 
youthful spirit, and ascending above all things of sense, and '^"^'^^'^^ 
passing beyond the weakness of human reasonings. For 
it is not possible for a man to become a believer, otherwise 
than by raising himself up above the common customs [of 
the world]. 

Inasmuch then as the souls of the Hebrews were 
thoroughly weakened, and though they had begun from 
faith, yet from their circumstances, I mean, their sufferings, 
their afflictions, they had afterwards become faint-heai^ted, 
and of little spirit, and were shaken from [their position], 
he encouraged them first indeed from these very same 
things, saying. Call to remembrance the former days [&c.] ; supra x. 
next from the Scripture which saith. But the just shall live \^' ^^^ 
by faith ; afterwards from arguments, saying, But Faith is supra 
the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not ^'^''- ^* 
seen. And now again from their forefathers, those great and 
admirable men, all but saying; If [under that dispensa- 
tion] where the good things were close before them, they 
all were saved by faith, much more are we. 

For when a soul finds one that shares the same sufferings 

* AaAel, with the most approved MSS. of the Epistle ; the editions have 
KaXi'iTai ; wliich is the reading- of the common texts of the N.T. 

254 The chief est truths known by faith not by reasonings. 

HoM.22. with itself, it is refreshed and recovers breath. This we 
may see also in the case of Faith ; this we may see also in 
Rom. i. the case of affliction : that there may be comfort for you ^ 
through our mutual faith. For mankind are very distrustful, 
and cannot place confidence in themselves, are fearful about 
whatever things they think they possess, because they have 
great regard for the opinion of the many. 

[2.] What then does Paul do? He encourages them 

from [the history of] their fathers ; and before doing that 

^Koivris from the common notions [of mankind] ^. For tell me, he 

says, since Faith is calumniated^ as being a thing without 

2 ava- demonstration ^ and as rather matter of deceit, for this 

TToZiiKTov ^^^gg |-^g points out that the greatest things are attained 

through faith and not through reasonings. And how does 

he shew this ? tell me '^. It is manifest, he saith, that God 

3e|ou»f made the things which are out of things which are not^, 

i.eT ""out things which appear out of things which appear not, things 

of no-^^ which subsist out of things which subsist not. But whence 

* ^"^' [does it appear] that He also did this by a Word? For 

reason suggests nothing of this kind, but on the contrary, 

that things which do appear are [formed] out of things 

which appear. 

On this account especially the philosophers say that 
S. Jude " nothing is out of what is not*^ ; " sensual as they are, and 
^^* committing nothing to Faith. And yet these same men, 

when they have said anything great and noble, are caught 
committing it to Faith. For instance, that ' God is without 
4 &vapxos 'beginning'*, and without origin^ :' for reason does not sug- 
^ojevj/T?- ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ contrary. And consider, I beseech you, 

their exceeding folly; saying^ [as they do] that God is 
without beginning; and yet this is far more wonderful 
than that [things should be created] out of nothing. For 
to say, that He ig without beginning, that He is without 

^ oio-re elvai 7rapa/cAr?o-iv vfuv -. the out the Homily: the later texts and 

common editions follow MSS. in which the common editions insert the words 

the very words of Rom. i. 1 2 have been of the Epistle, but not so the best MSS. 

substituted. or the old translation. 

'^ Thus the sentence is inconsequent, * " De nihilo nihil " is probably re- 

as it stands in the best texts : Ij;! the f erred to. 

common editions it is altered to, " For ^ Xeyovres, an irreg-ular construc- 

"inasmuchastheFaithwasat that time tion : the common texts substitute 

"calumniated" &c. x4'yov(Tiv. 

At this place and generally through- 



Abel. His pe7'secutio)i parallel to theii^ own, 255 

origin, produced neither by Himself nor by any other is Heb.xj. 
more full of difficulties ^, than to say that God made the ^ «^«/''^- 
things which are, out of the things which are not. For in ^^^'"' 
this [assertion] there are many [points ] which are calcu- 
lated to persuade : as, that some one made it, that what was 
made had a beginning, that on the whole it was made. 
But in the other case, that He is self-existing 2, without " '^^'^'^i""- 
prigin, that He neither had beginning nor time ; tell me, 
do not these things require faith ? But [the Apostle] did 
not assert this, which was far the greater thing [of the 
two], but the lesser. 

Whence [does it appear], he would say, that God made 
these things ? Reason does not suggest it ; no one was 
present when it was done. Whence does it appear ? It is 
plain that it is the result of faith. Through faith we under- 
stand that the ivorlds ivere made. Why through faith ? 
Because the things that are seen have not been made of things 
that appear. For this is Faith. 

[3.] Having thus stated the general [principle] ^, he ^ -rh Koi- 
afterwards tries ^ it by applying it in the case of particular T^^, ^,^^ 
persons. For a man of credit is equivalent to the world. C" 
This at all events he afterwards hinted. For when he had 
balanced the matter in the case of one or two hundred 
persons, and then saw that the number was small in amount, 
he afterwards says, to luhom the world luas not equal in infra 
worth ^. ve^- 38- 

And observe whom he puts first, him who was ill-treated, ° ^^i^^}^^ 
and that by a brother. It was their own affliction °, For 1 Thess. 
you also (saith he) have suffered the same things from your "" ^^' 
own countrymen. And by a brother who had been in no 
respect wronged, but who envied him on God's account ; 
indicating that they also are looked on with an evil eye and 
envied. He honoured God, and died because he honoured 
Him : and has not yet attained to a resurrection. But 
his readiness in God's service is manifest, and his own part ^ ^ j« ^«/>' 
has been done, but what is from God has not yet been 
bestowed on him. 

And by the more excellent sacrifice in this place, he 

^ ^^fos. S. Clirys, takes the word in its primaiy sense, " of like value," "worth 
so much as." See Horn, xxvii. [6.] pp. 316 sqq. 

256 AbeVs special faith under most peculiar trial. 

HoM. 22. means that which is more honourable, more splendid^ more 

And we cannot say (saith he) that it was not accepted. 

Gen. iv. He did accept it, and said unto Cain, \_Hast thoii] not 

7. liXX. ]^sinned'], if thou rightly offer, but dost not rightly divide? So 
then Abel both rightly offered, and rightly divided. Never- 
theless in return for this, what recompence did he receive ? 
He was slain by his brother's hand : and that sentence of 
condemnation which his father underw^ent on account of 
his sin, this he was the first to receive who had conducted 
himself aright. And w^hat he suffered was so much the 
more grievous, as it was from a brother, and as he v/as the 
first [to die]. 

And he conducted himself rightly in these respects with- 
out having any man to look to. For to wdiom could he 
look, when he so honoured God? to his father and his 
mother ? But they had outraged Him in return for His 
benefits. To his brother then ? but he also had disho- 
noured [God]. So that from himself he found out what 
was good. 

And he that is worthy of so great honour, what does he 
suffer ? He is put to death. And how too was he other- 
wise testified of that he ivas righteous ? It is said, that fire 
came down and consumed the sacrifices. For instead of 

lb. 4. [And the Lord'] had respect to Abel and to his sacrifices, the 
Syriac^ said. And He set them on fire. He therefore who 
both by word and deed bare witness to the righteous man 
and sees him slain for His sake, did not avenge him, but 
left him to suffer. 
(2) But your case is not such as this : for how could it be ? 

you who have both prophets and examples, and encourage- 

'• The reading of some MSS. and of " (not the Syriac translator, but) 

the editions except Savile's was 6 " Theodotion renders Koi iveirvpicrev 6 

Kvpios instead of o Supos. On tliis " ©eo'y ' And God set [them] on fire,' 

Montfaucon has the note: "This " as may be seen in our edition of the 

"sentence is imperfect. Mutianus' " Hexapla, and is proved by Jerome's 

"rendering is, 'On Abel (saith he) He "testimony on the passage. For the 

" ' looked, and on his sacrifices.' But " Syriac translation is, ' and God was 

" in the Syrian language, it has, " ' well pleased.' So perhaps it might 

"' And set [them] on fire.' lt^>ould "be an error of Chrysostom." Four 

" seem therefore that we should read, of the six MSS. mentioned by Mr. Field 

" 6 Swpos, Koi iveTTvpiaeu, cIttcu. The [but not the Catena] have Siipos. 
" Hebrew words are ,ti,t yc'i which 

AbeV s reward unseen : hence Enoch^s greater faith. 257 

ments innumerable, and signs and miracles accomplished ? HEB.xi>5 
So that that was faith indeed. For what miracles did he 
see, that he should believe that he should have any recom- 
pence of good things ? Was it not from Faith alone, that 
he chose virtue ? 

What is, and by it he being dead yet speaketh ? That 
he might not cast them into great despondency, he points 
out that he has in part obtained a recompence. How ? , . , 
'The influence which is maintained by him ^ is great, he (xko-k^ v 
'means, and he yet speaketh; that is, [Cain] slew him, but -jrapavrov 
'he did not with him slay his glory and honour also. He is 
'not dead; therefore neither shall ye die. For by how 
*much the more grievous a man's sufferings are, so much 
'the greater is his glory.' 

How does he yet speak ? This is a sign both of his 
being alive, and of his being by all men celebrated, admired, 
counted blessed. For he who encourages others to be 
righteous, speaks. For no speech has so much effect, as 
that man's suffering. As then heaven by its mere appear- 
ance speaks, so also does he by being had in remembrance. 
Not if he had made proclamation of himself, not if he had 
ten thousand tongues, and were alive, would he have been 
so held in admiration as now he is. That is, these things 
do not take place with impunity nor as in a chance way, 
neither do they pass away. 

[4.] (ver. 5) By faith Enoch ivas translated, that he 
should not see death, and ivas not found, because God had 
translated him. This man displayed greater faith than 
Abel. How (you ask) ? Because, although he came after 
him, yet what took place with regard to [Abel] was suffi- 
cient to turn him away [from serving God] . How ? God 
foreknew that [Abel] would be killed. For He said to 
Cain : Thou hast sinned : do not add thereto ^ He was hon- 
oured by him, [yet] He did not protect him. And yet 
neither did this throw him [Enoch] into indifference. He 
said not to himself, ' What need of toils and dangers ? Abel 
'honoured God, yet He did not protect him. For what 

' The words of the Septuagint, Gen. (either from confusing- them or by way 
iv. 7, are Tj/xapres ; 7](rvxa<Tov : for of explanation) in tliree other places, 
which S. Chrys. substitutes the words See Mr. Field's note. The words were 
of Ecclus. xxi. 1. rifxapres ; fx^ irpoa-Ofjs addressed to Cain before he killed his 
€Tt. He combines these two texts brother. 


258 God known by Faith: Where is Enoch ? ^c. 

HoM. 22. ' advantage had he that was departed, from the punishment 
' of his brother ? and what benefit was it possible he could 
^ reap therefrom ? Let us allow that he suffers severe pun- 
^ ishment : what is that to him who has been slain ?' He 
neither said nor thought anything of this kind, but passing 
beyond all these things, he knew that if God exist, certainly 
there exists a recompencer also : Although as yet they knew 
nothing of a resurrection. But if they who as yet know 
nothing of a resurrection, and here [in this world] see 
, things that are contrary [to the idea of recompence for the 
righteous], thus pleased [God], how much more should 
we? For they neither knew of a resurrection, nor had 
they any examples to look to. This very same thing then 
made [Enoch] well-pleasing [to God], namely that he had 
received no reward. For he knew that [God] is a rewarder. 
Whence [knew he this] ? " For He recompensed Abel," do 
you say ? So tliat reason suggested different things [from 
what faith suggested], but faith the opposite of what was 
seen. Even then (he would say) if you see that you receive 
no recompence here, be not disturbed. 

How was it by faith that Enoch was translated ? Because 
his pleasing [God] was the cause of his translation, and 
faith [the cause] of his pleasing [Him]. For if he had not 
known that he shall receive a recompence, how could he 
have pleased [Him] ? But without faith it is impossible to 
please Him. How ? If a man believe that there is a God 
and a retribution, he will have the recompence. Whence 
then is the well-pleasing ? 

[5.] It is necessary to believe that He is, not 'what He is^.' 
If that He is needs Faith, and not reasonings; it is impossi- 
ble to ascertain by reasoning ' what He is.' If [the doctrine] 
that He is a rewarder require Faith and not reasonings, 
how is it possible by Reasoning to comprehend the [truths] 
» TO rris of His csscncc ^ ? For what Reasoning will be able to attain 
ovaas ^^ them ? For some persons say that the things that exist 
2 avT6- are self-caused ^. Thou seest that unless we have Faith in 
tiara regard to all things, not only in regard to the Retribution, 
but also in regard tol^he very being of God, all is lost to us? 

^ That is what the substance of God is, is not a part of what we must believe 
in order to please Him : nor can it be ascertained by reasonings. 

unrevealed, God punished : yet soon poured forth life, 259 

But many seek to know whither Enoch was translated, HE.xi.6. 
and for what cause he was translated, and why he did not 
die, neither he nor Elijah, and, if they are still alive, how 
they live, and in what form. However to enquire into 
these matters is superfluous. For that the one was trans- 
lated, and that the other was taken up, the Scriptures have 
said ; but where they exist, and in what manner they exist, 
they have not added : For they say nothing more than what 
is necessary. For this indeed took place, I mean the event 
of his translation immediately at the beginning, the human 
soul [thereby] receiving a hope of the destruction of death, 
and of the overthrow of the devil's tyranny: and that 
death will be done away ; for he was translated, not being 
dead, but that he should not see death. 

On this account he added, he was translated being alive, 
because he was well-pleasing [unto God]. For just as a 
Father when he has threatened his son, wishes indeed 
immediately after he has threatened, to relax his threat, 
but endures and continues resolute, that for a time he may 
chasten and correct him, allowing the threat to remain firm ; 
so also God, after the manner of men, one may almost say, 
did not continue resolute, but immediately shewed that 
death has been done away. And first He allows death to 
happen, wishing to terrify the father through the son: For 
wishing to shew that the sentence is fixed in very deed. He 
subjected to this punishment not wicked men at once, but 
him even who was well-pleasing to Him, I mean, the 
blessed Abel ; and almost immediately after him. He trans- 
lated Enoch. Moreover He did not raise the former to 
life, that they might not at once be full of confidence : but 
He translated the other being yet alive : having excited 
fear by the case of Abel, but by this latter exciting a zeal 
to be well-pleasing unto Him. Wherefore they who say 
that all things are carried hither and thither by chance ^, ^ °-^'^^- 
and do not expect a recompence, are not well-pleasing [to 
God] ; as neither are the heathen. For He proves a re- 
warder of them that diligently seek Him by works and by 

[6.] Since then we have a rewarder, let us do all things (3) 

s 2 

260 God to be sought diligently: as we seek earthly goods: 

HoM. 22. that we may not be deprived of the rewards of virtue. For 

indeed the neglecting such a recompence, the scorning such 

a reward, is a subject worthy of many tears. For just as 

to those ivho diligently seek Him, He is a rewarder, so to 

those who seek Him not, the contrary. 

S. Matt. Seek (saith He) and ye shall find : but how is it [possible] 

^"' to find the Lord ? Consider how gold is found ; with much 

Ps.lxxvii. labour. [/ sought the Lord'] with my hands (it is said) 

I'xx^ ^y "^W^^ before Him, and I was not deceived, that is, just 

as we seek any thing which is lost, so let us seek God. Do 

we not combine our whole attention thereon ? Do we not 

make enquiry of every one ? Do we not travel far from 

home ? Do we not promise [rewards in] money ? 

For instance, suppose that any among us has lost his son, 
what do we not do ? what land, what sea do we not make 
the circuit of? Do we not reckon money, and houses, 
and every thing else as secondary to the finding hmi ? And 
should we find him, we cling to him, we hold him fast, we 
do not let him go. And when we are going to seek any- 
thing whatever, we busy ourselves in all ways to find the 
object of our search. How much more ought we to do this 
in regard to God, just as if we were seeking somewhat in- 
dispensable ; nay rather, not in the same way, but much 
more! However since we are weak, at least seek God as 
thou seekest thy money or thy son. Wilt thou not leave 
thy home for Him ? Hast thou not then ever left thy 
home for the sake of money? dost thou not [for this] busy 
thyself about all things? when thou hast found [it], art 
thou not full of confidence ? 

[7.] Seek (saith He) and ye shall find. For things which 
are sought after need much care, especially in regard of 
God. For many are the hindrances, many the things that 
bring on darkness, many those that impede our perception. 
For just as the sun is manifest, and set forth publicly before 
all, and we have no need to seek it ; whilst if on the other 
hand we bury ourselves and turn every thing upside down, 
we need much labour in order to look at the sun ; so truly 
here also, if we bur^ ourselves in the depth of evil desires, 
in the darkness of passions and of the affairs of this life, 
with difficulty do we look up, with difficulty do we raise 

sought by deep earnestness inPrayer: He wings the soul. 261 

our heads, with difficulty do we see clearly. He that is He. xi.6. 
buried underground, in whatever degree he sees upwards, 
in that degree does he come nearer to the sun. Let us 
therefore shake off the earth from ourselves, let us break 
through the mist which lies upon us. It is a thick, and a 
close one, and does not allow us to see clearly. 

And how, you say, is this cloud broken through ? If we 
draw to ourselves the beams of the sun of righteousness. The Ps. cxli. 
lifting up of my hands (it is said) is an evening sacrifice. ^' 
With our hands let us also lift up our mind : ye who have 
been initiated in the mysteries know what I mean ^, perhaps 
too ye recognize the expression, and comprehend what I 
am. hinting at. Let us raise up our thoughts on high. 

I myself know many men almost suspended apart from 
the earth, and beyond measure stretching up their hands, 
and out of heart because it is not possible to be lifted up 
into the air, and thus praying with earnestness. Thus I 
wish you to be always, and if not always, at least very 
often ; and if not very often, at least now and then, at 
least in the morning, at least in the evening prayers ^. For, ^, ^^ '^^[^ 
tell me, canst thou not stretch forth thine hands ? stretch eV rais ' 
forth thy will, stretch forth as far as thou wilt, yea even to eo-Trept- 
heaven itself. Even shouldst thou wish to touch the very 
summit, even if thou wouldst ascend higher still and walk 
thereon, it is open for thee to do it. For our mind is 
lighter, and rises higher than any winged creature. And 
when it has also received the grace which [comes] from 
the Spirit, O ! how swift is it ! how quick is it ! how does 
it compass all things ! how does it never sink down or fall 
to the ground ! These wings let us provide for ourselves : 
by means of them shall we be able to fly even across the 
tempestuous sea of this present life. 

The swiftest birds fly unhurt over mountains, and woods, 

and seas, and rocks, in a brief moment of time. Such also 

is our mind ; when it has put on its wings, when it has 

separated itself from the things of this life, nothing can 

lay hold of it, it is higher than all things, even than the 

fiery darts of the devil. 

1 The words of the Liturgy which were said throughout the Church Catho- 
lie, " liift up your hearts &c." 

262 Thus ive escape the darts of the Evil one; their character. 

HoM. 22. The devil is not so good a marksman, as to be able to 
reach this height ; he does however send forth his darts in- 
deed, for he is void of all shame, yet he does not hit the 
mark ; the dart returns to him without effect, and not 
without effect only, but it even [falls] upon his own head. 
For that which has been sent forth by him must of ne- 
cessity strike [something] . Just then, as that which has 
been shot out by men, either strikes the person against 
whom it is directed, or pierces bird, or fence, or garment, 
or wood, or the mere air, so does the dart of the devil also. 
It must of necessity inflict a wound ; and if it wound not 
him that is shot at, it necessarily wounds him that shoots it. 
And this we may learn from many instances, [I mean] 
that when we are not wounded, without doubt he is wounded 
himself. For instance, he insidiously attacked Job : he 
did not wound him, but was wounded himself. He insidi- 
ous attacked Paul, he did not wound him, but was wounded 
himself. In all cases, if we are watchful, we may see this 
taking place. For even when he wounds, he is wounded ; 
much more then [when he does not wound] . 

[8.] Let us turn his weapons then against himself, and 
having fully armed and fortified ourselves with the shield 
of faith, let us keep guard with all carefulness, so as to be 
impregnable. Now the dart of the devil is evil concupis- 
cence. Anger is in a special way a fire, a flame ; it catches, 
destroys, consumes ; let us quench it, by long-suffering, 
by forbearance. For just as red-hot iron dipped into water, 
loses its fire, so an angry man falling in with one that is 
long-suffering, does no hurt to the patient man, but rather 
benefits him, and is himself more thoroughly subdued. 

For nothing is equal to long-suffering. A man of such a 
character is never insulted ; but just as bodies of adamant 
are not wounded, so neither are souls such as this. For 
they are raised above the reach of the darts. The man 
that is long-suffering is high, and so high as not to receive 
any wound from the shot. When he is furious, do thou 
laugh : but do not laugh openly, lest thou irritate him : 
laugh however in th^ mind on his account. For in the case 
of children, when they strike us passionately, as though 
forsooth they were avenging themselves, we laugh. If 

The angry to be regarded as children, 263 

then thou laugh^ there will be as great difference between Heb.xj.g. 
thee and him, as between a child and a man : but if thou 
art furious thou hast made thyself a child. For men under 
the influence of anger are more senseless than children. 
If any one look at a child that is furious [with rage], does 
he not laugh at him ? The poor-spirited (it is said) is mightily Prov.xiv. 
simple. The simple then is a child : and he who is long- 
suffering (it is said) is abundant in wisdom. This abundant 
wisdom then let us follow after, that we may attain to the 
good things promised us in Christ Jesus our Lord, with 
Whom to the Father and also to the Holy Ghost, be glory, 
power, honour, now and for ever and world without end. 


Heb. xi. 7. 

I XPVf^a- 


S. Luke 
xvii. 26, 

2 xpVf^a- 

3 xpVfJ-a- 
lb. u. 26, 

Rom. xi. 


By faith Noah, being warned of God^ of things not seen as 
yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his 
house ; by the which he condemned the ivorld, and became 
heir of the righteousness ivhich is by Faith. 

By faith (saith he) Noah being warned of God. As the 
Son of God, speaking of His own coming, said. In the days 
of Noah they married and were given in marriage, on this 
account the Apostle also recalled to their mind an appro- 
priate image of their own circumstances. For the example 
of Enoch, was an example only of Faith ; that of Noah on 
the other hand, of unbelief also. And this is a complete 
consolation and exhortation, when it is found that not only 
those who believe are approved, but that those also who 
do not believe meet with the contrary portion. 

For what saith he ? By faith being warned of God [hav- 
ing received a divine communication'^'^. What is having 
received a divine communication ? It is, " It having been 
" foretold to him." But why is the expression divine com- 
munication ^ used ? for in another place also it is said, and 
it was divinely communicated"^ to him by the Spirit, and 
again, and what saith the divine communication^ ? (Thou 
seest the equal dignity of the Spirit? for just as God reveals % 
so also does the Holy Spirit.) But for what cause did he 

" Xpq.. This word is properly used of 
quasi-Divine communications made 
through oracles : the word XPW^'^'-- 
^w and xp''ll^o-'''t(yH-^s have th> same 
meaning^. Hence the emphatic cha- 
racter ol the words, of God, in our Ver- 
sion of the text Rom. xi. 4 ; and so 

in the other passag-e which S. Chrys. 
cites (S. Luke ii. 26) the Divinity ot 
the Holy Spirit (he says) is implied in 
the use of the word ^v Kexpvi^ci,Ti(T/x4- 
vov virh (not Sia) rod Uv^vixaTos, " a 
" divine communication was made by 
" the Spirit." 

Noah ; Abraham ; not rewarded on earth. 265 

express himself thus ? It is a prophecy that is called a Heb.xI.q. 
divine communication. 

Of things not seen as yet, saith he, that is of the rain. 

Moved with fear, prepared an ark. Reason indeed sug- 
gested nothing of this sort ; For they were marrying and 
being given in marriage ; the air was clear, there were no 
signs [of change] : but nevertheless he was alarmed : By 
faith (he says) Noah being warned of God of things not 
seen as yet, moved ivith fear, prepared an ark to the saving 
of his house. 

In what sense [is it that he says], By the luhich he con- 
demned the worlds He shewed them to be worthy of 
punishment, since they were not brought to their senses 
even by the construction [of the ark] . 

And he became (he says) heir of the righteousness tuhich 
is by Faith : that is, from this he was manifested to be 
righteous, from his believing God. For this is the [mark] 
of a soul that is sincerely disposed towards Hini and judges 
nothing more thoroughly to be relied on than His words, 
just as Unbelief is the very contrary. And as to Faith, it 
is manifest that it works righteousness. For just as we have 
been warned of God respecting Hell, so was he also warned: 
and yet at that time he was laughed at ; he was reviled and 
ridiculed ; nevertheless he regarded none of these things. 

[2.] (ver. 8, 9) By faith Abraham when he was called to 
go out into a place which he should after receive for an in- 
heritance, obeyed ; and he ivent out not knowing whither he 
loent. By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a 
strange country, dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, 
the heirs with him of the same promise. [By faith ;] for (tell 
me) whom did he see to emulate ^ ? He had for father a ^ " to en- 
Gentile, and an idolater; he had heard no prophets; he f^^j^"*" 
knew not whither he was going. For as they of the He- tate, or 
brews who beheved, looked to these [patriarchs] as men pas^."'*^' 
who had enjoyed blessings innumerable, he points out that 
no one of them had obtained anything as yet ; all are un- 
rewarded ; no one as yet had received his recompences. 
He was banished from his country and his home, and ivent 
out not knowing whither he went. 

And what marvel, if he himself [were so], when his seed 

266 Their trial, their perseverance to the very last, 

HoM. 23. also dwelt in this same way ? For beholding the promise 
1 4\iyxo. proving untrue ^ (since He had said, To thee will I give this 
Gen. xii. land, and to thy seed), he saw his son dwelling there ; and 
7;xai.l5. r^^^\^ j^^g grandson saw himself dwelling in a land not his 
own; yet was he nowise troubled. For as to Abraham 
himself what happened would have been such as we might 
have expected, on the supposition that the promise was to 
be accomplished afterwards in his family (although it is 
said even to himself. To thee, and to thy seed, not, " to thee 
" through thy seed," but to thee and to thy seed) : still nei- 
ther he, nor Isaac, nor Jacob, enjoyed the promise. For 
one of them served for hire, and the other was driven out : 
and he himself even was failing^ through fear: and while he 
. took some things indeed in war, others, unless he had had 
the aid of God, would have been destroyed. On this ac- 
count the Apostle says, with the heirs of the same promise ; 
not himself alone, he means ; but the heirs also. 

[3.] (ver.- 13) These all died in faith, he says, wof having 
obtained ^ the promises. At this place it is worth while to 
make two enquiries, how it is that after saying that [God] 
translated Enoch, and he was not found, so that he did not 
see death, he now says, These all died in Faith. And again, 
after saying, they not having obtained the promises, he de- 
clares that Noah had received a reward, to the saving of his 
house, and that Enoch had been translated, and that Abel 
yet speaks, and that Abraham had gained a hold on the 
land, and yet he says, These all died in Faith, not having 
obtained the promises. What then is it [that is meant]? 

It is necessary to solve the first [difficulty], and then 
the second. These all (saith he) died in faith. The word 
all is used here not because all had died, but because with 
that one exception all these had died, whom we know to 
be dead. 
(2) And the [statement] not having obtained the promises, 
is true : for surely the promise to Noah was not to be this 
[which is here spoken of]. But further, of what kind of 
promises is he speaking ? For Isaac and Jacob did receive 

^ i^eirtTTTe : i.e. ttjs inroffx^o'eus, " of S. Chrys. thronghout this passag-e 

the promise," is Mr. Field's interpre- without any variation of reading-, 

tation ; MntihnvishsLS pcene ejvciderat. The text of the Epistle here has Ao- 

' Kofiia-dfievoi. This word is used by /^Ji'Tes, but in ver. 39, ovk iKOfxlffavTo, 

They received on earth a foretaste of the promised good. 267 

the promises of the land ; but as to Noah and x'Vbel and He.xI.I-S. 
Enoch, what kind of promises did they receive ? Either 
then he is speaking concerning these three ; or if concern- 
ing those others also, the promise was not this^ that Abel 
should be admired, nor that Enoch should be translated, 
nor that Noah should be preserved ^, but these things in- 
deed accrued to them for their virtue's sake, yet they were 
only a sort of foretastes of things to come. For God from 
the beginning, knowing that the human race needs much 
condescension, bestows on us not only the [good] things 
in the world to come, but also those here ; as for instance, 
what Christ said even to His own disciples. Whosoever g. ^att. 
hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, ^^^' 29- 
shall receive an hundred fold and shall inherit everlasting 
life. And again. Seek ye the kingdom of God, and all these ib. vi. 33. 
things shall be added unto you. Thou seest that these 
things are given by Him in the way of addition, that we see above 
might not faint ? For just as the athletes have the benefit 
of careful attention, even when they are engaged in the 
combat, but do not then have the enjoyment of entire ease, 
as living under rules, yet nevertheless afterwards they 
enjoy it entire : so God also does not grant us here to 
partake of entire ease. For even here He does give [some] . 

[4.] But having seen them afar off, he says% and em~ 
braced them. Here he hints at something mystical : that 
they received beforehand all the things which have been 
spoken concerning things to come ; concerning the resur- 
rection, concerning the Kingdom of Heaven, concerning 
the other things, which Christ proclaimed when He came, 
for these are the promises of which he speaks. Either then 
he means this, or, that they did not indeed receive them, 
but died in confidence respecting them, and they were 
[thus] confident through Faith only. 

Having seen them afar off : four generations before ; for 
after so many [generations], they went up out of Egypt. 

^ We must probably understand thing already given them, 

also, ' nor that the Patriarchs should « S. Chrys. does not cite nor yet 

' live in Canaan :' the argument seems refer to the words koX TreicrOeuTeSf 

to require this ; besides in the state- and were persuaded of them. They 

raentofthe difficulty Abraham's having are found in the common editions of 

"got a hold on the land" is mentioned the Epistle, but are not supposed to 

together with the blessings bestowed be a genuine part of the Sacred text, 
on Abel Enoch and Noah, as some- 


268 Contrast of their position and conduct with our own, 

HoM. 23. And embraced them, saith he, and were glad. They 
were so persuaded of them as even to embrace [or salute^ 
them, from the metaphor of persons on ship-board behold- 
ing from afar the cities [their homes] which they long for: 
which, before they enter them, they take and appropriate 
to them by words of greeting. 

;V (ver. 10) For they looked (he saith) /br the^ city which 

hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God. Thou 
seest that they received them in this sense, in their already 
accepting them and being confident respecting them. If 
then to be confident is to receive, it is in your power also 
to receive. For these [saints], although they enjoyed not 
those [blessings], yet still by means of their longing desire 
saw them. Why now do these things happen ? That we 
might be put to shame, in that they indeed, when things 
on earth were promised them, regarded them not but 
sought the future city [or home'] : whereas God again and 

t6xiv again speaks to us of the home ^ which is above, and yet 
we seek that which is here. He said to them, I will give 
you the things of the present [world]. But when He saw, 
or rather, when they shewed themselves worthy of greater 
things, then He no longer suffers them to receive these, 
but those greater ones ; wishing to shew us that they are 
worthy of greater things, because they were not willing to 
be bound to these. As if one should promise play-things 
to an intelligent child, not that he might receive them, but 
by way of exhibiting his philosophy, when he asks for 
things more important. For this is to shew, that they 
held off from the land with so great earnestness, that they 
did not even accept what was given. Wherefore their 
posterity receive it on this account, for themselves were 
wovt' y of the land. 

What is, the city which hath foundations ? for are not 
these [which are visible] foundations ? in comparison of 
the otht r, they are not. 

Whose Builder and Maker is God, O ! what an enco- 
nium on that city! 

[5.] (ver. 11) By faith^lso Sarah herself , he says. Here 
he began [speaking] in a way to put them to shame, in 
case, that is, they should shew themselves more faint- 

Sarah; her faith, and the promises made to her. 269 

hearted than a woman. But possibly some one might say, HE.xi.i2. 
How [could it be] by faith, when she laughed ? Nay while 
her laughter indeed was from unbelief, her fear [was] from 
Faith, for to say, / laughed not, arose from Faith. From g „. 
this then it appears that when unbelief had been cleared ^^^"- ^^r 
out. Faith came in its place. 

By faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive 
seed even when she was past age^. What is, to conceive 
seed^ ? She who was become dead, who was barren, re-^eis/cara- 
ceived power for the retaining of seed, for conception. For J^^pl^^, 
her imperfection was two-fold ; first from her time of life, ros 
for she was quite an aged person ; secondly from nature, for 
she was barren. 

ver. 12. Wherefore even from one they all sprang, as the 
stars of the sky, and as the sand which is by the sea-shore. 
Wherefore (saith he) even from one they all sprang. Here 
he not only says that she bare [a child], but that she also 
became mother of so many as not even faithful wombs [are 
mothers of]. As the stars, He saith. How then is it that 
He often numbers them, although He said. As the stars of -^^i. xv. 5. 
the heaven shall not be numbered, so neither shall your seed ? 
He either means the excess, or else [speaks of] those who 
are continually being born. For [in the case] of one family 
is it possible, tell me, to number their forefathers, as, such 
an one son of such an one, such an one son of such an 
one ? But here such are the promises of God, so easy of (3) 
accomplishment are His undertakings. 

[6.] But if the things which He promised as additional, 
are so admirable, so beyond expectation, so magnificent, 
what will those be, to which these are an addition, to 
which these are somewhat over and above ? What then 
can be more blessed than they who attain them ? What 
more wretched than those who miss them ? For if a man 
when driven out from his native country, is pitied by all ; 
and when he has lost an inheritance is considered by all 
men as an object of compassion, with what tears ought he 
to be bewailed, who fails of Heaven, and of the good 

i KoX irapa Kaiphv rjAiKias. The rpon editions of the New Testament ; 
common texts of S. Chrys. add here but in neither ease is it supposed to 
eriKev, in accordance with the com- be genuine. 

270 The inconceivable blessings promised to ourselves, 

HoM. 23. things there stored up ? Or rather, he is not even to be 
wept for: for a person is wept for, when his calamity is 
one of which he is not himself the cause; but when of 
his own choice he has entangled himself in evil, he is not 
^ ^>'o^ an object ^ of tears, but of wailings ^ ; or rather even then 
^■fl'Jeovs of mourning^; since even our Lord Jesus Christ mourned 
and wept for Jerusalem, impious as it was. In very deed 
we are fit objects for lamentations innumerable, for wail- 
ings innumerable. If the whole world should receive a 
voice, both stones, and wood, and trees, and wild beasts, 
and birds, and fishes, and, in a word, the whole world, if, 
I say, it should receive a voice and bewail us who have 
failed of those good things, its wailing and its lamenta- 
tion would be in no wise proportioned [to the calamity]. 
For what language, what intellect, will be able to repre- 
sent to us that blessedness and virtue, that pleasure, that 
1 Cor. ii. glory, that happiness, that splendour? luhat eye hath not 
^' seen, and ear hath not heard, and what hath not entered 

iiito the heart of man (he did not say, that they simply 
surpass [what we imagine] ; but, never hath any man even 
conceived) the things ivhich God hath prepared for them 
that love Him. For of what kind is it likely that those 
good things should be, of which God is the Preparer and 
Establisher? For if immediately after He had made us, 
when we had not yet done anything. He freely bestowed 
so great [favours]. Paradise, familiar intercourse with Him- 
self, promised us immortality, a life happy and freed from 
cares ; what will He not bestow on those who have laboured 
and struggled so greatly, and endured so much on His 
behalf? For our sake He spared not His Only Begotten, 
for us when we were enemies He gave up His own Son to 
death ; of what will He not count us worthy, now that we 
are become His friends? what will He not impart to us, 
now that He has reconciled us to Himself? 

[7;] He both is abundantly and infinitely rich; and He 
desires and earnestly endeavours to obtain our friendship ; 
we do not thus earnestly endeavour. What am I saying, 
' do not earnestly endea>our ? ^ We do not wish to obtain 
His blessings, so much as He wishes it. And that He 
wishes it more [than we] is i^roved by what He has done. 

Our condition calls for the most bitter sorrow. 271 

For while, for our own selves' sake, we with difficulty think HE.xi.i2. 
lightly of a little gold : He, for our sake, gave even His 
Son, His'^own [Son]. Beloved, let us make use of the love 
of God as we ought; let us reap the fruits of His friend- 
ship. For ye are My friends (He saith) if ye do what I S.John 
say to you. How wonderful ! His enemies, who were at ^^' ' 
an infinite distance from Him, whom in all respects He 
excels by an incomparable superiority, these He has made 
His friends and calls them friends. What then should not 
one choose to suffer for the sake of this friendship ? For 
the friendship of men we often risk our lives, but for that 
of God, we do not even give away our money. Our [con- 
dition] does indeed call for mourning, for mourning and 
tears and wailings, and loud lamentation and beating of 
the breast. We have fallen from our hope, we are cast 
down from our high estate, we have shewn ourselves un- 
worthy of the honour of God; even after His benefits 
we are become unfeeling, and ungrateful. The devil has 
stripped us of all our good things. We who were counted 
worthy to be sons ; we His brethren and fellow-heirs, are 
come to be in nothing different from His enemies that 
openly insult Him. 

Henceforward, what consolation shall there be for us ? 
He called us to Heaven, and we have thrust ourselves down 
to hell. Siveari7ig and lying and stealing and adultery, are Hos. iv. 
poured out upon the earth. Some mingle blood upon blood; 
and others do deeds worse than blood-shedding. Many 
of those that are wronged, many of those that are defrauded 
prefer ten thousand deaths to the suffering such things : 
and were they not influenced by the fear of God, would 
even have killed themselves, being so murderously dis- 
posed against themselves. Are not these things then worse 
than blood-shedding? 

[8.] Woe is me, my soul ! for the godly man is perished Micah 
from the earth, and there is none upright among men ; let j^xx! 
us also now cry out, first about our own selves : nay, do 
you, I beseech you, aid me in my lamentation. 

Perhaps some are even disgusted and laugh. For this 
very cause ought we to make our lamentations the more 
intense, because we are so mad and beside ourselves, that 

272 Description i>fthe sad state of the Christian Church. 

HoM. 23. we do not even know that we are mad, but laugh at 

Rom. i. things for which we ought to groan. O man i there is 

^^' wrath revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and un- 

Ps.-l. 3. righteousness of men ; God will come manifestly : afire will 

burn before Him, and round about Him will be a mighty 

lb. xcvii. tempest. Afire will burn befoy^e Him, and consume His ene- 

Mal.iv.l.^^^^ o/i every side. The day of the Lord is as a burning 

oven, and no man lays up these things in his mind, but 

these tremendous and fearful doctrines are more despised 

than fables, and are trodden under foot. He that heareth, 

— there is no one : while they who laugh and make sport 

are — all. What resource will there be for us ? whence shall 

Numb, we find safety ? we are undone, ive are utterly consumed, 

xvii. 12. ^g g^yg become the laughing-stock of our enemies, and a 

(4) mockery for the heathen and the Demons. Now is the 

devil greatly elated ; he glories and is glad. The angels 

to whom we had been entrusted are all ashamed and in 

sadness : there is no man to convert [you]: all means have 

been used up by us in vain, and we ourselves are regarded 

by you as idle talkers. It is seasonable in this our day also 

to call on the heaven, because there is no man that heareth ; 

Isa. i. 2. to take to witness the elements : Hear, O heaven ! and give 

ear, O earth I for the Lord hath spoken. 

Give a hand, stretch it forth, O ye who have not yet 
been overwhelmed, to them who are undone through their 
drunkenness : ye that are whole to them that are sick, ye 
that are sober-minded to them that are mad, that are giddily 
whirling round. 

Let no man, I beseech you, prefer the favour of his friend 
to his salvation ; and let your chiding and your rebuke 
look to one thing only, — his benefit. When one has been 
seized by a fever, even slaves lay hold of their Masters. 
For when that is pressing on him, throwing his mind into 
confusion, and a swarm of slaves are standing by, they re- 
cognize not the law of Master and Servant, in the calamity 
of their Master. 

Let us collect ourselves, I exhort you : there are daily 
wars, submersions [of^owns], destructions innumerable all 
around us, and on every side the wrath of God is^enclosing 
us as in a net. And we, as though we were well-pleasing to 

He is obliged unwillingly, to dwell on these sad subjects, 273 

Him, are thus in security. We all make our hands ready HE.xi.i2. 
for unjust gains, none for helping others : all for plunder- 
ing, none for protecting : each one is in earnest as to how I 
he shall increase his possessions ; no one as to how he shall 
assist him that is in need : each one has much anxious 
care how he may add to his wealth ; no one how he may I 
save hjs own soul. One and the same fear possesses all, i 
lest (you say) we should become poor ; lest we should fall | 
into hell, [as to that] no man is in anxiety and trembling. I 
These are the things that call for lamentation, these are j 
what call for accusation, these are what call for reproba- j 

[9.] These however are not the things I wish to speak j 

of, but I am constrained by my grief. Forgive me : I am | 

forced by sorrow to utter many things, even things which I ; 

do not wish. I see that our wound is grievous, that our i 

calamity admits of no comfort, that woes which have over- ! 
taken us are beyond the reach of consolation. We are 

undone. that my head were waters and mine eyes a Jerem. \ 

fountain of tears, that I might lament. Let us weep, be- ^^' ^' "\ 
loved, let us weep, let us lament. 

Possibly there may be some here who say. He talks i 

to us of nothing but lamentation, nothing but tears. It -] 

was not my wish, believe me, it was not my wish : [I j 

wished] rather to go through a course of commendations j 

and praises : but now it is not the season for these things. ■ 

Beloved, it is not lamenting which is grievous, but the 1 

doing things which call for lamentations. Sorrow is not i 

the thing to shrink from, but the committing things that ^ 

call for sorrow. Do not thou be punished, and I will not 1 

mourn. Do not die, and I will not weep. If the body, | 

however, lies dead, thou callest on all to grieve with thee, ; 

and boldest them to be devoid of sympathy who do not \ 

mourn : And when the soul is perishing, dost thou tell us | 
not to mourn ? 

But I cannot be a father, if I do not weep. I am a father 
full of affection. Hear how Paul exclaims. My little chil- Gal. iv. 

dren, -of whom I travail in birth again: what mother in * ' 
child-birth utters cries so bitter as he ! Would that it were 
possible for thee to see the very fire that is in my heart, 


274 The remembrance of our sins most helpful. 

HoM. 23. and thou wouldest know, that I burn [with grief] more 
intense than any woman, or girl that suffers untimely 
widowhood. She does not so mourn over her husband, nor 
any father over his son, as I do over this multitude that is 
here with us. 

I see no progress. Every thing turns to calumnies and 
accusations. No man makes it his business to please God ; 
but (says he) ' such an one let us speak evil of or such an 
' one.^ ^ Such an one is unfit to be among the Clergy.^ 'Such 
^ an one does not lead a respectable life.^ When we ought to 
be grieving for our own evils, we judge others, whereas we 

1 Cor. iv, ought not to do this, even when we are pure from sins. For 
who maketh thee to differ (saith he) and what hast thou 
which thou didst not receive ? but if thou hast received it, 
tvhy dost thou glory, as though thou hadst not received it ?\\. And thou, luhy dost thou judge thy brother, being thyself 
full of innumerable evils ? When thou sayest. Such an 
one is a bad man, and a spendthrift, and vicious, think of 
thyself, and examine strictly thy own [condition], and thou 
wilt repent of the things which thou hast said. For there 
is not anj^, no not any, such powerful stimulus to virtue, 
as the recollecting of our sins. 

If we turn over these two things in our minds, we shall 
be enabled to attain the promised blessings, we shall be 
enabled to cleanse ourselves and wipe away [what is amiss]. 
Only let us take serious thought sometime or other ; let us 
be anxious about the matter, beloved. Let us grieve here 
in reflection, that we may not grieve yonder in punishment. 

Is. XXXV. but may enjoy the everlasting blessings, where pain and 
sorrow and sighing are fled away, that we may attain to the 
good things which surpass man^s understanding, in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, for to Him is glory and power for ever 
and ever. Amen. 



Heb. xi. 13—16. 

These all died infaith^, not having received the promises, ^ «aTck 
but having seen them afar off, and embraced them, and^^'^^^^ 
confessed that they ivere strangers and pilgrims on the 
earth. For they that say such things, declare plainly 
that they seek a country. And truly if they had been 
mindful of that country from whence they came out, they 
might have had opportunity to have returned. But now 
they desire a better country , that is, an heavenly ; wherefore 
God is not ashamed^ to be called Their God, for He hath ^ lit. 

7 /. .7 •, ashamed 

prepared for them a city. of them, 

to he Hfc. 

The first virtue, yea the whole of virtue is to be a stran- 
ger to this world, and a sojourner, and to have nothing in 
common with things here, but to hang loose from them, as 
from things strange to us ; As those blessed disciples did, 
of whom he says. They ivandered about in sheep-skins, in infra ver. 
goat-skins, being destitute, afflicted, tormented^: of whom 3.^ffJ^^^'^^f_ 
the IV orld IV as not Ivor thy. ed 

They indeed then spake of themselves as strangers ; but 
Paul said somewhat much beyond this : for not merely 
did he call himself a stranger, but said that he was dead to 
the world, and that the world was dead to him. For the (iai. vi. 
ivoi'ld (he saith) has been crucified to me and I to theivorld. ^^• 
But we, being at home ^ and quite alive busy ourselves ^^"^'"to- 
about all things here as citizens. And the very thing 
which righteous men were to the world, strangers and dead, 
that we are to Heaven. And the very thing which they 
were to Heaven, alive and as its citizens [whose home and 
interests were there], that we are to the world. Wherefore 


276 Description of Christians indulging in the sleep of sin. 

HoM. 24. we are dead, because we have refused that which is indeed 

life, and have chosen this life which is but for a time. 

Wherefore we have provoked God to wrath, because when 

the enjoyments of Heaven have been set before us, not 

even so are we willing to separate ourselves from things on 

earth, but, just like worms, we turn about from the earth 

1 from to the earth, and again from this to that ^, and in short are 

to"earth^^ not willing to lift up ourselves even for a little while, nor 

o- that to withdraw ourselves from human affairs ; but just as if 

we were thoroughly immersed in our torpor and sleep and 

drunkenness, are stupified with imaginations. 

[2.] And just as those who are under the power of sweet 
sleep lie on their bed not only during the night, but even 
when the very morning has overtaken them, and it is be- 
come bright day, and are not ashamed to indulge in plea- 
sure, and to make the season of business and activity a 
time of slumber and indolence, so, truly we also, when the 
day is drawing near, when the night is far spent, or rather 
S. John the day, for loork (it is said) ivhile it is day ; when it is 
^^- ^- day we practise all that belongs to the night, sleeping, 
dreaming, indulging in luxurious fancies ; and the eyes of 
our understanding are closed as well as those of our body ; 
we speak amiss, we talk absurdly ; even if a person inflict 
a deep wound upon us, if he carry off all our substance, if 
he set the very house on fire, we are not so much as con- 
scious of it. 

Or rather, we do not even wait for others to do this, but 
we do it ourselves, piercing and wounding ourselves every 
day, lying in unseemly fashion, and stripped bare of all 
credit, all honour, neither ourselves concealing our shame- 
ful deeds, nor permitting others to do so, but lying exposed 
to public disgrace, to the ridicule, the numberless jests of 
spectators and passers by. 

[3.] Do ye net suppose that the wicked themselves 
laugh at those who are of like characters to themselves, 
and condemn them ? For inasmuch as God has placed 
within us a tribunal which cannot be corrupted by bribes, 
nor ever utterly destroved, even though we come to the 
very lowest depth of vice ; for this cause even the wicked 
themselves give sentence against themselves; and if one 

Poiver of conscience. Patriarchs strangers : in what sense? %77 

call them that very thing which indeed they are, they are HE.xi.i3. 
ashamed, they are angry, they say that it is an insult. Thus 
they condemn the very things which they practise, even if 
not by their deeds, yet by their words, by their conscience, 
nay rather [I may say] even by their deeds. For when they 
carry on their practices out of sight and in concealment, 
they exhibit the strongest proof of the opinion which they 
hold concerning the thing itself. For wickedness is so 
manifest, that all men are its accusers, even those who 
follow after it, while such is the quality of virtue, that it is 
admired even by those who do not emulate it. For even 
the fornicator will commend chastity, and the covetous man 
will condemn injustice, and the passionate man will admire 
patience, and he will blame quarrelsomeness, and the wanton 
[will blame] wantonness. 

How then is it (you say) that he pursues these things ? 
From excessive indolence, not because he judges it well 
[so to do] ; otherwise he would not have been ashamed of 
the thing itself, nor would he have denied it when another 
accused him. Nay many when they have been caught, 
not enduring the shame, have even hanged themselves. So 
strong is the witness within us in behalf of what is good 
and becoming. Thus what is good is brighter than the sun, 
and the contrary [things] more unsightly than any thing. 

[4.] The saints were strangers and sojourriers. How and (2) 
in what way ? And where doth Abraham confess himself to i ^^^ 
be a stranger and a sojowner ? Perhaps indeed he even Gen. 
himself confessed it ^ : but David both confessed, / am a p^"^' ^' 
stranger, and what ? as all my fathers were. For they who xxxix. 
dwell in tents, they who purchase even burial places for * 
money, evidently were in some sense strangers, as they had 
not even where to bury their dead. 

What then ? Did they mean that they were strangers 
in respect of that land that is in Palestine? By no means: 
but in respect of the whole world : and this with reason ; 
for they saw therein none of the things which they were 
wishing for, but every thing foreign and strange to them. 
They indeed wished to practise themselves in virtue : but 
here there was much wickedness, and things were quite 
foreign to them. They had no friend, no familiar acquaint- 
ance, save only some few. 

278 Strangers in the ivorld ; contrasted 

HoM^j4. But how were they strangers? They had no care for 
things here. And this they shewed not by words, but by 
very deeds. How and in what manner? , 

He said to Abraham, " Leave thy country, that which 
" seems [thy country] and come to one that belongs to 
" others :" And he did not cleave to his own [friends and 
home] but gave it up as unconcernedly as if he were about 
to leave a foreign land. He said to him, '^ Offer up thy 
" son,^^ and he offered him up as if he had not a son ; as if 
he had divested himself of his nature, so he offered him up. 
The wealth which he had acquired was common to all passers 
by, and this he accounted as nothing. He was wont to yield 
up the first places to others : to throw himself into dan- 
gers ; to suffer troubles innumerable. He built no splendid 
houses, he enjoyed no luxuries, he had no care about dress, 
which all belong to the things of this world ; but lived in 
all respects as one whose home is in the City which is 
yonder ; he exhibited hospitality ; brotherly love ; merci- 
fulness ; forbearance ; contempt for wealth and for present 
glory, and for all else. 

And his son too was such as himself : when he was driven 

hither and thither, when war was made on him, he yielded 

and gave way, as being in a foreign land. For foreigners, 

whatever they suffer, endure it, as not being in their own 

country. Even when his Avife was taken from him, he 

endured this also as being in a strange land : and lived in 

all respects as one whose home was above, displaying so- 

» (Tcocppo- bermindedness and a well ordered life ^. For after he had 

Ko^^f- begotten a son, he had no more commerce with his wife, 

6Tr]Ta and it was when the flower of his youth had passed that 

he married her, shewing that he did it not from passion, but 

in subservience to the promise of God. 

And what did Jacob ? Did he not seek bread only and 
raiment, which are asked for by those who are strangers in- 
deedj by those that have come to great poverty? When 
he was driven out, did he not give place just as a stranger ? 
Did he not serve for hire ? Did he not suffer afflictions 
innumerable, every wh^e, just as a stranger would ? 

[5.] And these things (saith he) they said,, like persons 
seeking their country. Ah ! how great is the difference ! 

with Christians, God not ashamed to he called their God, 279 

They indeed were in travail-pains each day, wishing to be HE.xi.i6 . 
released from this world, and to return to their own coun- 
try. But we, on the contrary, if a fever attack us, neglecting 
every thing, just like little children which sob and cry, are 
frightened at death. 

Nor is it without reason that we are thus affected. For 
since we do not live here like strangers, nor as if we were 
hastening to our proper country, but are like persons that 
are going away to punishment, for this cause we grieve, 
because we have not used our circumstances as we ought, 
but have turned the order of things upside down. Hence 
we lament when we ought to rejoice : hence we shudder, 
just like murderers or robber chiefs, when they are going 
to be placed before the judgment-seat, and are thinking 
over all the things they have done, and for this cause are 
fearing and trembling. 

Not such however were they of old, but they were in 
haste [to depart]. Nay Paul even groaned [for it] ; And 2 Cor. v. 
we ourselves also (he says) who are in the tabernacle do 
groan being burdened. Such was Abraham and they who 
were with him, strangers, saith he, they were in respect of 
the whole world, and were seeking a countrij. 

What sort of countrij was this? Was it that which 
they had left ? By no means. For what hindered them 
if at least they had wished, from returning again, and be- 
coming settled there ? but they sought that [home] which 
is in Heaven. Thus they were earnestly desirous for their 
departure hence, and so were they pleasing to God ; for 
God. was not ashamed to be called their God. 

[6.] Ah! how great a dignity! He vouchsafed to be 
called their God. What dost thou say ? He is called the 
God of the earth, and the God of Heaven, and hast thou set 
it down as a great thing that He is not ashamed to be called 
their God ? A great thing and truly great thing this is, 
and a proof of exceeding blessedness. How ? Because He 
is called God of earth and of heaven in the same sense as 
[He is called God] of the Gentiles : in that He created 
and formed them : but [God] of those holy men, not in 
this sense, but as being a genuine friend. 

And I will make it plain to you by an example ; as in 

280 God might be God of each» David how a stranger. 

HoM. 24. the case of [slaves] in large households, when any of them, 
who have been placed over the household, are very highly 
esteemed, and manage every thing themselves, and can use 
great freedom of speech towards their masters, the Master 
is called after them, and one may find many instances of 
persons so called. But what do I say ? as we might say 
the God, not of the Gentiles but of the world, so we might 
say the God of Abraham. But you do not know how great 
a dignity this is, because neither do we attain to it. For 
as now the Lord is called [the God] of all Christians, and 
yet the name goes beyond our deserts : consider how ex- 
ceeding great it would be if He were called the God of one 
[individual] ! He who is called the God of the whole world 
1 ggg ^^ is not ashamed to be called the God of three men : and 
ver. 38, with good reason : for the saints would turn the scale, I do 
sqq. ^^^ s^y against the world ^ but against ten-thousand such 
Ecclus. [worlds]. For one 7nan who doeth the loill of the Lord^, 
is better than ten thousand transgressors. 

Now that it was in this sense that they called themselves 
strangers, is manifest. But supposing that these [Patri- 
archs] said that they were strangers [only] on account of 
the strange land [they were in], why did David also [call 
himself a stranger] ? Was not he a king? was not he a 
prophet ? did he not spend his life in his own country ? 
Ps. On what account then does he say, I am a stranger and a 

xxxix. sojourner? In what sense art thou a stranger? as (saith 
he) all my fathers were. Thou seest that they too were 
strangers ? We have a country, he means, but not that 
which is really our country. But in what sense art thou 
thyself a stranger ? As to the earth. Therefore they also 
[were strangers] in respect of the earth : For as they ivere, 
he says, so also am I ; and as he, so they too. 

(3) [7.] Let us no\Y at least become strangers ; that God 

may not be ashamed of us to be called our God. For it is 
a shame to Him, when He is called the God of the wicked, 
and He Himself also is ashamed of them; just as He is 

■ Mr. Field observes that S. Chrys. Syriac seems to have read on Kpelcr- 

repeatedly cites Ecclus. xvi. 3. thlJs ; acov eh iroiwv 06\7j/xa &c. So the 

and that while the Greek is simply, English version has "for one that is 

for one is better than a thousand, the ''Just." 

Christ ashamed of and will not recognise unfaithful servants. 281 

glorified when He is [called the God] of the good and the HE.xi.i6. 
kind, and of them that cultivate virtue. For if ive decline 
to be called the masters of our wicked slaves, and give 
them up; and should any one come to us and say, 'such 
' a one does innumerable bad things, he is your slave, is he 
'not?^ we immediately say; By no means, wiping off the 
disgrace : for a slave has a close relation to his master, 
and the "discredit passes from the one to the other ^\ — But 
they were so glowing, so full of confidence towards Him, 
that not only was He 7iot ashamed to be called from them, 
but He even Himself says, / arn the God of Abraham, and Exod. iii. 
the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. 

Let us also, my beloved, become strangers; that God may 
not be ashamed of us ; that He may not be ashamed, and 
deliver us up to Hell. Such were they who said, Lord, S. Matt. 
have we not prophesied in Thy Name, and in Thy Name 
have done many wonderful works ! But see what Christ 
says to them : / know you not : the very thing which 
masters would do, when wicked slaves run to them [for 
protection], w^ishing to wipe off the disgrace. / knoiv you 
not, saith He. How then is it that Thou punishest those 
whom Thou knowest not ? I said, / know not, in a different 
sense : that is, " I deny you, and refuse to have any thing 
"to do with you." But God forbid that we should hear this 
fatal and terrible utterance. For if they who cast out 
devils and prophesied, were denied, because they had not 
a life suitable thereto ; how much more we ! 

[8.] And how (you ask) is it possible that they should 
be denied, who have displayed prophetic powers, and have 
wrought miracles, and cast out devils ? It is probable they 
were afterwards changed, and became wicked ; and in con- 
sequence of this were nothing benefited, even by their 
former virtue. For not only ought we to have our begin- 
nings splendid, but the end also more splendid still. 

For tell me, does not the Orator take pains to make what 

comes at the end of his speech splendid, that he may retire 

with applause ? He that administers a public office in a 

city, does he not make the most splendid display at the 

'' The sentence is left incomplete ; The common editions add, " much more 
«* does God." 

282 Need of Perseverance, Gifts and graces no security, 

HoM. 24 close of his administration ? The wrestler, if he do not 
make a more splendid display then, and be the conqueror 
unto the end, and if after vanquishing all [before] he be 
vanquished by the last [of his antagonists], is not all of no 
profit to him ? Should the pilot have crossed the whole 
ocean, yet if he wreck his vessel at the port, has he not 
lost all his former labour ? And what [of] the Physician ? 
Is it not the fact that if, after he has freed the sick man 
from his disease, yet at the very time when he is on the 
point of completely curing him, he should destroy him, 
is it not the fact that he has destroyed his whole [work] ? 
So too in respect of Virtue, as many as have not placed on 
the end suitable to the beginning, and in unison and har- 
mony with it, are ruined, and utterly undone. Such are 
they who have sprung forth from the starting place bright 
and exulting, and afterwards have become faint and feeble. 
Wherefore they are also deprived of the prize, and not ac- 
knowledged by their masler. 

Let us listen to these things, those of us who are in 

1 Tim. lo^'6 with wealth : for this is the greatest of iniquities. For 

vi. 10. the love of money is the root of all evils. Let us listen, those 

of us who wish to make our present possessions greater, 

let us listen and at length cease from our covetousness, 

that we may not hear those words which they [will hear]. 

Let us listen to them now, and be on our guard, that we 

may not hear them then. Let us hear now with fear, that 

S. Matt, we may not then hear with vengeance: Depart from Me 

V"' 23. (saith He) / never knew you, no not even then (He means) 

when ye were making a display of prophecyings, and were 

casting out devils. 

It is probable that in these words He also hints some- 
thing else, that even at that very time they were wicked; 
and that at the beginning, grace wrought even by the in- 
strumentality of the unworthy. For if it wrought even 
through Balaam, much more through the unworthy, for 
the sake of those who shall profit [by it] . 

But if even signs and wonders did not avail to deliver 

from punishment ; rattch more, if a man happen to be in 

' i^t^Moj' the dignity of the Priesthood^: even if he^ arrive at the 

ifpariKcf j^ jgj^gg^. }^onour, even if grace work in him to his ordination. 

Obedience. The different virtues to be practised in order. 283 

even if [it work in him] unto all the other [grades], for HE.xi.l6. 
the sake of those who need his rule and care^, he also shall 'ttjsttpo- 
hear, / never knew thee^ no, not even then when grace was ^'^'''^'"* 
working in thee. 

[9.] O ! how strict shall the investigation there be as to 
purity! How is that, even of itself, sufficient to introduce us 
into the kingdom ? while the absence of it gives up the man 
[to destruction], though he have ten thousand miracles and 
signs to exhibit. For nothing is so pleasing to God as an 
excellent course of life. If ye love Me, saith He, He did not S.John 
say, 'work miracles,' but what ? keep My commandments. 
And again, / call you friends, not when ye cast out devils, ^^- ^^'• 
but if ye keep My ivords. For those [powers] indeed come 
of the gift of God : but the other after the gift of God, of 
our OAvn diligence also. Let us endeavour earnestly to be- 
come friends of God, and not remain enemies to Him. 

These things we are ever saying, these exhortations we 
are ever giving, both to ourselves and to you : but nothing 
more is gained. Wherefore also I am afraid. And I would 
have wished indeed to be silent, so as not to increase your 
danger. For when a person often hears, and even so does 
not act, this is to provoke the Lord to anger. But I fear 
also myself that other danger, the [danger] of silence, if 
when I am appointed to the ministering of the word, I 
should hold my peace. 

What shall we then do that we may be saved ? Let us 
begin [the practice of] virtue, as we have opportunity : let 
us portion out the virtues to ourselves, just as labourers 
do their works of husbandry; in this month let us gain 
the mastery over evil-speaking, injuriousness, unjust anger; 
and let us lay down a law for ourselves, and say. To-day 
let us successfully accomplish this thing. Again, in this 
month let us school ourselves in the patient endurance of 
evil, and in another, in some other virtue : And when we 
have got into the habit of this one virtue let us proceed to 
another, just as in the things we learn at school, carefully 
preserving what we have already gained, and acquiring 
others in addition. 

After this let us proceed to contempt for riches. First 
let us restrain our hands from taking more than is right, 

284 Real earnest will alone necessary, 

HoM. 24. and then let us give alms. Let us not absolutely confound 

every thing, with the very same hands both slaying and 

forsooth doing works of mercy. After this, turn we to 

Eph. V. some other virtue, and from that, to another. Filthiness 

' ' and foolish talking and jesting, let it not be even named 

among you. Let us be thus far in the right way. 

There is no need of spending money, there is no need of 
labour, none of the sweat of the brow, it is enough to have 
only the will, and all is done. There is no need to travel 
a long way, nor to cross a limitless ocean, but to be in 
earnest, and of ready mind, and to put a bridle on the 
tongue. Unseasonable reproaches, anger, disorderly lusts, 
luxuriousness, expensiveness, cast we off; and the desire 
of wealth also from our soul, perjury and habitual oaths. 

If we thus cultivate ourselves, plucking out the thorns 
which were there before, and casting in the heavenly seed, 
we shall be able to attain the good things which are pro- 
mised. For the Husbandman will come and will lay us up 
in His Garner, and we shall attain to all good things, to 
the which may we all attain, by the grace and mercy of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father and also 
to the Holy Ghost, be glory power honour, now and for 
ever, and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xi. 17—19. 

By faith [Abraham ^] ivhen he ivas tried offered up Isaac, 
and he that had received the promises offered up his only- 
begotten son, of whom it was said, In Isaac shall thy seed 
be called: accounting that God was able to raise him. up 
even from the dead; from whence also he received him in 
a figure. 

Great indeed was the faith of Abraham. For while in 
the case of Abel, and of Noah, and of Enoch, there was an 
opposition of reasonings only [against faith], and it was 
necessary to go beyond human reasonings ; in this case it 
was necessary not only to go beyond human reasonings, but 
to manifest also somewhat more. For what was of God^ ^rarov 
seemed to be at variance with what was of God ; and faith acts and 
to be opposed to faith, and command to promise. -woyA^ of 

I mean this : He had said. Come forth out of thy country, Gen. xii. 
and from thy kindred, and I will give thee this land. He ^' ^* .. 
gave him none inheritance in it, no not so much as to set his 5. 
foot on. Seest thou how the things which resulted were at 
variance with the promise ? Again He saith. In Isaac shall Gen. xxi. 
thy seed be called, and he believed : and again He saith, * 
Sacrifice to Me this child, who was to fill all the world from 
his seed. Thou seest the opposition between the com- 
mands and the promise? He enjoined things that were in 
contradiction to the promises, and yet not even so was the 
righteous man staggered, nor did he say that he had been 

For you indeed, he means, could not say this, that He 
has promised ease and gave tribulation. For in our case, 
the very things which He promised, these also He performs. 

* Mr. Field's text omits 'AjSpaa^u, and has oe|a/ievos for dfa5e|a/*evos. 



xvi. 33. 








t. 25. 



xiv. 'il , 








286 Contrast between Abraham^ s faith under trials and ours, 

HoM. 25. How so ? In the world (He saith) ye shall have tribulation. 
He that taketh not his cross and follow eth Me, is not worthy 
of Me. He that hateth not his life shall not find it. And, He 
that forsaketh not all that he hath, and followeth after Me, 
is not worthy of Me. And again. Ye shall be brought before 
rulers and kings for My sake. And again, A ma^i^sfoes shall 
be they of his own household. But the things which per- 
tain to rest are yonder. 

With regard to Abraham however, the contrary [was the 
case]. He was enjoined to do things w^hich were opposed 
to the promises ; and yet not even so was he troubled, nor 
was he staggered, nor did he think that he had been de- 
ceived. But you are enduring nothing except what was 
promised, and yet you are troubled. 

[2.] He heard what was at variance with the promises 
from Him Himself who had made those promises ; and yet 
he was not disturbed, but did them as if they had been in 
harmony [therewith] . For in fact they were in harmony ; 
being opposed indeed according to human calculations, but 
in harmony [when viewed] by Faith. And how this was, the 
Apostle himself has taught us, by saying, calculating^ that 
God ivas able to raise Him up, even from the dead. From 
the same faith (he means) by which he believed that God 
freely gave what existed not ^, and raised up one that was 
dead, by the same was he persuaded that He would also raise 
him up after he had been slain in sacrifice. For it was alike 
impossible (to human calculation, I mean) from a womb 
which was dead and grown old and already become useless 
for child-bearing to give a child, and to raise again [to 
life] one who had been slain. But his previous faith pre- 
pared the way for the things that were to come. 

And see ; the good things came first, and the hard things 
afterwards, in his old age. But for you, on the contrary, 
(he says) the sad things are first, and the good things last. 
This [is directed] against those who presume to say, ^ It is 

^ \oyi(Tdfi€vos. The cog-nate word as though they were (to fi^ oura ws 

Xoyio-fihs is used throughout for our oura); and for the next clause, see ib. 

" reasoTiing-," " calculation." ver. 19, He considered not Jtis own 

^' ovK ovra e'xapiVaTo, i. (*i^ Isaac, iorfy, now dead, nor yet the deadness 

See Rom. iv. 17, Before God, in whom of Sarah's womb : to which, so to say, 

?te lelieved, who guickeneth the dead, life was restored. 
and cuUeth those thim^s which be not 

Value of trials. God exercises His oivn athletes. 287 

^ after death that He has promised us the good thmgs ; per- HE.xi.i9. 
' haps He has deceived us/ He points out that God is able 
to raise up even from the dead, and if God be able to raise 
from the dead, without all doubt He will pay all [that He 
has promised]. 

But if Abraham believed so many years before that God 
is able to raise from the dead, much more ought we to be- 
lieve it. • Thou seest (which was the very thing I at first 
said) that death had not yet entered in, and yet at once 
He drew them to the hope of the resurrection, yea and led 
them to such full assurance, that when bidden^ they even 
slay their own sons, and readily offer up those from whom 
they expected to people the world. 

Yea and another thing too he shews by saying, that God Gen. 
tempted Abraham. What then ? did not God know that ^^^^' ' 
the man was noble and approved ? For what purpose then 
He tempt him ? [He did it,] not that He might Himself 
learn it, but that He might shew it to the others, and make 
his fortitude manifest to all ^. And here also he points out 
the cause of trials, that they may not suppose that they 
suffer these things as being forsaken [of God] . For in their 
case indeed, it is even unavoidable that they should have 
trials, because of there being many who persecuted or in- 
sidiously attacked them : but in Abraham's case, what need 
was there to devise trials for him which did not [otherwise] 
exist? Now this trial as is evident took place by His com- 
mand. The others indeed happened by His allowance, 
but this even by His command. If then temptations make 
men approved in such wise that even where there is not 
[otherwise] a cause God exercises His own athletes ; much 
more ought we to bear all things nobly. 

And here he said emphatically. By faith, ivhen he was 
tried, he offered up Isaac, for there was no other cause for 
his bringing the offering but that. 

[3.] After this he pursues the same thought. No one 
(he says) could allege, that he had another son, and that 
he expected that the promise would be fulfilled from him, 
and that on this account he confidently offered up this 
one. And (his words are) he offered up his only-begotten 
'^ [See S. Cyr. Alex. Glaph. p. 87 A B C] 

288 Abraham despaired not. The Only-begotten; the mighty Love, 

HoM. 25. \_sori\i he who had received the promises. Why sayest 
thou only -begotten? what then? of whom was Ishmael 
sprung? I mean only -begotten (he would say) so far as relates 
to the word of the promise. For for this cause after saying, 
Only-begotten, shewing that is on this account that he says 
it, he added. Of whom it was said, In Isaac shall thy seed 
be called, \in'\ that is, " from^' him. Thou seest how he ad- 
mires what was done by the Patriarch ? In Isaac shall thy 
seed be called, and that son he brought to be slain as a 

Afterwards, that no one may suppose he does this in 

despair, and that in consequence of this command he had 

1 convic. (jr^st away that Faith ^, but may understand that this also 

2convic- was indeed of faith, he says that he retained that faith ^ 

*^^" also, although it seem to be at variance with this. But it 

was not at variance. For he did not measure the power 

of God by human calculations, but committed all to faith. 

And hence he was not afraid to say, that God was able 

to raise him up, even from the dead. 

3 ivTapa- From ivhence also he received him in a figure ^, that is by 

^'^Ifimo- ^ pattern *, by the ram, he means. How ? The ram, that 

heiytiari, is, having been slain, he was saved : so that by means of 

^2^2Z^^ the ram he received him again, having slain it in his stead. 

But these things were types : for here it is the Son of God 

who is slain. 

And observe, I beseech you, how great is His love to 
mankind. For inasmuch as a great favour was about to be 
bestowed on men, He, wishing to do this, not as a favour, 
but as if He were a debtor, arranges that a man should 
first give up his own son on account of God^s command, 
in order that He Himself might seem to be doing nothing 
great in giving up His own Son, since a man had done this 
before Him ; [nay,] that He might be supposed to do it not 
of grace, but of debt. For with respect to those whom 
we love, we wish to do them this kindness in addition to 
others, [viz.] to appear first to have received some little 
thing from them, and then in consequence to give them 
all : and we are mor©^ proud of receiving than of giving; 
and we do not say. We gave him this, but, We received 
this from him. 

Good things of this world given to those who value them not* 289 

From whence also (are his words) he received him in a HE.xi.i9 . 
figure, i.e. as in a riddle ® (for the ram was as it were a 
figure of Isaac) or, as in a type. For since the sacrifice 
had been completed, and Isaac slain in his intention and 
will \ for this cause He bestows him freely on the Patriarch. ^ '^v "^po- 

[4.] Thou seest, that what I am constantly saying, is (2) 
shewn in this case also ? When we have proved that our 
mind is made perfect, and have shewn that we disregard 
earthly things, then are earthly things also bestowed on 
us ; but not before ; lest being bound to them already, we 
should be bound still more by receiving them. Loose 
thyself from thy slavery first (He saith), and then receive 
[earthly goods], that thou mayest receive them no longer 
as a slave, but as a master. Despise riches, and thou shalt 
be rich 5 Despise honour, and thou shalt be honoured; 
Despise the avenging thyself on thine enemies, and then 
shalt thou attain it ; Despise repose, and then thou shalt 
receive it : that in receiving it thou mayest receive it not 
as a prisoner, nor as a slave, but as a freeman. 

For just as in the case of little children, when the child 
eagerly desires childish playthings, we hide them from him 
with much care, as a ball, for instance, and such like things, 
that he may not be hindered from things that are neces- 
sary ; but when he thinks little of them, and no longer 
eagerly desires them, we fearlessly give them to him, know- 
ing that henceforth no harm can come to him from them, 
the desire no longer having strength enough to draw him 
away from things necessary ; so God also, when He sees 
that we are no longer eagerly desirous of the things of this 
world, thenceforward permits us to use them. For we 
possess them as freemen and grown men, not as children. 

For [in proof] that if thou despise the avenging thyself 
on thine enemies, thou wilt then attain it, hear what he 
says. If thine enemy hunger, feed him ; if he thirst, give Rom. xii. 
him drink, and he added, for in so doing, thou shalt heap ^"' 
coals of fire on his head. And again, that if thou despise 

e eV alvlyfjLaTi, where one thing is of our present knowledge of the Bless- 
said, and another covertly meant : as edness of Heaven, 
the expression is used 1 Cor. xiii. 12, 

290 We suffer from each other : God instrengthens thereby. 

HoM.25. riches, thou shalt then obtain them, hear Christ saying, 

s. Matt. There is no man ivhich hath left father, or mother, or houses, 

XIX. 29. ^^ brethren, ivho shall not receive an hundredfold, and shall 

inherit everlasting life. And that if thou despise glory, 

thou shalt then attain it, again hear Christ Himself saying, 

lb.xx.26. He that will be first among you, let him be your minister. 

ib. xxiii. And again, For whosoever shall humble himself, he shall be 


What sayest thou ? If I give drink to mine enemy, do 
I then punish him ? if I give up my goods, do I then pos- 
sess them ? if I humble myself, shall I then be exalted ? 
Yea, saith He, for such is My power, to give contraries by 
means of contraries. I abound in resources and in con- 
trivances : be not afraid. The 'Nature of things ' follows 
My will : it is not I that follow Nature. I am the Maker 
of all things : I am not led [or impelled] by them : where- 
fore also I am able to alter their form and order. 

[5.] And why dost thou wonder that [it is so] in these 

instances ? for thou wilt find the same also in all other 

HSi/c7j0rjs cases. If thou injure [another], thou art injured [thyself] ^; 

if thou art injured, then thou art not injured ; if thou punish 

[another], then hast thou not punished [him], but hast 

Ps. xi. 5. punished thyself. For he that loveth iniquity, it is said, 

^^^- hateth his oivn soul. Seest thou that thou dost not injure, 

but hast been injured [thyself] ^? For this cause also Paul 

\ Cor. vi. saith. Why do ye not rather endure injury ? Dost thou 

perceive that this is not to be injured ? 

When thou insultest [another], then art thou insulted 
[thyself] . And in some measure people in general know 
this : as when they say one to another, ' Let us go away, 
^ do not disgrace yourself.^ Why ? because the difference is 
great between thee and him : for however much thou in- 
sultest him, he accounts it a credit. Let us consider this 
in all cases, and raise ourselves above insults. I will tell 
you how. 

'This reading adopted by Mr. Field, S. Chrys. in tliese words turning- liis 

is found only in one MS. followed by address to those who are suffering- 

Savile and the later editions: the worldly wrong- : and saying- that if 

other authorities, includifl^ Mutianus' they patiently endure, they are not 

version have, " Seest thou that thou the sufferers, but inflict suffering on 

hast not been injured, but injurest ? " their oppressors, though the expres- 

Perhaps this may be the true reading, sion dSt/cers is very strong. 

Things of this loorld not loorth contending about, 291 

Should we have a contest even with the very person 
who wears the [imperial] purple, let us consider that in 
insulting him, we insult ourselves. For [thereby] we 
ourselves become worthy to be disgraced. Tell me, what 
dost thou mean ? when thou art a citizen of Heaven, and 
hast the Philosophy that is above, dost thou disg1:'ace thy- 
self with him that mindeth earthly things ? For though Phil. iii. 
he be in possession of countless riches, though he be in * 
high place of power, he does not as yet know thy Good. 
Do not in disgracing him, disgrace thyself. Spare thyself, i or, re- 
not him. Honour thyself, not him. Is there not some sp^^ts 
Proverb such as this, He that honoureth^, honoureth him- ther], 
self ? With good reason : for he honours not the other, Respects 
but himself. Hear what a certain wise man says. Do honour Ecclus.x. 
to thy soul according to the dignity thereof. According to ^^' 
the dignity thereof, what is this ? If he have defrauded 
[thee] (it means), do not thou defraud [him]. If he has 
insulted [thee], do not thou insult [him]. 

[6.] Tell me, 1 pray thee, if some poor man has taken 
away dirt which had been thrown out of thy court, wouldst 
thou for this have had a court of justice to sit ? Surely 
not. Wherefore? Lest thou shouldst disgrace thyself ; lest 
all men should condemn thee. The same also happens in 
this case. For the rich man is poor, and the more rich he 
is, the poorer is he in that which is indeed poverty. Gold 
is dirt, cast out in the court, not lying in thy house, for 
thy house is Heaven. For this, then, wilt thou have a law- 
suit in a Court of Justice, and will not thy fellow Citizens 
on high condemn thee ? will they not cast thee out from 
their country, thee who art so mean, who art so shabby, as 
to choose to contend for a little dirt? For if the world 
were thine, and then some one had taken it [from thee], 
oughtest thou to pay any attention to it ? 

Knowest thou not, that if thou wert to put the world [in (3) 
the scale] ten times over or an hundred times, or ten thou- 
sand times, yea and twice as much as that, it is not compar- 
able even to the very smallest portion of the good things that 
are in Heaven ? He then who admires the things that are 
here has cast a slight on those which are yonder, seeing that 
he judges these worthy of his earnest regard, though so far 

u 2 

292 Sins of cruelty, oppression and overreaching. 

' OiKaiw 

HoM.25. inferior to the other. Nay, rather indeed he will not be 
able to admire those other. For how [can he], whilst he 
is overcome by amazement at these earthly things? Let 
us cut through the cords and entanglements : for this is 
what earthly things are. 

How long shall we be stooping down ? How long shall 
we devise evil one against another, like wild beasts ; like 
fishes ? Nay rather, the wild beasts do not attack each other, 
but [only] animals of a different tribe. A bear for instance 
does not readily kill a bear, nor does a serpent kill a ser- 
pent, having respect for the sameness of race. But thou, 
with him that is the same race with thee, when thou hast 
also grounds of duty ^ without number, as, common origin, 
rational faculties, the knowledge of God, [nay] the force of 
nature, ten thousand other things besides, him, I say, who 
is thy kinsman, and partaker of the same nature — him thou 
killest, and involvest him in evils innumerable. For what, 
if thou dost not thrust thy sword, nor plunge thy right 
hand in his neck, other things more grievous than this 
thou doest, when thou involvest him in j^erpetual suffer- 
ings. For if thou hadst accomplished that other deed, thou 
wouldst have freed him from anxiety, but now thou en- 
compassest him with hunger, with slavery, with feelings of 
impatience ^nd indignation, with many sins. These things 
I say, and shall not cease to say, not [as] preparing you to 
commit murder: nor as encouraging you to proceed to some 
crime short of that ; but that you may not be confident, as 
supposing that you will not be brought to punishment. 
For (it saith) he that taketh away a livelihood and asketh 
bread, it saith ^. 

[7.] Let us at length keep our hands to ourselves, or 
rather, let us not keep them [to ourselves], but stretch 
them out in an honourable way, not for unjust gains, but 
for alms-giving. ' Let us not have our hand unfruitful nor 
withered ; for the hand which doeth not alms is withered ; 

" and he that defraudeth the hireUng- 
"ofhishireisablood-shedder." As the 
text stands we must suppose that he 
is alhulhig to sayings which had be- 
come proverbial, and that his liearers 
would supply the Words, "is a mur- 
derer;" or " is the same." 


^ Ka\ lipTou anSov, (prjcrl. There is 
great variation in the MSS. of this pas- 
sage : and possibly the true reading is 
lost. S. Chrys. partly quotes l5cclus. 
xxxi. 22, of the Septuagint (xxxiv. 
22 of our Version) " He that taketh 
"away his living slayeth his neighbour, 

Partake not of the banquets of the overreaching. 293 

and that which also grasps more than its due, is polluted 
and unclean. 

Let no one eat with such hands as these ; for this is an 
insult to the guests that have been invited. For, tell me, 
if a man when he had made us lie down on tapestry, and a raTnfjTwv 
soft covering of a couch, and fine linen interwoven with 
gold, in a great and splendid house, and had set by us a 
great niultitude of attendants, and had prepared a table ^ of ^ -nivaKa 
silver and gold, and filled it with many dainties of great 
cost and of all sorts, then urged us to eat, provided we 
would only endure his besmearing his hands with mire or 
with human ordure, and so sitting down to meat with us — 
would any man endure this infliction ? would he not rather 
have considered it an insult ? Indeed I think he would, 
and that he would have straightway started off. But now 
in fact, thou seest not hands [only] filled with what is in- 
deed filth, but even the very food, and yet thou dost not start 
off*, nor avoid, nor find fault. Nay, if he be a person in 
place of authority, thou even accountest it a grand affair, 
and destroyest thine own soul, in eating such things. For 
covetousness [and unjust gain] is worse than any mire ; 
for it pollutes, not the body but the soul, and makes it 
hard to be washed clean. Thou therefore, though thou 
seest him that sitteth at meat defiled with this filth both 
on his hands and his face, and his house filled with it, nay 
and his table also full of it (for dung or if there be any- 
thing more unclean than that, it is not so unclean and pol- 
luted as those viands of his), dost thou feel as if forsooth 
thou wert highly honoured, and as if thou wert going to 
enjoy thyself? 

And dost thou not even fear Paul who allows us to go 
without restraint to the Tables of the heathen if we wish 
it, but does not permit us to go to those of the covetous, 
even if we wish ? For, if any who is called a Brother, he i Cor. v. 
saith, meaning by Brother in this place every one who is ^^' 
simply a believer, not him who is devoted to a solitary 
life. For what is it which makes brotherhood ? The Wash- 
ing of regeneration; the^being enabled to call God our Father. 
So that he that is a Monk, if he be a Catechumen, is not 

294 Brother a Christian. Obedience aids others. Servants of men^ 

HoM. 25. a Brother ^ but the believer though he be in the world, is 

1 Cor. V. a Brother. If any man, saith he, that is called a Brother. 

^^' For at that time there was not even a trace of any one 

leading a Monastic life, but this blessed [Apostle] addressed 
all his discourse to persons in the world. If any, he saith, 
that is called a Brother, be a fornicator, or covetous, or a 
drunkard, with such an one, no not to eat. But not so with 

ib. X. 27. respect to the heathen : but If any of them that believe not, 
meaning the heathen, invite you and ye be disposed to go, 
whatsoever is set before you eat. 
(4) [8.] If any that is called Brother be (saith he) a drunkard. 
O ! how great is his strictness ! Yet we not only do not 
avoid drunkards, but even go to their houses, in order to 
partake of what they set before us. 

For this cause all things are turned upside down, all 
things are put into confusion, and overthrown, and ruined. 
For tell me, if any person of this kind should invite thee to 
a banquet, thee who art accounted poor and mean, and then 
should hear thee say, ' Inasmuch as the things set before 
' me are [the fruit] of overreaching, I will not endure to 
^ defile my own soul,' would he not be ashamed ? would he 
not be confounded ? would he not feel that he had disgraced 
himself? This alone were sufficient to correct him, and to 
make him on the one hand account himself wretched for 
his wealth's sake, and on the other admire thee for thy 
poverty, if he saw himself with so great earnestness des- 
pised by thee. 

ib. vii.23. But we are become (I know not from what cause) servants 
of men, though Paul cries aloud throughout, Be not ye the 
servants of men. Whence then have we become servants 
of men ? Because we first became servants of the belly, 
and of money, and of glory, and of all those other things ; 
we gave up the liberty which Christ had bestowed on us. 
What then awaiteth him who is become a servant (tell 

s. John me). ? Hear Christ saying, The servant abideth not in the 

viii. 35. 

*• It will be observed that the word who liad given themselves up to an 

TntTrhs, "believer," means "one who ascetic life and still deferred their 

believes and is baptized:" as opposed to Baptism, see S. Greg. Naz. Horn. xl. 

the unbaptized, even thoug-h Hiey be- 18. In the later form of the text, 

lieved and were so religious as to this clause has been altered to " So that 

devote themselves to an ascetic life, "a Catechumen, even though he be a 

Also, that at this time there were those " Monk, is not a brother." 

and o{ sin. Ahns/t^om ill-gotten gains given and received. 295 

house for ever. Thou hast a declaration complete in itself, HE.xi.i9. 
that he never at any time entereth into the Kingdom ; for 
this is whafc the House means. For, saith He, in My Father's S. John 
House are many mansions. The servant then abideth not 
in the House for ever. By a servant He means him who is 
the servant of sin. But he that abideth not in the House 
for ever, abideth in Hell for ever, having no consolation 
from any quarter. 

Nay, to this point of wickedness are matters come, that 
they themselves even give alms out of these [ill gotten 
gains], and also that many receive [these alms]. For this 
cause has our boldness of speech been broken down, and 
we are not able even to rebuke any one. But however, 
henceforward at least, let us flee the mischief which arises 
from this cause ; and ye who have rolled yourselves in this 
mire, cease from such fatal guilt, and restrain your eager 
desire for such banquets, if even now we may by any means 
be able to have God propitious to us, and to attain to the 
good things which have been promised [us] : which may we 
all obtain in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the 
Father and also to the Holy Ghost, be glory, power, hon- 
our, now and for ever, and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xi. 20—22. 

By faith, concerning things to come Isaac blessed Jacob 

and Esau, By faith, Jacob when he ivas a dying blessed 

^ or each of the sons of Joseph, and worshipped^ leaning on the 

himself, i^P ^f ^^^ staff. By faith, Joseph when he died made 

made mention of the departing of the children of Israel, and 

obeisance , , • i • ? 

gave commandment concerning his bones, 

S. Matt. Many prophets and righteous men (it is said) have desired 
xiii. 17. iQ g^Q those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and 
to hear those things which ye hear and have not heard them. 
Did then those righteous men know all the things to come ? 
Yea, most certainly. For if it was on account of the weak- 
ness of those who were not able to receive Him that the 
Son was not revealed, — He was with good reason revealed 
to those who were eminently bright in virtue. This Paul 
also says, that they knew the things to come, that is the 
resurrection of Christ. 

Or [it may be said] he does not mean this ; but that 
'By faith, concerning things to come [means] not [concerning] 
the world to come, but concerning things to come in this 
world. For how [except by faith] could a man sojourning 
in a strange land, give such blessings ? 

But on the other hand he obtained the blessing, and yet 
did not receive it *. Thou seest that what I said with re- 
gard to Abraham, may be said also of Jacob, that they did 
not enjoy ^ the blessing, but the [substance] of the blessings 

» That is, Jacob obtained the bless- alternative, interpretation sug-g-ested. 

ing from Isaac, but did not himself ^ airdcvavTo. This is the reading of 

receive the good things bestowed by the best MSS. and the oldest trans- 

the blessing. Therefore the good lation : There seems no reason to 

things to come were not those of this adopt the hater reading airdvaro "he 

world. This is areply to the second,the " did not enjoy." 

Abraham had wealth with afflictions. Jacobs Prophesying. 297 

went to his posterity, while he himself obtained the things HE.xi.2i, 
to come. For we find that his brother had greater enjoy- 
ment [of this world than he] . For [Jacob] spent all his 
time in servitude and working as a hireling, and [amid] 
dangers, and plots, and deceits, and fears ; and when he 
was asked by Pharaoh, he says. Few and evil have my days Gen. 
been ; while the other lived in independence and great ^^v"- ^• 
security, and afterwards was an object of terror to [his 
brother]. Where then did the blessings come to their 
accomplishment, save in the [world] to come ? 

Thou seest that from the beginning the wicked had the 
enjoyment of things here, but the righteous the contrary? 
Not however all [of them] . For behold, Abraham was a 
righteous man, and he enjoyed the things of this world as 
well, though with affliction and trials. For indeed wealth 
was all he had, seeing all else relating to him was full of 
affliction. For it is impossible that the righteous man 
should not be afflicted, though he be rich : for when he is 
willing to be overreached, to be wronged, to suffer all other 
things, of necessity he must be afflicted. Wherefore even 
if he have the enjoyment of wealth, [yet is it] not without 
grief. Why? you ask. Because he is in affliction and dis- 
tress. But if at that time the righteous were in affliction, 
much more now. 

By Faith concerning things to come^ saith he, Isaac blessed 
Jacob and Esau (and yet Esau was the elder; but he puts 
Jacob first for his excellence). Thou seest how great was 
his Faith? Whence did he promise to his sons so great 
blessings ? Entirely from his having faith in God. 

[2.] By Faith, Jacob ivhen he was a dying, blessed each 
of the sons of Joseph. Here we ought to set down the 
blessings entire, in order that both his faith and his pro- 
phesying may be made manifest. And bowed himself", says 
he, upon the top of his staff. Here, he means, he not only 
spake, but was even so confident about the future things, 
as to shew it also by his act. For inasmuch as another 
King was about to arise from Ephraim, therefore it is said, 

<^ irpoa-eKvvnaevy as Gen. xlvii. 31. Joseph's dreams, where our version 
The same word also is used in the has"madeobeisance" and "bow down 
LXX. in Gen. xxxvii. 7, 9, 10. of "ourselves." 

' Tro\v 

298 Joseph's command. The Burial places of the Righteous ; 

HoM. 26. And he boived himself upon the top of his staff. That is, 
even though he was now an old man, he boived himself to 
Joseph, shewing the obeisance of the whole people which 
was to be [directed] to him. And this indeed had already- 
come to pass, when his brethren bowed down to him : but 
it was afterwards to come to pass through the ten tribes. 
Thou seest how he foretold the things which were to be 
afterwards ? Thou seest how great faith they had ? how 
they believed concerning the things to come ? 

For some of the things [mentioned] here are examples 
of patience only as to things present, and of enduring 
ill-treatment, and of receiving nothing good in the way of 
recompence; for instance, what is mentioned in the case of 
Abraham, in the case of Abel. But others are [examples] 
of Faith, as in the case of Noah, that there is a God, that 
there is a recompence. (For Faith in this place is mani- 
fold \ both of there being a recompence, and of awaiting it, 
not under the same conditions ^, and of wrestling before 
the prizes [are to be given] .) And the things also which 
2 T^ Ka.rh. concern ^ Joseph are of Faith only. That [God] had made 
a promise to Abraham, that He had engaged His word to 
him, to thee and to thy seed will I give this land, this Joseph 
had heard : and though he is in a strange land, and does 
not as yet see the engagement fulfilled, yet not even so 
did he fail [in faith], but so believed as even to speak of 
the going forth [of the Israelites], and to give command- 
ment concerning his bones. He then did not believe him- 
self alone, but led on the rest also to Faith : in order that 
ever having in mind their going out [of Egypt] (for he 
would not have given commandment concerning his bones, 
unless he had been fully assured [of this]), they might look 
for their return [to Canaan] . 

Wherefore, when some men say, ^ See ! even righteous 

^ men had care about their sepulchres,' let us reply to them, 

Ps. xxiv. that it was for this cause : for he knew that the earth is 

3 \^ ^^' the Lord^s and all that therein is ^. He indeed could not 

p^Mo^ possibly have been ignorant of this, who had lived in so 

great philosophy, who had spent his whole life in Egypt. 

And yet if he had wished, it was possible for him to return, 

^ Koi Tov jbLT) cttI ToTy avTo7s avrrfv ava^heip.^ 

many unknown, yet m God's earth, Moses' parents. Joseph, 299 

and not to mourn nor vex himself. But when he had even HE.xi.23. 
taken up his father thither, why did he enjoin them to 
carry up from thence his own bones also ? Is it not evident 
that it was for this reason ? 

But what ? tell me, are not the bones of Moses himself (2) 
laid in a strange land ? and those of Aaron, of Daniel, of 
Jeremiah ? and as to those of the Apostles we do not even 
know where those of most of them are laid. For of Peter 
indeed, and Paul, and John, and Thomas, the sepulchres 
are well known ; but those of the rest, being so many, are 
not known anywhere^. Let us not therefore lament at all ^ ouSajuoD 
about this, nor be so little-minded. For wherever we may y^'^P/^^'"' 
be buried, the earth is the Lord's and all that therein is. Ps. xxiv. 
Beyond all question what must take place, does take place : * 
to mourn however, and lament, and bewail those who are 
departed, arises from littleness of mind. 

[3.] (ver. 23) By faith, Moses when he ivas born, ivas 
hid three months of his parents. Dost thou see that in 
this case they hoped for the things [which were to be] on 
the earth after their death '^? and many things were fulfilled 
after their death. This is directed against what some say, 
'After death these things are done for them, which they 
' did not obtain whilst they were alive ; nor did they be- 
' lieve [would be] after their death.^ 

Moreover Joseph did not say, He gave not the land to 
me in my life-time, nor to my father, nor to my grand- 
father, whose excellence too ought to have been reverenced; 
and will He vouchsafe to these wretched people what He 
did not vouchsafe to them ? He said nothing of all this, 
but by Faith he both conquered and went beyond all these 

He has [already] named Abel, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob, Joseph, all illustrious and admirable men. Again 
he makes the encouragement greater, by bringing down the 
matter to ordinary persons. For that those who are re- 
garded with admiration should feel thus, is nothing won- 
derful, and to appear inferior to them, is not so sad : but to 

« i.e. they hoped that through their the next sentence S. Chrys. seems to 

child, when they were dead, the pro- return to the conduct of Joseph, in 

mised blessings upon earth (or in the order to add an observation, which he 

land of Canaan) would be given. In had omitted before. 

300 The Faith of less-known Israelites : of Moses's parents, 

HoM. 26. shew oneself inferior even to people whose names are not 
known;, this is the sad thing. And he begins with the pa- 
rents of Moses, obscure persons, who had nothing so great 
as had their son. For this cause also in proceeding, he 
increases the strangeness of what he says by enumerating 
even women that were harlots, and widows. For by Faith 
(he says) Rahab the harlot perished not with them that be- 
lieved not, lohen she had received the spies with peace. 
And he mentions the rewards not only of belief but also of 
unbelief; as in [the case of] Noah. 

But at present we must speak of the parents of Moses. 
Pharaoh gave orders that all the male children should be 
destroyed, and none had escaped the danger. From what 
cause then did these expect to save their child ? From 
faith. What sort of Faith ? They saw (he saith) that he 
was a fair child. The very sight drew them on to this 
Faith : thus from the beginning, yea from the very swad- 
dling-clothes, great was the Grace that was poured out on 
that righteous man, this being not the work of nature. 
For observe, the child immediately on its birth appears 
fair and not disagreeable to the sight. Whose [work] was 
this ? not that of nature, but of the Grace of God, which 
also stirred up and strengthened that barbarian woman, the 
Egyptian, and took [her] and drew her on. 

And yet in truth Faith had not a sufficient foundation 
in the case of those persons. For what was it to believe 
from the [mere] appearance [of the child] ? But you (he 
would say) believe from the facts themselves and having 
supra X. many of the pledges of Faith. For the receiving with joy - 
^^' fulness the spoiling of their goods, and other such [things], 
were [evidences] of Faith and of Patience. But inasmuch 
as these [Hebrews] also had believed, and yet afterwards 
had become faint-hearted, he points out that even the Faith 

1 etsTToXvof those [saints of old] was very long continued^, as, for 
•jraperei- instance, that of Abraham, althouojh the circumstances 

seemed to contend against it. 

And (saith he) they were not afraid of the king's com- 

2 IkClvo mandment, Sindyet nevertl^eless that was in actual operation ^, 
iuvpyeiro "j^^^ ^]^ig [their hope respecting their child] was simply a 

kind of bare expectation. And this indeed was [the act] 

Moses refusing earthly goods, to suffer affliction. 301 

of his parents ; but Moses himself what did he contribute ? HE.xi.26. 

[4.] Next the example is again appropriate to their own 
case, or rather it is greater than that. For, saith he, (ver. 
24 — 26) by faith Moses when he was come to years, refused 
to be called the son of Pharaoh^ s daughter, choosing rather 
to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the 
pleasures of sin for a season^; esteeming the reproach of "^ or to 
Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt ^; for he ^^^tgj,_ 
had respect unto the recompence of the reivard. As though ary en- 
he had said to them, 'No one of you has left a palace, yea sl'^q/^^ 
'splendid palace, nor treasures such as these ; nor, when he 
'might have been a king's son, has he despised this, as Moses 
'did.' And that he did not simply leave [these things], he 
expressed by saying, he refused, that is, he hated, he turned 
away as with aversion. For when Heaven was set before 
him, it was superfluous to admire an Egyptian Palace. 

And see how admirably Paul has put it. He did not (3) 
say, ^'Esteeining heaven, and the things in heaven," but 
what? the reproach of Christ greater inches than the trea- 
sures of Egypt. For the being reproached for the sake of 
Christ he accounted better than being thus at ease; and this 
itself by itself, was his reward. 

Choosing rather (he says) to suffer affliction with the 
people of God. For ye indeed suffer on your own account, 
but he chose [to suffer] for others ; and voluntarily threw 
himself into so many dangers, when it was in his power 
both to live religiously, and enjoy the good things [of the 
world] '. 

Than (he saith) to have a temporary enjoyment of sin. 
He called the being unwilling to suffer affliction with the 
rest sin : this, he says, [Moses] accounted to be sin. If 
then he accounted it sin not to be willing to suffer affliction 
ivith the rest, it follows that the suffering affliction must 
be a great good ; since he threw himself into it from the 
royal palace. 

But this he did, seeing some great things before him. 
Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the 

f AlyiiTTov. This is the approved AlyvirTcp "in Eg-ypt," in each of the 
reading of the sacred text and of S. three places where the words recur. 
Chrys. The common editions have iv 

302 How did Moses endure the reproach of Christ ? 

HoM. 26 . treasures of Egypt. What is^ the reproach of Christ ? It is, 
the being reproached in such ways as ye are, the reproach 
which Christ endured ; Or that he endured for Christ's 

1 Cor. X. sake: for that rock loas Chi'ist^; the being reproached as 
you are. 

But what is the reproach of Christ ? That [because] we 
repudiate the [ways] of our fathers we are reproached; 
that we are evil-entreated when we have run to God for 
help. It was likely that he also was reproached, when it 

Exod. ii. was said to him. Wilt thou kill me as thou killedst the Egyp^ 

^^* tian ij ester day ? It is the reproach of Christ to be ill-treated 

even to the end, and to the last breath : just as He Him- 

S. Matt, self was reproached and heard. If Thou be the Son of God, 

xxvii. 40. [^said] by those for whom He was being crucified, by those 
who were of the same tribe [with Himself]. It is the 
reproach of Christ when a man is reproached by those of 
his own family, when by those whom he is benefiting. For 
[Moses] also suffered these things from the man who had 
been benefitted [by him]. 

In these words he raised them up, by pointing out that 
even Christ suffered these things, and Moses also, two illus- 
trious persons. So that this is rather the reproach of Christ 
than of Moses, inasmuch as He suffered these things from 

S.Jolmi. His own. But neither did the One send forth lightnings, 

1 ^'jrae^Ti ^^^^ ^^^ other feel any [anger] ^, but He was reviled and 
S. Matt, endured all things, whilst they wagged their heads. Since 
xxvu. . ^jjgpgfQj.g \^ ^ya^g probable that they also would hear such 

things [said to them], and would long for the Recompence, 
he says that even Christ and Moses had suffered the like. 

2 ikvecTis So then ease " is [the portion] of sin ; but to be reproached, 

of Christ. For what then dost thou wish ? the reproach 
of Christ, or ease ? 

[5.] (ver. 27) By faith he fo7'sook Egypt not fearing the 
wrath of the king ;' for he endured as seeing Him who is In- 
visible. What dost thou say ? that he did not fear ? And 
Exod. ii. yet the Scripture says, that when he heard, he was afraid ^, 

« The later MSS. and common edi- *' was Christ ; " they omit the clause 

tions add some explanatory words, next following. 

thus: "he suffered for Christ's "^ke ^ See Exod. ii. 14, 15. S. Chrys. is 

" when he was reviled in the matter speaking of Moses' flight after killing 

" of the rock, from which he brought the Egyptian. ^ ^ 
" out water : and that rock (he says) 

Seeing the Invisible by thought and remembrance, 303 

and for this cause provided for his safety by flight, and stole HE.xi.27. 
away, and secretly withdrew himself; and afterwards he was 
exceedingly afraid. Observe the expressions with accurate 
attention: he said, not fearing the wrath of the king, with 
reference to his even presenting himself again. For it 
would have been [the mark] of one who was afraid, not to 
engage again in the defence [of his countrymen], nor to 
have any hand in the matter. That he did however again 
engage in it, was [the conduct] of one who committed all 
to God : for he did not say, ' He is seeking me, and is busy 
' [in the search], and I cannot endure again to engage in 
' those matters.^ 

Wherefore even his flight was [an act of] faith. Why then 
did he not remain (you say) ? That he might not cast 
himself into a foreseen danger. For this afterwards would 
have been [the conduct] of one who tempted [God], to 
leap I mean into the midst of dangers, and to say, ^ Let us 
^ see whether God will save me.^ This the devil said even 
to Christ, Cast Thyself doion. Thou seest that it is a thing s. Matt, 
suited to the Devil, to throw ourselves into danger without ^^' ^' 
cause and for no purpose, and to try whether God will save 
us ? For he could no longer be their leader and protector, 
when they who were receiving benefits were so ungratefully 
disposed [towards him]. It would therefore have been a 
foolish and senseless thing to remain there. But all these 
things were done, because he endured as seeing Him who is 

[6.] If then we too at all times see God with our mind, 
if we at all times think in remembrance of Him, all things 
will appear endurable to us, all things tolerable ; we shall 
bear them all easily, we shall [be raised] above them all. 
For if a person seeing one whom he loves, or rather, having 
him in remembrance, is thoroughly roused in spirit, and 
elevated in thought, and bears all things easily, while he 
delights himself in the remembrance; [surely] one who 
has in his thoughts Him who has vouchsafed to love us in 
deed, and remembers Him, when will he either feel any 
thing painful, or dread any thing fearful or dangerous ? 
When will he be of cowardly spirit ? Never. 

304 Hence the Captives in Babylon, loere worshipped. 

HoM.26. For all things appear to us to be difficult, because we do 
not have the remembrance of God as we ought to have it ; 
because we do not carry Him about alway in our thoughts. 
For He might justly say to us, 'Thou hast forgotten Me, I 
^also will forget thee/ And so the evil becomes twofold, in 
that we both forget Him and He us. For these two things 
are involved in each other, but two they are. For great is 
the effect produced by God's remembrance [of us], and 
great also is that of His being remembered by us. The 
result of the one is that we choose things that are good ; 
of the other that we accomplish them, and bring them to 

Ps.xlii.6. their end^ For this cause the prophet ^d^ith, I will re- 
member Thee from the land of Jordan, and from the little 
hill of Hermon, This saith the people which was in Baby- 
lon, Being there, I will remember Thee. 
(4) [7.] Therefore let us also, as being in Babylon, [do the 
same] . For although we are not sitting among warlike 
foes, yet we are among enemies. For some [of them] in- 

*'^- ^\. deed were sitting as captives, but others did not even feel 

cxxxvii. . o r ^ 

1. their captivity, as Daniel, as the three children ; who even 

while they were in captivity became in that very same 
country more glorious even than the king himself who had 
carried them captive. And he who had taken them cap- 

' -rrpoa-Kv- tivc falls dowu in reverence ^ before the captives. 

4g^ * ■ Dost thou see how great a thing virtue is ! when they 
were in actual captivity he treated them with respect as 
masters. He therefore was the captive, rather than they. 
It would not have been so marvellous if when they were 
in their native country, he had come and done them rever- 
ence in their own land, or if they had been rulers there. 
But the marvellous thing is, that after he had bound them, 
and taken them as captives, and had them in his own 
country, he was, not ashamed to do them reverence in the 

Dan. ii. sight of all, and to offer an oblationK 

You see that the things which are really splendid, are 
those which have relation to God, whereas things human 
are a shadow ? He knew not, it seems, that he was leading 


■ Probably this is to be understood ^ fxavaa Dan. ii. 46. according- to the 

according to that said Horn. xii. 5. translation of Theodotion : and the 

[supra pp. 155,150] of the co-operation Vatican MS. The Alex, has fiauva, 

of Grace and the human will. as has one MS. of S. Chrys. 

Why did they allow this ? Patience in prayer. 305 

away [those who would be] masters for himself, and that HE.xi.27. 
he had cast into the furnace those whom he was about to 
worship. But to them, these things were as a dream. 

Let us fear God, beloved, let us fear [Him] : even should 
we be in captivity, we are more glorious than all men. 
Let the fear of God be present with us, and nothing will 
be painful, even though thou speak of poverty, or of dis- 
ease, or' of captivity, or of slavery, or of any other grievous 
thing whatever : Nay even these very things will themselves 
work together for us unto the contrary [effects] . These 
men were captives, and the king worshipped them : Paul 
was a tent-maker, and they sacrificed to him as a God. 

[8.] Here a question arises : Why, you ask, did the 
Apostles prevent the sacrifices, and rend their clothes, and 
divert them from their attempt, and say with earnest la- 
mentation. What are ye doing ? ive also are men of like Acts xiv. 
passions with you; whereas Daniel did nothing of this kind. ^^■ 

For that he also was humble, and referred [the] glory to 

God no less than they, is evident from many places. Most 

especially indeed is it evident, from the very fact of his 

being beloved by God. For if he had appropriated to 

himself the honour belonging to God, He would not have 

suffered him to live, much less to be in honour. Secondly, 

because even with great openness he said. And as to me, Dan. ii. 

O King, this secret hath not been revealed to me through ^^• 

any wisdom that is in me. And again ; he was in the den 

for God's sake, and when the prophet brought him food, he 

saith. For God hath remembered me. Thus humble and Bel and 

contrite was he. *^® ^i*?" 

gon, 38. 
He was in the den for God's sake, and yet he counted 

himself unworthy of His remembrance, and of being heard. 
Yet we though presuming to commit atrocities innumer- 
able, yea and being of all men most polluted, if we be not 
heard at our first prayer, draw back. In very truth, great 
is the distance between them and us, as great as is that 
between heaven and earth, or if there be any greater. 

What sayest thou ? After so many achievements, after 
the miracle which had been wrought in the den, dost thou 
account thyself so low ? Yea, saith he ; for what things 
soever we have done, ive are unprofitable servants. Thus S. Luke 

VOL. VII. X xvii. 10. 

306 The great humility of Daniel, 

HoM. 26. by anticipation did he fulfil the evangelical precept, and 
accounts himself nothing. For God hath remembered me, 
he said. His prayer again, of how great lowliness of mind 

Son^ of it is full. And again the three children said thus. We have 

r^h'id^'^^ 5^/^?^ef/, lue have committed iniquitij. And every where they 

ver. 6. shew their humility. 

And yet Daniel had occasions innumerable for being 

lifted up [with pride] ; but he knew that these also came 

to him on account of his not being lifted up, and he did 

not destroy his treasure. For among all men, and in the 

whole world was he celebrated, not for these things only ^, 

that the king cast himself on his face [before him] and 

offered sacrifice to him, and that he accounted him to be a 

„ , God, who was himself honoured as God in all parts of the 

Sfte Jer. 

xliii. 12' world : for he ruled over the whole [earth] ; (and this 

^^"^ ^ . is evident from Jeremiah. Who putteth on the earth, saith 

jeJ. '" he, as a garment. And again, / have given it to Nebuchad- 

xxvii. 6. nezzar My servant, and again from what he [the King] says 

1 See in his letter ^). And because he was held in admiration not 

Dan. iv. only in the place where he was, but every where, and was 

greater than if the rest of the nations had been present and 

seen him; when even by letters [the King] confessed his 

" tV ^ov. submission ^ and the wonderful event. But yet again for 

Ezek. bis wisdom he was also held in admiration, for it is said. Art 

xxviii. 3. thou wiser than Daniel ? And after all these things he was 

thus humble, dying ten thousand times for the Lord^s sake. 

Why then, you ask, being so humble did he not repel 

either the adoration which was paid him by the king, or 

the offerings ? 

[9.] This I will not say, for it is sufficient for me simply 
to mention the subject of enquiry, and the rest I leave to 
you, that at least in this way I may, stir up your thoughts. 
(5) (This however I conjure you, to choose all things for the 
fear of God, having such examples [before you] ; and be- 
cause in truth we shall obtain the things here also, if we 
sincerely lay hold on the things which are to come.) For 
that he did not do this out of arrogance, is evident from 
Dan. V. his saying. Thy gifts ke to thyself, 

' The apodosis seems to be, " But yet again for his wisdom &c." which 
comes after some parentheses. 

His conduct as contrasted with S. Paul's at Lystra. 307 

For besides this also again is another subject of enquiry, HE.xi.27. 
how while in words he rejected it^ in deed he received the ^ tiavidKw 
honour, and wore the chain ^ [of gold] . ^^^' ^' 

Moreover while Herod on hearing the cry It is the voice Acts xii. 
of a god and not of a man, inasmuch as he gave not God f^' ^?' 
the glory, burst hi sunder, and all his howels gushed out, 18.) 
this man received to himself even the honour belonging to 
God, not words only. 

However it is necessary to say what this is. In that case 
[at Lystra] the men were falling into greater idolatry, but 
in this [of Daniel] not so. How ? For his being thus ac- 
counted of, was an honour to God. For it was on this 
account that he said in anticipation, ^7z^«5^o me,notthrough Dan. ii. 
any ivisdom that is in me hath it been revealed, ^c. And ^^* 
besides he does not even appear to have accepted the offer- 
ings. For he said (as it is written) that they should offer 
sacrifice, but it did not appear evident that the act also 
followed, upon [the command] . But there [at Lystra] they 
carried it even to sacrificing the bulls, and they called the Acts xiv. 
one Jupiter and the other Mercurius. ^^' 

The chain [of gold] then he accepted, that he might make 
himself known ; the offering however why does it not ap- 
pear evidently that he rejected it ? For in that case too 
they did not do it, but they attempted it, and the Apostles 
hindered them ; wherefore here also he ought at once to 
have rejected [the adoration]. And there it was the entire 
people : here the King. The cause then why he did not 
divert [him from doing this] [Daniel] expressed by anti- 
cipation, [viz.] that [the king] was not making an offering 
[to him] as to a God, to the overthrow of religious worship, 
but for the greater wonder. How so ? It was on God^s 
account that [Nebuchadnezzar] made the decree; where- 
fore [Daniel] did not mutilate ^ the honour [offered] . But 2 i^Kpur-q^ 
those others [at Lystra] did not act thus, but supposed ^'"^^ 
them to be indeed gods. On this account they were re- 

And here it is, after having bowed [to him] in reverence, 
that he .does these things : for he did not do reverence to 
him as to a God, but as to a wise man. 

But it is not even clear that he did make the offering : 

308 Concluding exhortation. 

HoM. 26. and even if he did make it, yet not that it was with Daniel's 

And what [shall we say of this], that he called him 

; see Dan. Belteshazzar, the name o/his ovfn go d^l Thus [it seems] 
they accounted their gods to be nothing wonderful, when 
he called even the captive thus ; he who commands all men 

1^"' ^' *^ worship the image ^, manifold and of various colours, 

3 Bel and and who adores the dragon ^. 

Lon 24^' Moreover the Babylonians were much more foolish than 
those others at Lystra. Wherefore it was not possible at 
once to lead them on to this. And many [more] things one 
might say : but thus far these suffice. 

If therefore we wish to obtain all good things, let us seek 
the things that have relation to God. For just as they 
w^ho seek the things of this world fail both of them and of 
those others, so they who prefer the things of God, obtain 
both. Let us then not seek these but those, that also we 
may attain to the good things which have been promised 
in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom to the Father and 
also to the Holy Ghost, be glory power honour, now and 
for ever and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xi. 28—31. 

By faith, he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, 
lest he that destroyed the first-born should touch them. 
By faith they passed through the Red sea, as by dry land; 
which the Egyptians assaying to do, were drowned ^. By 
faith, the walls of Jericho fell down, after they had been 
compassed about for seven days. By faith, Rahab the 
harlot perished not with them that believed not, having 
received the spies with peace, 

Paul is wont to establish many things incidently, and is 
very full ^ of thoughts. For such is the grace of The Spirit, i irvK^hs 
He does not comprehend a few ideas in a multitude of 
words, but includes great and manifold thought in brevity 
of expressions. Observe at least how, in the midst ^ ofseVra^et 
exhortation, and when discoursing about faith, of what a 
type and mystery he reminds us, whereof we have the reality. 
By faith (he says) he kept the Passover and the sprinkling 
of blood, lest he that destroyed the first-born should touch 

But what is the sprinkling of blood ^ ? A lamb was slain ^ irpScrxv- 
in every household, and the blood was smeared on the ^^^ 
door-posts, and this was a means of warding off the Egyp- 
tian destruction. If then the blood of a lamb preserved the 
Jews unhurt in the midst of the Egyptians, and under so 
great a destruction, much more will the blood of Christ 
save us, who have had it sprinkled'^ not on our door-posts, ^ eV^xpt- 
but in our souls. For even now also the Destroyer is going f/'Jeen* 
about in this depth of night : but let us be armed with that ^^^"^^^i 

» KamTovriae-nffav is the reading adopted by Mr. Field, but KaTi'iT6eri(Tav 
swallowed up, seems to be the reading of his MSS. see his annotation. 

310 The sprinkling of Blood. Passage of the Red Sea. 

HoM. 27. Sacrifice. (He calls the smearing the pouring on ^ [or sprink- 

1 irpdaxv- ii^g-^ \^ YoY God lias brought us out from Egypt^ from 
the word darkness, from idolatry. 

us^ by ^^^ yg^ what was done, was nothing : what was achieved 
which we was great. For what was done was blood ; but was achieved, 
7 wS*^ was salvation, and the stopping, and preventing of destruc- 
Ung. tion. The angel feared the blood ; for he knew of what it 
was a Type ; he shuddered, thinking on the Lord's death ; 
on this account he did not touch the door-posts. 

Moses said, Smear ye [the door-posts], and they smeared 
[them], and were full of confidence. And you, having the 
Blood of the Lamb Himself, are ye not full of confidence ? 
[2.] By faith, they passed through the Red Sea as by dry 
land. Again he compares one whole and entire people 
with another, that they might not say^ we cannot be as the 
saints were. 

By faith (he says) they passed through the Red Sea, as 
by dry land, which the Egyptians assaying to do, icere 
drowned. In this place he leads them also to a recollection 
of the sufferings in Egypt. 

How, by faith ? Because they had hoped to pass through 
the sea, and for that cause they prayed : or rather it was 
Moses who prayed. Thou seest that in all cases Faith 
goes beyond human calculations, and [beyond human] weak- 
ness andlowliness also ? Thou seest at the same time they 
believed, and feared the punishment in the blood on the 
doors, and in the Red sea ? 

And he evidently shewed this too that it was [really] 
water, by [the fact of] those that fell into it, and were 
choked ; that it was not a mere appearance : but just as 
in the case of the lions those who were devoured proved 
the reality of the facts, and in the case of the fiery furnace, 
those who were burnt; so in this instance also thou seest 
that the very same things become to the one a cause of 

2 Trpbs salvation " and glory, and to the other of destruction. 
crcoTTjp'aj g^ ^^^^^ ^ g^^j .g Y^\i\\. Even when we fall into the 

greatest perplexity, then are we delivered, even though we 
come to death itself, even though our condition be utterly 
desperate. For what else was left [for themj ? They were 
unarmed, compassed about by the Egyptians and the sea; 

TValls of Jericho ;Rahab. Summary enumeration of great men, 311 

and of necessity tliey must either be drowned if they fled, HE.xi.32. 

or fall into the hands of the Egyptians. But nevertheless 

[He] entirely saved them from [such] resourceless dangers. 

The same [sea] was spread under the one, just as if it were 

land : the others it overwhelmed as sea. In the former case 

it foro^at its own nature : in the latter it even armed itself cf. Wisd. 
• i .1, xix. 20. 

agamst them. 

[3.] By faith, the ivalls of Jericho fell down, after they 
had been compassed about for seven days. [By faith ;'] for 
assuredly the sound of trumpets is not able to throw down 
stones, though one blow for ten thousand years, but Faith 
can do all things. 

Thou seest in all cases that it is not by natural sequence, (2) 
nor yet by any law of nature that it was changed, but all 
is done contrary to expectation ? Accordingly in this case 
also all things take place contrary to expectation. For 
inasmuch as he had said again and again, that we ought to 
trust to the future hopes, he introduced all this argument 
with reason, shewing that not now [only], but even from 
the beginning all the miracles have been accomplished and 
achieved by means of it. 

By faith Rahab the harlot perished not with them that 
believed not, having received the spies loith peace. It would 
then be disgraceful^ if you should prove yourselves more 
unbelieving even than a harlot. Yet she [merely] heard 
what the men related, and forthwith believed. Whereupon 
the end also followed in course : for when all perished, she 
alone was preserved. She did not say to herself, I shall 
be with my [friends and relatives^, who are] many. She Vf^' 
did not say. Can I possibly be wiser than these judicious ^^'^'' 
men who do not believe, — and shall I believe ? Nothing of 
this kind did she say : but believed the things which had 
taken place ^', which very thing it was likely that they would 

[4.] (ver. 32) And ivhat shall I more say ? for the time 
ivould fail me to tell. From this point he no longer puts 
down the names : but having ended with an harlot, and put 
them to shame by the quality of the person, he no longer 

^ rols yeuofxevois : probably the destruction of the Egyptians and the 
Amorites &e. Josh. ii. 10. The common texts have ro7s A^yofj-duois. 

312 Faith in iveaker life : still Faith. 

HoM. 27. enlarges on the histories, lest he should be thought tedious. 
However he does not set them aside, but runs over them, 
[doing] very judiciously in both respects, avoiding satiety, 
and not spoiling the close arrangement [of instances] ; he 
neither altogether suppressed the mention of them, nor did 
he cause annoyance by speaking of them; for he effects both 
points. For when a man is contending vehemently [in 
argument] , if he persist in contending, he wearies out the 
, hearer, annoying him when he is already persuaded, and 
gaining the reputation of vain ambitiousness. For he ought 
to accommodate himself to what is expedient. 

And what do I say more (saith he) ? for the time will 
fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak, and of Sampson, 
and of Jephthae, of David also and Samuel, and of the 

Some find fault with Paul, because he sets down Barak, 
and Sampson, and Jephtha in these places. What sayest 
thou ? After having introduced the harlot, shall he not 
introduce these men ? For do not tell me of the rest of 
their life, but only whether they did not believe and shine 
forth in Faith. 

And the prophets, saith he, (ver. 33) who through faith 
subdued kingdoms. Thou seest that he does not here testify 
to their life as being illustrious ; for this was not the point 
in question : but the enquiry thus far was about their 
faith. For tell me whether it was not by faith that they 
accomplished all? 

By faith, saith he, they subdued kingdoms. Gedeon and 
those with him. Wrought righteousness. Who? These 
same. Plainly in this place [by righteousness^ he means 
^<PiXav. kindness 1. 


I think it is of David that he says they obtained pro- 
mises. But what sort of promises were these ? Those in 

Ps. which He said that his seed should sit upon his throne. 

cxxxii. Stopped the mouths of lions, (ver. 34^) quenched the 

violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword. See how 
they were in death itself, Daniel encompassed by the lions, 
the three children abi'liing in the furnace, the Israelites °, 

*^ i. e. " when crossing the Red Sea." Field. 

Faith when things contrary. The life of the world to come. 313 

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, in divers temptations ; and yet not He.xj.So. 
even so did they despair. For this is Faith ; when things 
are turning out contrarily, then ought we to believe that 
nothing is done contrary, but all things in due order. 

Escaped the edge of the sword. I think that he is again 
speaking of the three children. 

Out of^ weakness were made strong.^ Here he alludes^ airh 
to what took place at their return from Babylon. For out^^J"^^ 
of iveakness, is, out of captivity. When the condition of 
the Jews had now become desperate, when they were no 
better than dead bones, who co.uld have expected that they 
would return from Babylon, and not return only, but also 
wax valiant, and tu7'n to flight aymies of aliens ? ' But to 
' us ' some one says ^, ' no such thing has happened.^ But ^i-e.some 
these are figures of the things to come. Chris- 

Women received their dead raised to life again. He here *^^"- 
speaks of what occurred in the case of the prophets, Elisha, 
[and] Elijah ; for these raised the dead. 

[5.] (ver. 35) And others were tortured^, not accepting^ airoTv/j.. 
deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection, f^^v 
But we have not obtained a Resurrection. I am able how- 
ever, he means, to shew that they also were cut off, and 
did not accept [deliverance'], that they might obtain a better 
resurrection. For why, tell me, when it was open to them 
to live, did they not choose it ? Were they not evidently 
looking for a better life ? And they who had raised up 
others, themselves chose to die, in order to obtain a better 
resurrection, not such as the children of those women [had 
obtained] '^. 

Here I think he. alludes both to John and to James. 
For beheading is called " torturing ^" It was in their power 
still to behold the sun. It was in their power to abstain 
from reproving ^ [sinners], and yet they chose to die; even 
they who had raised others chose to die themselves, that 
they might obtain a better resurrection. 

^ The children of the widow of « airorviJ.irauKrfxSs. For instances of 

Sarepta, and the Shunamite had been this meaning of the word see Mr. 

brought back to continue this life of Field's annot. 

temptation and sorrow; it was a better ^ iAey^ai, the word used of S. John 

kind of Resurrection which the Fro- Baptist reproving Herod, S. Luke lii. 

phets sought to obtain themselves. 19. 

314 Suffering in hope. Matchless Faith. Reward there. 

HoM. 27. (ver. 36) And others had trial of cruel mockings and 
(3) scourgings, yea moreover of bonds and imprisonment. He 
ends with these ; with things that are more akin [to their 
own sufferings]. For these [examples] most especially 
bring consolation, when the distress is from the same 
cause, since even if you mention something which is more 
extreme, yet if it does not arise from the same cause, 
you have effected nothing. For that reason he concluded 
his discourse herewith, mentioning bonds, imp)risonments, 
scourges, stonings, alluding to the case of Stephen, also to 
that of Zacharias. 

Wherefore he added, They were slain ivith the sword. 

supra ver. What sayest thou ? Some escaped the edge of the sword, 

' ' and some were slain by the sword. What is this ? which 

dost thou praise? which dQst thou admire? the latter or 
the former? Yea verily, saith he, [I mention both] : the 
former indeed, [as being] appropriate to your case, and the 
latter, because Faith was strong even unto death itself, and 
it is a type of things to come. For the wonderful qualities 
of Faith are two, that it both accomplishes great things, 
and suffers great things, and counts itself to suffer nothing. 
And thou canst not say (saith he) that these were sinners 
and worthless. For even if you put the whole world in 
the scale against them, I find that they weigh down the 
beam and are of greater value ^. What [reward] then were 
they to receive in this life? Here he raises up their 
thoughts, teaching them not to be rivetted to things pre- 

^ <^povi7v gent, but to mind ^ things greater than all that are in this 
present life, since the whole world is not worthy of them. 
What then dost thou wish to receive here ? for it were an 
insult to thee, shouldst thou receive thy reward here. 

2 (ppopu- [6.] Let us not then mind ^ worldly things, nor seek our 

'*^'' recompence here, nor be so mean and beggarly. For if 

the whole world is not ivorthy of them, why dost thou seek 

after a part of it? And with good reason [is it so], for 

they are friends of God. 

Now by the world ddtss he mean here the generality of 

sf The common texts add the explanatory words, " For this cause also he 
*' said, Of whom the world was not worthy." 

Joshua's works greater than Hoses', as tijpifijing Christ. 315 

people, or the creation itself ? Both : for the Scripture is HE.xi.36. 
wont to use the word of both. If the whole creation, he 
would say, with the human beings that belong to it, were 
put in the balance, they yet would not prove of equal value 
with these ; and that with reason. For just as ten thou- 
sand measures of chaff and hay would not be of equal value 
to ten pearls, so neither they ; for better is one that doeth Ecclus. 
the will, of the Lord, than ten thousand transgressors, mean- gee above 
ing by ten thousand not [merely] many, but an infinite p- 280, 

Consider of how great value is the righteous man. Joshua 
the son of Nun said. Let the sun stand still at Gibeoti, the Josh. x. 
moo7i at the valley of Elom, and it was so. Let then the 
whole world come, or rather two or three, or four, or ten, 
or twenty worlds and let them say so and do this ; yet 
shall they not be able. But the friend of God laid his 
commands on the creatures of his Friend, or rather he be- 
sought his Friend, and the servants yielded, and he below 
gave command to those above. Thou seest that they are 
made for service fulfilling their appointed course ? 

This was greater than the [miracles] of Moses. Why 
(I ask) ? Because it is not so great a thing to command the 
sea as [to command] the heavenly [bodies]. For that 
indeed was also a great thing, yea very great, nevertheless 
it was not at all equal [to the other] . 

Why was this? The name of Joshua [Jesus], was a type. 
For this cause then, and because of the appellation itself, 
the creation reverenced him. What then ! was no other 
person called Jesus ? [Yes ;] but this man was on this ac- 
count so called in type ; for he used to be called Hoshea. 
On this account the name was changed : for it was a pre- 
diction and a prophecy. He brought in the people into 
the promised land, as Jesus [does] into heaven ; not the 
Law; as also neither did Moses [bring them in], but re- 
mained without. The Law has not power to bring in [to 
heaven], but grace has. Thou seest the types which have 
been long before sketched out from the beginning ? He 
laid his commands on the creation, or rather, on the vitaP ^ ««'P'V 
part of the creation, on the very head itself as he stood 
below; that so when thou seest Jesus in the form of Man 

316 Our greater privileges : that Christ divells with us, 

HoM. 27. saying the same, thou mayest not be disturbed, nor think 
it strange. He^ even while Moses was living, turned back 
wars. Thus, even while the Law is living. He directs ^ all 
things ; but not openly. 
(4) [7.] But consider we how great is the virtue of the saints. 
If here they work such [wonders], if here they do such 
things, as the very angels do, what then [will they do] 
yonder ? How great is the splendour they possess ? 

Possibly each of you might wish to be such as to be able 
to command the sun and moon. (At this point what would 
^see they say who assert that the heaven is a sphere^? For 
175. why did he not [merely] say. Let the sun stand stilly but 
added Let the sun stand still at the valley of Elom, that 
is, he shall make the day longer ? This was done also in 
the time of Hezekiah. The sun went back. This aga'in is 
more wonderful than that other, to go the contrary way, 
not having yet gone round his course.) 

Nevertheless greater things than these shall we attain 
to, if we will. For what has Christ promised us ? Not 
that we shall make the sun stand still, or the moon, nor 
S. John that the sun shall retrace his steps, but what ? / and the 
XIV. 3. Father will come unto him, saith He, and We will make 
our abode with him. What need have I of the sun and the 
moon, and of these wonders, when the Lord of all Himself 
takes up His lodging, yea His settled habitation with me ? 
I need these not. For what need I any of these things ? 
He Himself shall be to me for Sun and for Light. For, tell 
me, if thou hadst entered into a palace, which wouldst thou 
prefer, to be able to re-arrange some of the things which 
have been fixed there, or so to gain the familiar friendship 
of the king, as to persuade him to take up his abode with 
thee ? much rather [wouldst thou choose] the latter than 
the former. 

[8.] But in what respect is it wonderful, says some one, 
that, those very things which a [mere] man commands, 
these Christ also [commands] ? But Christ (you say) 
needs not the Father, but acts of His own authority, you 
say. Well. Therefore'^rst confess and say, that he needs 
not the Father, and acts of His own authority : and then 
*" Stoi/ce?; so TertuUian in the well known words: Adv. Prax. 16. 

Christ prayed to teachus. Power of Prayer, earnest and humble. 317 

I will ask thee, whether His prayer is not in the way of HE.xi.36 . 
condescension and economy (for surely Christ was not 
inferior to Joshua the son of Nun); and that He might 
teach us. For as, when thou hearest a teacher lispinoj ^, ' /P^^^^- 


and saying over the alphabet, thou dost not say that he is 
ignorant ; and when he asks. Where is such a letter ? thou 
knowest that it is not in ignorance that he asks, but be- 
cause he wishes to lead on his scholar ; in like manner 
Christ also did not make His prayer as needing prayer, 
but desiring to lead thee on, that thou mayest continually 
apply thyself to prayer, that thou mayest do it without 
ceasing, with sobriety, and with great watchfulness. 

And by watching, I do not mean, merely the rising at 
night, but also the being soberly attentive ^ in our prayers ^ v'fi<peiv 
during the day. For such an one is called watchful ^. Since ^ &ypvir- 
it is possible both in praying by night to be asleep, and ^^^ 
in praying by day to be awake, when the soul is stretched 
out intently towards God, when it considers with whom 
it holds converse, to whom its words are addressed, when 
it has in mind that angels are standing by with fear and 
trembling, while he approaches gaping and scratching him- 

[9.] Prayer is a mighty weapon if it be made with suitable 
mind. And that thou mayest learn its strength, shame- 
lessness, and injustice, and savage cruelty, and overbearing 
rashness, have been overcome by continued entreaty. For, 
saith He, Hear what the unjust judge saith. Again it has S. Luke 
overcome sloth also, and what friendship did not effect, ^^'" ^' 
this continued entreaty did : and although he tvill not give ib. xi. 8. 
him because he is his friend (saith He), yet because of his 
importunity he will ynse and give to him. And her who 
was unworthy was made worthy by continued assiduity. 
It is not meet (He saith) to take the children's bread and to s. Matt. 
cast it to the dogs. Yea ! Lord ! she saith, /or even the dogs gl' ^^' 
eat [lohat falls'^\ from their masters' table. Let us apply (5) 
ourselves to Prayer. It is a mighty weapon if it be offered 
with intense earnestness, if without vain-glory, if with a 
sincere mind. It has turned back wars, it has benefitted 
an entire nation though undeserving. / have heard their Acts vii. 
groaning (saith He) and am come down to deliver them. It ^^* 

318 Our sins, need of entreaty and perseverance : ive are sinners. 

HoM. 27. is itself a saving medicine, and lias power to prevent sins, 
1 Tim. V. and to heal misdeeds. In this the widow who had been 
^' left solitary was assiduous. 

If then we pray with humility, smiting our breast as the 

publican, if we utter those very same things which he did, 

S. Luke if we say. Be merciful to me a sinner, we shall obtain all. 

xvm. 13. Yqy though we be not publicans, yet have we other sins not 

less than his. 

For do not tell me, that thou hast gone wrong in some 

small matter [only], since the thing of itself has the same 

nature. For just as a man is equally called a homicide 

whether he has killed a child or a man, so also is he called 

overreaching, whether he be overreaching in much or in 

little. Yea and to remember injuries too, is no small mat- 

Prov. xii. ter, but even a great sin. For it is said, the ways of those 

1^ M^tf ^^^ remember injuries [tend] to death. And He that is 

V. 22. ' angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger 

of hell, and he that calleth his brother a fool, and senseless, 

and numberless things such as these. 

But we partake even of the tremendous mysteries un- 
worthily, and we envy, and w^e revile. And some of us 
have even oftentimes been drunk. But each one of these 
things, even itself by itself, is sufficient to cast us out of 
the kingdom, and when they even come all together, what 
comfort shall we have ? Much is the penitence whereof we 
have need, beloved, much the prayer, much the endurance, 
much the perseverance, that we may be enabled to attain 
the good things which have been promised to us. 

[10.] Let us then ourselves also say. Be merciful to 

me a sinner, nay rather, let us not say it only, but let us 

also be thus minded ; and should another call us so, let 

S. Luke us not be angry. He heard the words, / anunot as this 

xviii. U. pi^ifiican, and was not provoked thereby, but filled with 

compunction. He accepted the reproach, and he put away 

the . reproach. The other spoke of the . wound, and he 

ib. 13. sought the medici-ie. Let us say then. Be merciful to me 

a sitmer, yea and even if another should so call us, let us 

not be indignant. v 

But if we say ten thousand evil things of ourselves, and 
still when we hear them said by others, are^ vexed, then 

Our holloivness : humility assumed to gain commendation. 319 

this is no longer humility, nor confession^ but ostentation HE.xi.36. ] 

and vain-glory. Is it ostentation (you say) to call one's ' 

self a sinner ? Yes^ surely. For we obtain the credit of i 

humility, we are admired, we are greatly commended; \ 

whereas if we say the contrary of ourselves, we are despised. j 

So that we do this too for the sake of credit. But what ! 

is humility ? It is when another reviles us, to bear it, to j 

acknowledge our fault, to endure evil speakings. And yet ! 

not even would this be [a mark] of humility but of candour. - 

But now as it is we call ourselves sinners, unworthy, and \ 

ten thousand other such names, whilst if any other person 
apply one of them to us, we are vexed, we become quite 
savage. Thou seest that this is not confession, nor even 
candour ? Thou saidst of thyself that thou art such an 
one : be not indignant if thou hearest it also said by 
others, and art reproved [by them] . \ 

In this way thy sins are made lighter for thee, when j 

others reproach thee : for on themselves indeed they lay a ■ 

burden, but thee they lead onwards into philosophy. Hear i 

what the blessed David says, when Shimei cursed him, ] 

Let him alone (saith he) the Lord hath hidden him, that 2 Sam. ■ 

He might look on my humiliation (saith he) : And the Lord ^^2' ^^* 
ivill requite me good for his cursing on this day. \ 

But thou while saying evil things of thyself even in , 

excess, if thou hearest not from others the commendations 

... i 

that are due to the great [and] the righteous, art wild with ^ 

rage. Seest thou that thou art trifling with things that j 

are no subjects for trifling ? For we even repudiate praises \ 

in our desire for other praises, that we may obtain yet ] 

higher panegyrics, that we may be more admired. So that i 

when we decline to accept commendations, we do it that we 

may augment them. And all things are done by us out of j 

regard to appearance, not to truth. For this cause are all j 

things hollow, all impracticable. Wherefore I beseech j 

you now at any rate to withdraw from this mother of evils, j 

vain-glory, and to live according to what is approved by j 

God, that so you may attain to the good things which are \ 

to come, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom to the 

Father be glory, together with His Holy and good Spirit, 

now and ever and world without end. Amen, 


Heb. xi. 37, 38. 

They wandered about in sheep-skins, in goat-skins, being 
destitute, afflicted, tormented (of whom this ^ ivorld ivas 
not worthy) ; wandering in deserts, and mountains, and 
dens, and caves of the earth. 

At all times indeed, but especially then when I reflect 
upon the achievements of the saints, does it come over me 
^ a-rrayo- to fccl dcspondcncy Concerning my own condition^, because 
^rkTad' I. we have not even in dreams had experience of the [suffer- 
ings] among which those men spent their whole lives, not 
paying the penalty of sins, but always doing rightly and 
yet always afflicted. 

For consider, I beseech you, Elijah, to whom our dis- 
course has come round to-day, for it is of him that he is 
speaking in this passage, and in him his examples end : 
which very [example] was appropriate to their case. And 
having spoken of what befel the Apostles, that they were 
slain with the sivord, were stoned, he goes back again to 
see Elijah, who suffered the same things which they did. For 

? g "^^ since it was probable that they would not as yet hold the 
Apostles in so great estimation, he brings his exhortation 
and consolation from him who had been taken up [into 
Heaven] and who was held in special admiration. 

For they went about (saith he) in sheep-skins, in goai- 
' ill treat, g^l^g^ being destitute, afflicted, tormented^, of ivhom this 


xovfievoi world was not worthy. 

They had not even raiment, he says, owing to the ex- 
ceeding greatness of >heir affliction, not a city [a home], 

" ovTos. Mr. F. observes that S.Chrys. more usually cites the text without ovTo<i. 

The Saints bare manifoldly, yet wait for us. 321 

not a house, not a lodging-place ; the very same which HE.xi.40. 
Christ said, but the Son of Man hath not where to lay His S. Matt. 
head. Why do I say " not a lodging-place ? " no, not a ^^"' ^^' 
standing-place : for not even when they had gained the 
wilderness, were they at rest. For he said not. In the 
wilderness they sat them down, but even when they were 
there, they fled, and were driven thence, not out of the 
inhabited world only, but even out of that which was un- 
inhabitable. And he reminds them of the places where 
they were set, and of things which there befel [them]. 

Then next, he saith, they bring accusations against you 
on account of Christ. What accusation had they against 
Elijah, when they drove him out, and persecuted him, and 
compelled him to struggle with famine ? Which very same 
thing these [Hebrews] were at that time suffering. At 
least the brethren it is said decided to send [relief] to those 
of the disciples who were afilicted. As each person had Acts xi. 
the means, they determined each one to send relief unto the 
brethren that dwelt in Judea, which was [the case] of these 

Tormented [or ill-treated], he saith; that is, suffering 
distress, in their journeyings, in their dangers. 

But They wandered about, what is this ? ivandeinng, he 
says, in deserts and mountains and in dens and the caves 
of the earth, just like exiles and outcasts, just like persons 
taken in the basest [of crimes], just like those who are not 
worthy even to see the sun, they found no refuge even from 
the wilderness, but must alway be flying, must be seeking 
hiding-places, must bury themselves alive in the earth, 
always be in terror. 

[2.] What then, is the reward of so great an exchange^ ? 
what is the recompence ? 

They have not yet received it, but are still waiting ; and 
after thus dying in so great tribulation, they have not yet 
received it. They gained their victory so many ages ago, 
and have not yet received [their reward]. And you who are 
yet in the conflict, do you complain? 

Do you also consider what a thing it is, and how great, 
that Abraham should be sitting, and the Apostle Paul, 

^ a/xoifi^s i. e. the accepting sufferings instead of an easy life. 

322 They gladly wait as one hodiywith us. The encompassing 

HoM. 28. waiting till thou hast been perfected, that then they may be 
able to receive their reward. For the Saviour has told 
them before that unless we also are present;, He will not give 
it them. Just as an affectionate father might say to sons 
who were well approved, and had accomplished their work, 
that he would not give them to eat, unless their brethren 
came. And art thou vexed, that thou hast not yet received 
thy reward ? What then shall Abel do, who was victor 
before all, and is sitting uncrowned ? And what [shall] 
Noah [do] ? And what, they who lived in those [early] 
times : seeing that they are waiting for thee and for those 
who shall be after thee ? 

Dost thou see that we have the advantage of them ? For 
God (he says) has provided some better thing for us. In 
order that they might not seem to have the advantage of 
us from being crowned before us. He appointed that the 
time of crowning should be one for all; and he that gained 
the victory so many years before, receives his crown with 
thee. Thou seest His tender carefulness ? 

And [the Apostle] did not say, " that they without us 
"might not be crowned," but that they without us might not 
be made perfect, so that at that time they appear perfect 
also. They were before us as regards the conflicts, but are 
not before us as regards the crowns. He wronged not 
them, but He honoured us. For they themselves also 
wait for their brethren. For if we are all one body, the 
pleasure becomes greater to this body, when it is crowned 
altogether, and not partially. For besides in this [respect] 
also the righteous are worthy of admiration, that they re- 
joice in the welfare of their brethren, as in their own. So 
that for themselves also, this is according to their wish, to 
be crowned along with their own members. To be glorified 
all together, is [to them] a great delight. 

[3.] (Ch. xii. 1) Wherefore (he says) we also being com- 
(2) passed about with so great a cloud of ivitnesses. In many 
places does the Scripture derive its consolation in evils 
from things which commonly happen to us. As when the 
Is. iv. 6. prophet says. From bWning heat, and from sto7^m, and rain. 
This at least he says here also, that the memory of those 
holy men, re-establishes and recovers the soul which ha4 

cloud : the witnesses, our Race. Looking unto Jesus . 323 

been weighed down by woes, just as a cloud does him who HE.xii.2. 

is burnt by the too hot rays [of the sun] . ; 

And he did not say, [a cloud] " lifted on high above us" \ 

but, compassing us about, which was more than the other ; \ 

so that we are in greater security. I 

What sort of cloud F A load of ivitnesses^. With good ' 

reason he calls not those in the New Testament only, but * 

those in the Old also, witnesses [or martyrs~\. For indeed 
they also were witnesses to the greatness of God, as for in- \ 

stance, the Three Children, Elijah, all the prophets. i 

Laying aside all things. All: what? that is, slumber, \ 

indifference, mean reasonings, all human things. \ 

And the sin which doth [so'] easily beset us; evTrepla-rarov, '. 

that is either, " which easily circumvents us," or " what can 
"easily be circumvented^," but rather this latter. For it ^'^^pi'^'ra. 
IS easy, it we have the will, to overcome sm. 

With patience (he says) let us run the race that is set j 

before us. He did not say, Let us contend as boxers, nor, 
Let us wrestle, nor. Let us battle : but, which was lightest ' 

of all, the [contest] of the foot-race, this has he brought 
forward. Nor yet did he say. Let us add to the length of ] 

the course ; but. Let us continue patiently in this [which ! 

we have], let us not faint. Let us run (saith he) the race ! 

that is set before us. ■ 

[4.] In the next place as the sum and substance of his 
exhortation, what [he had put] first, this also he puts last, ] 

even Christ, ver. 2. Looking (saith he) unto Jesus the i 

Author and Finisher of our Faith ; The very thing which '. 

Christ Himself also continually said to His disciples, 7/" S. Matt. i 

they have called the Master of the house Beelzebub, how much ^' ^^' 
more them of His household ? and again, The disciple is not ib. 24. 
above his Master, nor the servant above his Lord, ] 

Looking (saith he), that is, in order that we may learn to , 

run. For just as in all arts and games, it is by looking to 
our masters, that we impress the art upon our mind, re- .j 

ceiving certain rules through our sight, so in this case also, j 

<^ ixaprvpwv oyKov. S. Chrys. connects irdvra, he would understand thus, See- ^ 

oyKou with fxaprvpcav and takes izavra ing we are compassed about with so 

as a neuter plural ; the words of the great a cloud, a load of witnesses, 

Apostle, ToarouTov exovres TrepiKelfj.evou let US lay aside all things Sfc, i 

7]fjuy ye<l>os, ixaprvpuv oyKOf, airodefxevoi 

y2 ] 

324 Jesus endured, despising the shame. The glorious End. 

HoM. 28. 

S. John 
XV. 16. 

1 Cor. 
xiii. 12. 

1 S. Pet. 
ii. 22. 

S. John 
xiv. 30. 

lb. X. 18 

' disre- 

' Xvirrjs 

Phil. u. 

4 the 



if we wish to run, and to learn to run well, let us look to 
Christ, even to Jesus the author and finisher of our faith. 
What is this ? He Himself has put the Faith within us. 
For He said also to His disciples. Ye have not chosen Me, 
but I have chosen you ; And Paul too saith, But then shall 
I know, even as also I have been known ^. He Himself put the 
Beginning into us. He will Himself also put on the End. 

Who, saith he, for the joy that ivas set before Him, en- 
dured the Cross, despising the shame. That is, it was in 
His power, if He so willed, not to suffer at all. For neither 
had He done any sin, nor was guile found in His mouth; as 
He Himself also saith in the Gospels, The Prince of the 
world Cometh and hath nothing in Me. It lay then entirely 
in His power, if so He wdlled, not to come to the Cross. 
. For, / have power. He saith, to lay down My life, and I have 
power to take it again. If then He who was under no neces- 
sity of being crucified, was crucified for our sake, how much 
more is it right that we should endure all things nobly ! 

Who for the joy that was set before Him (he says) endured 
the cross, despising ^ the shame. But what is. Despising 
the shame ? He chose, he means, that ignominious death. 
For suppose that He died. Why [should He] also [die] 
ignominiously ? For no other cause, but to teach us to 
account as nothing the glory which [comes] from men. 
For this cause though under no obligation He chose it, 
[even shame], teaching us to be bold against it, and to set 
it at nought. Why did he say not " pain," but shame ? Be- 
cause it was not with pain ^ that He bore these things. 

What then is the end ? He is set down at the right hand 
of the throne of God. Thou seest the prize of the conflict ? 
which very same thing Paul also says in an epistle. Where- 
fore God also hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a 
Name which is above every name, that in the Name of Jesus 
Christ every knee should bow. He is speaking of that which 
relates to the flesh ^. Well then, even if there were no 
prize, the example would be abundantly sufficient to 
persuade us to accept all [such] things. But now in fact 
prizes also are set before us, and these no common ones, 
but great and ineffable. 

[5.] Wherefore let us also, whenever we suffer anything 

The insults, slanders, scoffings, mockery, trials of Christ. 325 

of this kind, before the Apostles consider Christ. Why ? HE.xii.2. 
His whole life was full of insults. For indeed He was con- 
tinually hearing Himself called mad, and a deceiver, and a 
sorcerer ; and at one time the Jews said. Nay, (it saith) but S. John 
He deceiveth the people. And again. That deceiver said ^^'^L 
while He was yet alive, after three days I rise again. As xxvii. 63. 
to sorcery too they calumniated Him, saying, It is by Beel- ib. xii. 
zebub that He casteth out the devils. And that He is mad |^ j^hn 
and hath a devil. Said ive not well (it saith) that He hath x. 20. 
a devil and is mad? \^ ^"** 

And these things He was wont to hear from them, 
when He was doing them kindnesses, performing miracles, 
shewing forth the works of God. For indeed, if He had 
been so spoken of, when He did nothing, it would not 
have been at all so wonderful : But [it is wonderful] that 
when He was teaching what pertained to Truth He was 
called a deceiver, and when He cast out devils, was said to 
have a devil, and when He was overthrowing all that was 
opposed [to God], was called a sorcerer. For these things 
they were continually alleging against Him. 

And if thou wouldst also know the scornful jests ^ and 



the ironical jeerings ^, which they used to make against Him n-ara 
(a thing which particularly wounds our souls), hear first 
those which [were drawn] from His family. Is not this (it S. Matt, 
saith) the carpenter's son, lohose father and mother we § y^^^ 
know ? are not his brethren all loith us ? Also scoffing at vi. 42. 
Him from His country, they said that He was of Nazareth. 
And again, search, it saith, and see, for out of Galilee hath ib.vii.52. 
no prophet arisen. And He endured the being so greatly 
calumniated. And again they said, Doif^ 7iot the Scripture ib. 42. 
say, that Christ cometh from the town of Bethlehem ? 

Wouldst thou see also the ironical jeerings which they 
made ? Coming, it saith, to the very cross they worshipped 
Him ; and they struck Him and buffeted Him, and said. 
Tell us ivho it is that smote Thee; and they brought vinegar S. Matt, 
to Him, and said. If Thou be the Son of God, come down fiJ^ x'xvil* 
from the Cross. And again, even the servant of the High 40. 
Priest . struck Him with the palm of his hand; and He 
saith. If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil ; but if S. John 
well, why smitest thou Me ? And in derision they put a ''^"** ' 

326 Christ's trials from disciples ; in infancy : S. Paul's, 

HoM. 28. robe about Him ; and they spat in His face ; and they were 
continually applying their tests^ tempting [and making 
trial of] Him. 

Wouldst thou see also the accusations, those that were 
made in secret and the open ones, those that came from 

S. John His disciples ? Will ye also go aivay ? saith He, and that 

ib. viii saying, Thou hast a devil, was uttered by those who already 

48. believed. 

Was not He Himself continually a fugitive, sometimes 
in Galilee, and sometimes in Judea ? Was not His trial 
great, even from the very swaddling clothes ? When He 
was yet a young child, did not His mother take Him and go 
down into Egypt ? For all these reasons he saith. Looking 
unto Jesus the Author and Finisher of our Faith, who for 
the joy that loas set before Him endured the cross, despising 
the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne 
of God. 

' ri To Him then let us look, also to the [sufferings ^] of His 

2 TO. disciples, reading the [writings "] of Paul, and hearing him 
2Cor. vi. say, In much patie7ice, in afflictions, in necessities, in per se- 
^'^- cutions, in distresses, in stripes, in imprisonments. And 

1 Cor. iv. again, jE/i;e/i to this present hour, tve both hunger, and thirst, 
1 1—13. d^^ dYQ naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling- 
place, and labour, working with our ownhands. Being reviled, 
ive bless ; being persecuted, tve suffer it ; being defamed, we 
entreat. Has any one [of us] suffered the smallest part of 

2 Cor. vi. these things ? For, saith he, [we are] As deceivers. As 
8, 10. despised, as having nothing. And again. Five times received 
24—26. / of the Jews forty stripes save one ; thrice was I beaten 

with rods, once was I stoned, a night and a day have I been 

in the deep; in journey ings often, in tribulations, in distress, 

in famine. And that these things seemed good to God, 

ib. xii. hear him saying. For this I besought the Lord thrice, and 

8—10. Jje said to me. My Grace is sufficient for thee: for My 

strength is made perfect in weakness. Wherefore, he saith, 

/ take pleasure in infirmities, in afflictions, in necessities, in 

distresses, in stripes, ip, imprisonments, that the power of 

Christ may rest upon me. Moreover, hear Christ Himself 

s. John saying, In the world ye shall have tribulation, 
xvi. 33. 

These contradictions shew the path we should follow. 327 

[6.] ver. 3. For consider, saith he, Him that endured such He.xu.s. 
contradiction of sinners against Himself, lest ye be wearied 
and faint in your minds. For if the sufferings of those who 
are near to us greatly arouse us, how much earnestness will 
not those of our Master give us ! What effect will they not 
have on us ? 

And passing by all [else], he expressed the whole by the 
{^OYdLy Contradiction ; and by adding such [contradictions]. 
For the blows upon the cheek, the laughter, the insults, the 
reproaches, the mockeries, all these he indicated by the 
[word] contradiction. And not these only, but also the 
things which befel Him during His whole life, [His whole 
life I mean] as a teacher. 

For a great, a truly great consolation are both the suffer- 
ings of Christ, and those of His Apostles. For so [surely] 
did He know that this is the better way of virtue, that He 
even Himself went that way, who had no need thereof : so 
[surely] did He know that tribulation is expedient for us, 
and that it becomes rather a ground and occasion for repose. 
For hear Him Himself saying, If a man take not his cross, S. Matt. 
and follow after Me, he is not ivorthy of Me. If thou art a ^' ^^' 
disciple. He means, imitate thy Master ; for this is [to be] 
a disciple. But if while He went by [the path of] affliction, 
thou [goest] by that of ease, thou no longer treadest the 
same path, which He trod, but a different one. How then 
dost thou follow, when thou followest not ? how shalt thou 
be a disciple, when thou dost not go after the Master ? 
This Paul also says. We are weak, hut ye are strong; ive i Cor. iv. 
are despised, but ye are honoured. How is it reasonable, ^^* 
he means, that we should be zealously pursuing opposite 
things, and yet that you should be disciples and we teachers ? 

[7.] Affliction then is a great thing, beloved, for it brings 
to a successful issue those two great things : It wipes out 
sins, and it makes men firm [and steady] . 

What then, you say, if it overthrow and destroy ? It is (4) 
not affliction which does this, but our own slothfulness. 
How (you say) ? If we are sober and watchful, if we beseech 
God that He would not suffer us to be tempted above that ib. x. 13. 
we are able, if we always hold fast to Him, we shall stand 
nobly, and set ourselves against our enemy. So long as 

328 S. Paul's sufferings, how great, yet light compared with eternity, 

HoM. 28 . we have Him for our helper, though temptations blow more 

violently than all the winds, they will be to us as chaff and 
Rom.viii. a leaf borne lightly along. Hear Paul saying. In all these 

things (are his words) we are more than conquerors. And 
ib. 18. again. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are 

not worthy to he compared with the glory which shall he re- 
2 Cor. iv. vealed in us. And again, For the light affliction which is 

hut for a moment, ivorketh for us afar more exceeding and 

eternal iveight of glory. 

Consider what great dangers, shipwrecks, afflictions one 

close upon another, and other such things whatsoever, he 

calls light; and emulate this [rock of] adamant, who wore this 

1 ottAws body simply and heedlessly^. Thou art in poverty? but not 
Koi eiKv ^^ gQ gYQ^i [poverty] as Paul was, who was thoroughly 

tried by hunger, and thirst, and nakedness. For he suffered 
this not for one day, but endured it continually. Whence 
T Cor. iv. does this appear ? Hear himself saying. Even unto this pre- 
sent hour we hoth hunger and thirst and are naked. Oh ! 
how great glory had he already [attained] in the preaching 
[of the Gospel], when he was undergoing so great [afflic- 
tions]! having now [reached] the twentieth year [thereof], 

2 Cor. at the time when he wrote this. For he saith, / knew a 

man fourteen years ago, vjhether in the hody, or out of the 
Gal.i. 18. body, I know not. And again. After three years (saith he) / 

1 Cor. ix. iue7it up to Jerusalem. And again hear him saying. It were 
^^' hetter for me to die, than thai any man should make my glory- 
ing void. And not only this, but again also in writing he 

ib.iv. 13. said. We are hecome as the filth of the world. What is more 
difficult to endure than hunger? what than freezing cold ? 
what than insidious attacks made by brethren : whom he 

2 Cor. xi. afterwards calls/«/.se brethren? Was he not called the pest 
^^' of the world ? [was he] not [called] aji Impostor ? one that 

turned [the world] upside down ? was he not cut to pieces 
with scourging?' 

[8.] These things let us take into our mind, beloved, let 
us consider them, let us hold them in remembrance, and 
then we shall at no time faint, though we be wronged, 
though we be plundered^ though we suffer evils innumerable. 
May it be granted us to be approved in Heaven, and all 
thiifgs [are] endurable. May it be granted us to fare well 

Things of Eternity, Alms, What expences are superfluous. 329 

there, and of things here no ^ account [need be made] . ^^•^"•^' 
These things are a shadow, and a dream; whatever they may 
be, they are nothing either in nature or in duration, while 
those other are hoped for and expected. 

For what wouldst thou that we should compare with those 
fearful things ? what with the unquenchable fire ? with the 
never-dying worm ? Which of the things here canst thou 
name as equal, in comparison with the gnashing of teeth, 
with the chains, with the outer darkness, with the wrath, 
the tribulation, the anguish ? But as to duration ? why 
what are ten thousand years to ages boundless and without 
end ? not so much as one little drop to the boundless ocean. 

But [what can we compare] to those good things ? There, 
however the superiority is [still] greater. Eye hath not seen i Cor. ii. 
(it is said), ear hath not heard, it hath not entered into the ^' 
heart of man, and these things again shall be during bound- ' 
less ages. For the sake of these then were it not well to be 
cut [by scourging] times out of number, to be slain, to be 
burned, to undergo ten thousand deaths, to endure every 
thing whatsoever that is dreadful both in word and deed ? 
For even if it were possible for one to live when burning in 
the fire, ought one not to endure all for the sake of attain- 
ing to those good things which have been promised ? 

[9.] But why do I trifle in saying these things to men 
who do not even choose to disregard riches, but hold fast to 
them as though they were immortal ? And if they give a 
little out of much, think they have accomplished every 
thing ? This is not Almsgiving. For Almsgiving is that 
of the Widow who emptied out all her living. But if thou s. Mark 
art not capable of contributing so much as the widow did, ^"- '^^• 
yet at least contribute the whole of thy superfluity : keep 
what is sufficient, not what is superfluous. 

But there is no one who contributes even his superabun- 
dance. For so long as thou hast many servants^, and^i-e- 
garments of silk, these things are all superfluities. Nothing ^ *^*^ 
is indispensable or necessary, without which we are able 
to live; these things are superfluous, and are uselessly 
superadded^. Let us then see, if you will, what we can- ^^"'^^^^ 
not live without. Even if we have only two servants, we K^Jai '^' 
can live. For whereas there are some who live without 

330 Numerous attendants slaves and showy dress, not lady-like. 

HoM. 28. servants [at all], what sort of excuse have we, if we are 
not content with the two ? We can also have a house built 

1 olKrifxii- of brick of three rooms ^^ and this were sufficient for us. 

For, tell me, are there not some men with children and 

2 oIkov wife who have but one room " ? Let there be also, if you 

will, two serving boys. 

[10.] And how is it not a shame (you say) that a gentle- 
^tV ^Aev- woman ^ should walk out with [only] two servants ? It is 
^^"^ no shame, that a gentlewoman should walk abroad with 
two servants, but it is a shame that she should go forth 
with many. Perhaps you laugh when you hear this. Be- 
lieve me it is a shame. Just like dealers in sheep, or like 
dealers in slaves, you think it a great matter to go out with 
many servants? This is pride and vain-glory, the other is 
philosophy and respectability. For a gentlewoman ought 
not to be known from the multitude of her attendants. For 
what virtue is it to have many slaves ? This belongs not 
to the soul, and whatever is not of the soul does not shew 
gentility. When she is content with a few things, then is 
she a gentlewoman indeed ; but when she needs many, she 
is a servant and inferior to slaves. 
(5) Tell me, do not the angels go to and fro about the world 
alone, and need not any one to follow them ? Are they 
then on this account inferior to us ? they who need no [at- 
tendants] to us who do need them ? If then the not even 
needing an attendant at all, is angelic, who comes nearer 
to the angelic life, she who needs many [attendants], or 
she who [needs] few ? Is not this a shame ? For a shame 
it is to do anything out of place. 

Tell me who attracts the attention of those who are in 

^ the the public places *, she who brings many in her train, or 

spaces of ^^^ ^^^ [brings but] few ? And is not she who is alone, 

the less conspicuous even than she who is attended by few? 

where^ Seest thou that that [first-named conduct] is a shame? 

idlers Who attracts the attention of those in the public places, 

ga ere . ^^^ ^^^ wears beautiful garments, or she who is dressed 

in a simple and unstudied way ? Again who attracts [the 

attention of] those in^he public places, she who is borne 

on mules, and with trappings ornamented with gold, or 

she who walks out simply, and as it may be, with all de- 

"Excess of appareV^ unsuitable to Christian women. 331 

corum ? Or as to this latter, is it not the case, that we do HE.xii.g. 
not even look at her, if we even see her ; while as to the 
other, the multitudes not only force their way to see her, 
but also ask, Who is she, and Whence [she comes] ? And 
I do not say how great envy is hereby produced. What 
then (tell me) ? is it disgraceful to be looked at or not to be 
looked at ? When is the shame greater, when all stare at 
her, or when no one [does] ? when they inform themselves 
about her, or when they do not even care [about her] ? 
Thou seest that we do every thing, not for modesty's sake 
but for vain-glory ? 

However, since it is impossible to draw you away from 
this, I am content for the present that you should learn 
that this [other conduct] is no disgrace. Sin alone is a 
disgrace, which no one thinks to be a disgrace, but every- 
thing rather than it. 

[11.] Let your dress be such as is needful, not super- 
fluous. However, that we may not shut you up into too 
narrow a space, this I assure you, that we have no need 
of ornaments of gold, or of lace ^. And it is not I who say ^q^V^^ 
this. For that the words are not mine, hear the blessed 
Paul saying, and solemnly charging women to adoyii them- i Tim. ii. 
selves, not ivith plaitings [of the hair'], or gold, or pearls, ^' 
or costly apparel. 

But with what kind [of apparel] wouldest thou [that they 
adorn themselves] ? tell us, O Paul. For perhaps they will 
say, that only golden things are costly; and that silks are 
not costly. Tell us too with what wouldest thou [that ' o'^^'^a- 
they be adorned] ? But having food and coverings ^, there- ib. vi. 8. 
ivith (saith he) ive shall be content^. Let our garment ^ ap/ce- 
be such (he means) as merely to cover us. For for this ^^^^^ " 
cause hath God given them to us, that we may cover our 
nakedness, and this any garment can do, of whatever sort 
it be, though but of trifling cost. Perhaps ye laugh, ye 
[women] that wear dresses of silk, for in truth one may 
well laugh, considering what Paul enjoined and what we 
practise ! 

But my discourse is not addressed to women only, but 
also to men. For the rest of the things which we have are 
all superfluous ;• it is only the poor who possess no super- 

332 Embellishments that please heavenly Spectators; 

HoM. 28. fluities ; and perhaps they too [do so only] from necessity : 
since, if it had been in their power, even they would not 

Phil. i. 18. have abstained [from them]. Nevertheless, whether in 
pretence or in truth, they have so far no superfluities. 

[12.] Let us then wear such clothes as are sufficient for 
our need. For what is the meaning of a quantity of gold ? 
To persons on the stage these things are suitable, this ap- 
parel belongs to them and to women that are harlots, who 
do every thing in order to be looked at. Let her beautify 
herself, who is on the stage or the dancing platform. For 
she wishes to attract all men to her. But a woman who 
professes godliness, let her not beautify herself thus, but in 
a different way. Thou hast a means of beautifying thyself 

i"body far superior to that. Thou also hast a theatre^: for that 

tors"^^ ^' theatre do thou make thee beautiful : clothe thyself with 
the ornaments that belong thereto. What is thy theatre ? 
Heaven, the company of Angels. I am not speaking of 
Virgins only, but also of women who are in the world. All 
as many as believe in Christ have that for their theatre. Let 
us speak such things that we may please those spectators. 
Put on such garments as that thou mayest gratify them. 

For tell me, if a woman that is a Harlot putting aside 
her golden ornaments, and her robes, and her laughter, and 
her witty and unchaste talk, clothe herself with a cheap 
garment, and having dressed herself in an unstudied man- 
ner come in [on the stage], and utter religious words, and 
discourse of chastity, and say nothing indelicate, will not 
all [the spectators] stand up? will not this theatre be dis- 
persed? will they not cast her out^ as one who does not 
know how to suit herself to the crowd, and speaks things 
foreign to that Satanic theatre ? So thou also, if thou enter 
into the Theatre of Heaven clad with her garments, the 
spectators will cast thee out. For there, there is no need 
of these garments of gold, but of different ones. Of what 

Ps. xlv. kind ? of such as the prophet names, clothed hi fringed 

^*^- ivork of gold, and in varied colours, not so as to make the 

body white and glistering, but so as to beautify the soul. 
For the Soul it is, which is contending and wrestling in 

ib. that Theatre. All the glory of the King's daughter is from 

ivithin, it saith. With these do thou clothe thyself. For 

and husbands. Gay dress in Church, inconsistent and absurd, 333 

so thou both deliverest thyself from other evils innumera- HE.xii.3. ; 

ble, and thy husband from anxiety and thyself from care. \ 

For so thou wilt be respected by thy husband, when thou (6) 
needest not many things. For every one is wont to be shy ' 

towards those who make requests of him ; but when he - 

sees that they have no need of him, then he lets down his 
haughty spirit, and converses with them as with equals. 
When thy husband sees that thou hast no requests to make 
of him, that thou thinkest lightly of the presents which ' 

come from him, then, even though he be of very haughty ] 

mind ^, he will, respect thee more, than if thou wert clad in ^ 4>poyrjf*- 
golden ornaments ; and thou wilt no longer be his slave. "^**'*' 
For those of whom we stand in need, we are compelled to 
stoop to. If, however, we draw back from making requests, 
we shall no longer be regarded as criminals ^, but he knows ^ vir6SiKoi j 

that it is from the fear of God that we pay him obedience, j 

not for what is given by him. For as it is, on the view I 

that he confers great favours on you, whatever honour he \ 

receives, he still thinks he has not obtained all [that is due j 

to him] : but in the other case, though he obtain but a little, j 

he will account it a favour. He does not reproach [thee] ; '• 

nor will he be himself compelled to be over-reaching on thy 

[13.] For what is more unreasonable, than to provide '■ 

golden ornaments, to be worn in baths, and in market places ? ] 

However, in baths and in market places it is perhaps no i 

wonder [that they should be worn], but that a woman ! 

should come into Church so decked out is very ridiculous. I 

For for what possible reason does she come in here wear- '■ 

ing golden ornaments, she who ought to come in that she 
may hear [the precept] that they adorn not themselves with i xim. ' 

gold, nor pearls, nor costly array ? With what object then, "• ^- : 

O woman, dost thou come ? Is it indeed on the view of \ 

battling with Paul, and shewing that even if he repeat ] 

these things ten thousand times thou regardest them not ? 
Or is it from wishing to put us your teachers to shame as 
discoursing on these subjects in vain ? For tell me ; if any 
heathen or unbeliever, after he has heard the passage read 
where the blessed Paul says these things, having a believ- 
ing wife, sees that she makes much account of beautifying \ 

334 >S^. Paul disobeyed even in Church. Beauty of simplicity, 

HoM. 28. herself, and puts on ornaments of gold, that she may come 
publicly into Church and hear Paul solemnly charging [the 

1 Tim. ii. women] that they adorn themselves, neither with gold, nor 
with pearls, nor with costly array, will he not indeed say to 

1 Koirwvl- himself, when he sees her in her little room ^, putting on 
*^'^*' these things, and arranging them beautifully ; ' why is my 

^ wife staying within in her little room ? why is she so slow? 
' why is she putting on her golden ornaments ? where has 
' she to go to ? Into the Church ? For what purpose ? To 
'hear, not ivith costly array ;' will he not smile, will he not 
burst out into laughter ? will he not believe that our re- 

2 TO 71/j.e. ligion 2 is a mockery and a deceit ? Wherefore, I beseech 

[you], let us leave golden ornaments to processions, to 
^ra7s irpo- tlicatrcs, to shopwiudows ^. But let not the image of God 
tlh'iTrl ^^ decked out with these things : let the gentlewoman 
Twu ipya- bc adomcd with gentility, and gentility is the absence of 
(TT-npiccv pj,j(jg^ ^j^j Qf boastful display. 

Nay even if thou wish to obtain glory from men, thou 
wilt obtain it thus. For the wife of a man who is rich we 
shall not wonder at so much, when she wears gold and silk 
(for this is the common practice of them all), as when she 
is dressed in a plain and simple garment made merely of 
wool. This all will admire, this they will applaud. For 
in that adorning indeed of ornaments of gold and of costly 
apparel, she has many to share [the admiration] with her. 
And if she surpass one, she is surpassed by another ; Yea, 
even if she surpass all, she must yield the palm to the 
Empress herself. In this other case, however, she outdoes 
all, even the very wife of the Emperor. For she alone in 
the midst of wealth, has chosen the [dress] of the poor. 
So that even if we desire glory, here too the glory is greater. 
[14.] I say this not only to widows, even those that are 
rich ; for in that case the necessity of widow-hood seems 
to cause this : but to those also who are under [the au- 
thority of] a husband. 

' But, you say, I do not please my husband [if I dress 
' plainly] ,' It is not thy husband that thou wishest to 
please, but the multitude of poor women, or rather [thou 
dost] not [wish] to please them, but to make them pine 
[with envy] , and to give them pain, and make their poverty 

Pretext of dressing gaily to please a husband, exposed, 335 

greater. How many blasphemous speeches are uttered HE.xii.3. 
because of thee! 'Let there be no such thing as poverty^ 
(say they). ' God hates those that are become poor.' ' God 
* loves not those who are in poverty.' For that it is not thy 
husband whom thou wishest to please, nor for this cause 
that thou deckest thyself out, thou shewest plainly to all 
by what thou thyself doest. For as soon as thou hast 
passed over the threshold of thy chamber ^, thou immedi- ^ ea\dfiov 
ately puttest off all, both the robes, and the golden orna- 
ments, and the pearls; and at home of all places thou 
dost not wear them. 

But if thou really wishest to please thy husband, there 
are ways of pleasing him, by gentleness [I mean], by meek- 
ness, by propriety of conduct. For believe me, O woman, 
even if thy husband be infinitely debased in his habits ^, ^ kotox^c- 
these are the things which will more effectually win him, ^ 
gentleness, propriety, freedom from haughtiness and ex- 
pensiveness and extravagance. For as to the profligate, 
even if thou devise ten thousand such things, thou wilt 
not restrain him. And this they know who have had such 
husbands. For however thou mayest beautify thyself, he 
being a profligate will go off to a courtesan ; while [the 
husband] that is chaste and regular thou wilt gain not by 
these means, but by the opposite : yea by these thou even 
causest him pain, clothing thyself with the reputation of 
a lover of the world. For what if thy husband out of re- 
spect, and that as a sober-minded man, does not speak, yet 
in his heart he will condemn thee, and will not rid himself 
of ^ ill-will^ and feelings of jealousy. Wilt thou not drive ^ ^*[ ^*'"- 
away all pleasure for the future, by exciting ill-will against o-TeAei/oi 
thyself? ^<pe6i;ovs 

[15.] Possibly you are annoyed at hearing what I have (7) 
said, and are indignant, saying, 'He irritates husbands still 
' more against their wives.' It is not to irritate your hus- 
bands that I say this, but I wish that these things should 
be done by you of your own accord, for your own sakes, 
not for theirs ; [I say them] not to free them from envy, 
but to free you from the parade of this life. 

Dost thou wish to appear beautiful ? I also wish it, but 

with beauty such as God seeks for, which He the King Ps. xiv. 


336 The beauty which pleases God, and is permanent. 

HoM. 28. Qreatly desires. Whom wouldst thou have as a Lover? 

see Horn. Q^^ qj, ^q^ p shouldest thou be beautiful with that beauty, 
xiv. [8.] . , •' 

pp. 183, God will desire thy beauty ; but if with that other apart 

^^^' from this. He will abominate thee, and thy lovers will be 
profligates. For no man who loves a married woman is a 
good man. Consider this even in regard to the adorning 
that is external. For the other adorning, I mean that of 
the soul, attracts God ; but this, [attracts only] profligates. 
Seest thou that it is for you that I care, about you that I 
am anxious, that ye may be beautiful, really beautiful, 
splendid, really splendid, that, instead of profligate men, ye 
may have for your Lover God the Lord of all. And she 
who hath Him for her Lover, to whom will she be like? 
She has her place among the choirs of Angels. For if one 
who is beloved of a king is accounted happy above all, what 
will her dignity be who is beloved of God with much love ? 
Though thou put the world [in the balance against it], 
there is nothing that is equivalent to that beauty. 

This beauty then let us cultivate; with these embellish- 
ments let us adorn ourselves, that [so] we may pass into 
the Heavens, into the spiritual chambers, into the nuptial 
chamber that is undefiled. For as to this beauty, it is liable 
to be destroyed by any thing ; and when it lasts well, and 
neither disease nor anxiety impair it (which is impossible), 
it does not last for twenty years. But that other is ever 
blooming, ever in its prime. There, there is no change to 
fear; no old age approaching brings a wrinkle with it, no 
disease coming vehemently down withers it ; no desponding 
anxiety disfigures it ; but it is far above all these things. 
But as to this [earthly beauty], before it appears it takes 
flight, and if it appears it has not many admirers. For 
those of well-ordered minds do not, admire it ; and those 
who do admire it, admire with wantonness. 

[16.] Let us not therefore cultivate this [beauty], but 
that other : to that let us cleave, that with bright torches 
we may pass into the bridal chamber. For not to virgins 
only has this been promised, but to virgin souls. For had 
it been the [privileg«J of virgins absolutely, those five 
would not have been shut out. This then belongs to all 
who are virgins in soul, who have been freed from worldly 

The true Virgins, ready to be admitted to the Bridal, 337 

imaginations : for these imaginations corrupt our souls. If HE«xii.3. 
therefore we remain unpolluted, we shall depart thither, 
and shall be accepted. For I have espoused you, saith he, 2 Cor.xi. 
to one husband, to present you a chaste virgin unto Christ, ^' 
These things he said, not with reference to Virgins, but to 
the whole body of the entire Church. For the uncorrupt 
soul is a virgin, though she have a husband : she is a virgin 
as to that which is Virginity indeed, that which is worthy 
of admiration. For this of the body is but the accompani- 
ment and shadow of the other : while that is the True Vir- 
ginity. This let us cultivate, and so shall we be able with 
cheerful countenance to behold the Bridegroom, to enter 
in with our torches bright, if the oil should not fail us ; if 
by melting down our golden ornaments we procure such 
oil as makes our lamps bright. And this oil is kindness 
towards men. 

If we impart what we have to others, if we make oil there- 
from, then will it stand forth to protect us, and we shall 
not at that time say, Give us oil, for our lamps are going s. Matt. 
out, nor shall we beg of others, nor shall we be shut out when ^^^' ^* 
we are gone to them that sell, nor shall we hear that fear- 
ful and terrible voice, while we are knocking at the doors, 
/ know you not. But He will acknowledge us, and we shall ib. 12. 
go in with the Bridegroom, and having passed into the 
spiritual Bride-chamber we shall enjoy good things in- 

For if here the bride-chamber is so bright, the rooms so 
splendid, that none is weary of contemplating them, much 
more will it be so there. Heaven is the chamber ^, and ^ e6.Kafj.ot 
the bride-chamber ^ better than Heaven : into this shall we 2 yvfi((>i,y 
enter. But if the Bride-chamber is so beautiful, what will 
the Bridegroom be ? 

And why do I say, " Let us put away our golden orna- 
" ments, and impart to those that need }'' For if ye ought 
even to sell yourselves, if ye ought to become slaves instead 
of free women, that so ye might be enabled to be with that 
Bridegroom, to enjoy that Beauty, [nay] merely to look 
on that Countenance, ought you not with ready mind to 
welcome all things ? A king upon the earth we look at and 
admire, but when [we see] a king and a bridegroom both, 

VOL. VII. z 

338 Virgins awaiting the heavenly Bridegroom, 

HoM. 28. much more ought we to welcome him with eagerness. In 
very deed these things are a shadow, while those others are 
a reality. And a King and a Bridegroom in Heaven ! To 
be counted worthy also to go before Him with torches, and 
to be near Him, and to be ever with Him, what ought we 
not to do ? what should we not perform ? what should we 
not endure? Wherefore, I entreat you, let us conceive some 
desire for those blessings, let us long for that Bridegroom, 
let us be virgins as to the true Virginity. For it is the 
virginity of the soul which the Lord seeks after. With 
Eph. V. this let us enter into Heaven, not having spot, or wrinkle, 
^^' or any such thing ; that we may attain also to the good 

things which have been promised to us, of which may we 
all be partakers through the grace and mercy of Jesus 
Christ our Lord, with Whom to the Father together with 
the Holy Ghost, be glory power honour, now and ever, 
and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xii. 4 — 6. 

Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin. And 

ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you 

as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening 

of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of Him. For 

whom the Lord loveth, He chasteneth: and scour geth every 

son whom He receiveth ^. ^ or ac- 


There are two kinds of consolation, apparently opposed 
to one another, but yet contributing great strength each to 
the other ; both of which he has here put forward. The 
one, I mean, is, when we say that persons have suffered 
much : for the soul is greatly refreshed, when it has many 
witnesses of its own sufferings, and this was the very thing 
that he introduced above, saying, Call to mind the former supra x. 
days, in ivhich, after ye had been illuminated, ye endured a ' 
great fight of afflictions. The other is when we say, ' Thou 
hast suffered no great thing.' The former, when [the soul] 
has been exhausted refreshes it, and makes it recover 
breath : the latter, when it is becoming indolent and su- 
pine, turns it again ^ and pulls it down from its pride. Thus ^ l^^'^y^' 
in order that no pride may spring up in them from that turns, ' 
testimony [to their sufferings], see what he does. Ye have J^"^^^^'^ 
not yet (he says) resisted unto blood, combating against 
sin. And he did not at once go on with what follows, but 
after having shewn them all those who had stood [their 
ground] unto blood, and next brought in the glory of Christ, 
His sufferings % he then easily pursued his discourse. 

■^ rb Kavxvf^a tov Xpiarov to, Trad-fifxara, or " OUT glory— our boast— the suf- 
**ferings of Christ." 

z 2 

340 Afflictions are permitted by God to the righteous, 

HoM.29. This he says also in writing to the Corinthians, There hath 
1 Cor. X. ,^Q temptation taken you, hut such as is common to man, that 
is, small. For this is calculated to arouse and raise up the 
soul, when [I mean] it considers that it lias not reached the 
entire height [of trial], and encourages itself from the things 
which have already befallen it. 

What he means is this : Ye have not yet submitted to 
death ; your loss has extended only to money, to reputation, 
to being driven from place to place. Christ however shed 
His blood for you, while you have not [done it] even for 
yourselves. He contended for the Truth even unto death, 
fighting on your behalf; while ye have not yet entered 
upon dangers that threaten death. 

And ye have forgotten the exhortation. That is. And ye 
have slackened your hands, ye have become faint. [Ye have 
not yet, he said, resisted unto blood, combating against sin. 
iryfovaau Hcrc he indicates that sin is both very vigorous ^, and is 
itself armed. For the [expression] Ye have resisted [stood 
firm agai7ist^,is used with reference to those who stand [in 

[2.] Which (saith he) speaketh unto you as unto sons, 
My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor 
faint ivhen thou art rebuked of Him. He has drawn his 
encouragement from the facts themselves ; over and above 
he adds also that which is drawn from arguments, from 
this testimony. 

Faint not (saith he) when thou art rebuked of Him. It 
follows that these things are of God. For this too is no 
^rhroiav. small matter of consolation, when we come to know that it 
erivai is God's work that such things have power ^, He allowing 
2Cor.xii. [them], even as also Paul says ; He said unto me. My grace 
^' is sufficient for thee : for My strength is made perfect in 

weakness. He it is who allows [them]. 

For whom th'e Lord loveth He chasteneth, and scourgeth 
every son whom He receiveth. Thou canst not affirm that 
there is any righteous man without affliction : even if he 
appear to be so, yet we know not his other afflictions. So 
that of necessity evcKy righteous man must pass through 
affliction. For it is a declaration of Christ, that the wide 
and broad way leads to destruction, but the strait and nar- 

God chastises us as a Father j His true and dear children, 341 

row one to life. If then it is possible to enter into life by HE.xii.7. 
that means, and is not possible by any other, it follows that 
all have entered in by the narrow [way], as many as have 
departed unto life. 

ver. 7. Ye endure for chastisement^ ^ (he saith); not for ^ ^U irat- 
punishment, nor for vengeance, nor that we may [simply] ^""' 
suffer affliction. See, from those very things from which 
they supposed they had been deserted [of God], from these 
he says they may be confident, that they have not been de- 
serted. It is as if he had said. Because ye have suffered 
so many evils, do you suppose that God has left you and 
hates you ? If ye did not suffer, then it were right to 
suspect this. For if He scourgeth every son whom He re- 
ceiveth, he who is not scourged, perhaps is not a son. What 
then, you say, do not bad men suffer distress ? They suffer 
indeed, for how should they not ? He did not say. Every 
one who is scourged is a son, but every son is scourged. 
For in all cases He scourges His son : what is wanted then is 
to shew, whether any son is not scourged. But thouwouldest 
not be able to say : why, there are many wicked men also 
who are scourged, for instance. Murderers, Robbers, Sor- 
cerers, Plunderers of tombs. These however are paying the 
penalty of their own peculiar wickedness, and are not scour- 
ged as sons, but punished as being wicked : but ye as sons. 

[3.] Then next, [he] again [argues] from the general cus- 
tom. Thou seest how he brings up arguments from all 
quarters, from facts in the Scripture, from its words, from 
our own notions, from examples in ordinary life. ver. 8. 
But if ye be without chastisement [&c.] Thou seest that he (2) 
said what I just mentioned, that it is not possible to be a son 
without being chastened. For just as in families, fathers 
care not for bastards, though they learn nothing, though 
they be not distinguished, but fear for their legitimate sons, 
lest they should be indolent, [so here]. If then not to be 
chastised is [a mark] of bastards, we ought to rejoice at 
chastisem^t, if this be [a sign] of legitimacy. God dealeth 
with you as ivith sons ; for this very cause. 

^ €ts TToiSetav uTro/ieVerc is the read- Epistle. The later texts have the later 
ing of the best MSS. &c. of S. Chrys. reading et tt. vtt. 
as it is the approved reading of the 

342 Chastisements for our goodythatwemay be capable of blessings. 

HoM. 29. ver. 9. Furthermore, we have had fathers of our flesh which 
corrected us, and we gave them reverence. Again, [he rea- 
sons] from their own experiences, from what they themselves 
supra X. suffered. For as in that other place he says, Call to mind 
^^* the former days, so here also, God (he saith) dealeth with 

you as with sons, and ye could not say. We cannot bear it : 
yea, as ivith sons tenderly beloved. For if those others 
reverence i\\Q\v fathers of the flesh, how shall not you re- 
verence your heaA^enly Father ? 

However it is not from this alone, that the difference 
arises, nor from the persons, but also from the cause itself, 
and from the fact. For it is not on the same grounds that 
He and they inflict chastisement : but they [did it] with a 
view to what seemed good to them, that is, fulfilling [their 
own] pleasure oftentimes, and not in all cases looking to 
what was expedient. But here, it is not possible to say 
that. For not for any interest of His own does He do 
this, but for you, and for your benefit alone. They [did 
it] that ye might be useful to themselves also, yea often- 
times too without any reason ; but here there is nothing 
of this kind. Thou seest that this also brings consolation ? 
For we are most closely attached to those [earthly parents] j 
when we see that it is not for any interests of their own 
that they either command or advise us : but that their 
earnestness is, wholly and solely, on our account. For 
this is genuine love, and love in reality, when we are be- 
loved though we be of no use to him who loves us, [when 
he loves us] not that he may receive, but that he may 
impart. He chastens. He does every thing. He uses all 
diligence, that we may become capable of receiving His 
benefits, (ver. 10) For they verily (he saith) /or a few days 
chastened us according to what seemed [good'] to them, but 
He for our profit, that tve might be partakers of His holiness. 
What is, of His holiness ? It is, of His purity, so as to 
become worthy of Him, to the utmost of our capacity. He 
earnestly desires that ye may receive, and He does all in 
order that He may give you : do ye not earnestly endeavour 
Ps.xvi.2. that ye may receive ?^/ said unto the Lord (saith one) Thou 
art my Lord, for of my good things Thou hast no need. 
Furthermore, he saith, we have had fathers of our flesh 

Saints made glorious by afflictions, 343 

which corrected us and we gave them reverence : shall we . \ 
not much rather be in subjection to the Father of spirits, 
and live ? (To the Father of spirits, that is, either of spiri- 
tual gifts, or of prayers, or of the incorporeal powers.) If we 

die thus, then we shall live. For they indeed for a few days i 

chastened us according to lohat seemed \_good^ to them, for \ 

what seems is not always profitable, but He with a view to \ 

what is' profitable. ' 


[4.] It follows therefore that chastisement is profitable ; (3) ' 

that chastisement is a participation of holiness. Yea and j 

this in a very eminent degree : for when it casts out sloth, | 

and evil desire, and love of the things of this life, when it | 

makes the soul collected, when it causes us to condemn all ] 

things here (for this is [the character of] affliction), is it ; 

not holy ? does it not draw down the grace of the Spirit? ■ 

Let us consider the righteous, from what cause they all 
shone brightly forth. Was it not from affliction ? and, if 
you will, let us enumerate them from the first and from 

the very beginning: Abel, Noah himself; for it is not ;! 
possible that he who was the only one in that so great 

multitude of the wicked, should not be afflicted ; for it is ; 

said, iVbflA being ^owe. perfect in his generation, pleased Oen. vl. . 

God. For consider, I beseech you, if now, when we have ' i 

innumerable persons whose virtue we may emulate, fathers, j 
and children, and teachers, we are thus distressed, what 
must we suppose that he suffered, alone among so many ? 
But should I speak of the circumstances of that strange 
and wonderful rain ? or should I speak of Abraham, his 
wanderings coming one upon another, the carrying away of 

his wife, the dangers, the wars, the famines ? Should I ! 

speak of Isaac "", what fearful things he underwent, driven j 

from every place, and labouring in vain, and toiling for j 

others? Or of Jacob? for indeed to enumerate all his j 

[afflictions] is not necessary, but it is reasonable to bring ! 

c The common texts substitute rent inaccuracies of the text. But j 

Jacob for Isaac here, omitting the Mr. Field shews from other passages j 

following clause where Jacob is men- of S. Chrys. that he really means Isaac, \ 

tioned (as they also in the preceding baring in view Gen. xxvi. 18 — 22, 1 

sentence have "temptations" instead 27. | 

of " famines ") ; to correct the appa- j 

344 Elder saints afflicted, ive too : luxury the souVs ruin, 

HoM. 29. before you the testimony, which he himself [gave] when 
Gen. discom'sing with Pharoah ; Few and evil are my days, and 
they have not attained to the days of my fathers. Or should 
I speak of Joseph himself ? or of Moses? or of Joshua? or 
of David ? or of Elijah ? or of Samuel ? Or wouldest thou 
[that I speak] of all the prophets ? wilt thou not find that 
all these were made illustrious from their afflictions ? Tell 
me then, dost thou desire to become illustrious from ease 
and luxury ? but this would be impossible. 

Or should I speak of the Apostles ? Nay but they even 
went beyond all men [in sufferings]. Even Christ saith 
S.John this. In the world ye shall have tribulation. And again, Ye 
ib. 20. ' shall iveep and lament, but the world shall rejoice. And, 
S. Matt. Strait and narrow is the way '^ that leadeth unto life. The 
Lord of the way hath said, that it is narrow and strait ; and 
dost thou seek the broad [way] ? How is this not unreason- 
able? In consequence thou wilt not arrive at life, seeing 
thou goest another [way], but at destruction, for thou hast 
chosen the [path] which leads thither. 

Wouldst thou that I mention and bring before you those 
[that have lived] in luxury ? Let us ascend from the last 
to the first. The rich man who is burning in the furnace ; 
Phil. iii. the Jews who lived for the belly, whose god is their belly ; 
those who were ever seeking ease in the wilderness, were 
destroyed, as also those in Sodom, on account of their 
gluttony ; and those in the time of Noah, was it not because 
Ezek. they chose this soft and dissolute life ? For they luxuriated, 
it saith, in fulness of bread. It speaks of those in Sodom. 
But if fulness of bread wrought so great evil, what could 
we say of all other delicacies ? Esau, was not he in ease ? 
Gen. vi. And what of those who being of the sons of God, looked on 
women, and were carried down precipitately [to ruin] ? 
and what of those who were maddened by inordinate lust ? 
and all the kings of the nations, of the Babylonians, of the 
Egyptians, did they not come to an evil end ? Are they 
not in torment ? 

[5.] And as to things now, are they not of the same 
S.Matt. character? Hear Christ saying. They that wear soft cloth- 
ing are in kings' houses, but they who do not [wear] such 
^ S. Chrys. seems to have read this text without the words rj ttvXt]. 


xvi. 49. 


xi. 8. 

The demoralizing and enervating effects of luxury. 345 

things, are in Heaven. For the soft garment relaxes even 
the austere soul, breaks it and enervates it : yea, even if 
it meet with a body rough and hard, it speedily by such 
delicate treatment makes it soft and weak. 

For, tell me, from what other cause do you suppose it 
is, that women are so weak ? Is it from their sex only ? 
By no means : but from their way of living, and their bring- 
ing up.' For their avoiding exposure ^, their inactivity, heat," 
their baths, their unguents, their multitude of perfumes, a-Kiarpo- 
the delicate softness of their couches, makes them in the 
end such as they are. 

And that thou mayest understand [that it is so], attend 
to what I say. Tell me ; take from a garden only one of 
the trees that stand in the uncultivated^ part and are ,7/^ 
beaten by the winds, and plant it in a moist and shady "dry and 
place, and thou wilt find it very unworthy of that [stock] p^r""? 
from which thou didst originally take it. And that this 
is true, [appears from the fact that] women w^ho are brought 
up in the country are stronger than men who live in towns : 
and many such would they overcome in wrestling. For 
when the body becomes more effeminate, it follows of ne- 
cessity that the soul also shares the fruits of the evil, since, 
for the most part, the condition of its energies is in ac- 
cordance with that of [the body] . For in illnesses we are 
different persons owing to our bodily weakness, and when 
we become well, we are different again. For just as in the 
case of a string when the tones ^ are weak and relaxed, and ^ (po6yyoi 
not well stretched out, the excellence of the art is also de- 
stroyed, being obliged to subserve to the ill condition of 
the strings : so in the case of the body also, the soul re- 
ceives from it many hurts, many necessities *. For when '* «''<«7«« 
it needs much nursing, the other endures a bitter servitude. 
[6.] Wherefore, I beseech you, let us make it strong by 
work, and not nurse it as an invalid^. Not to men only ^votnixev. 
but to women also have I to address my discourse. For 
why dost thou, O woman, continually enfeeble ^ [thy body] 
wdth luxury and make it exhausted ^ ? Why dost thou ruin (4) 
thy strength with fat ? this fat is flabbiness not strength. 

e iKTTKvveis .... i^irrjXov lit. " washest out," and *' faded " as when colours 
are washed out of dresses. 

346 /// effects of luxury on beauty and on health, 

HoM. 29. Whereas, if thou break off from these things, and manage 
thyself in a different way, then will thy personal beauty also 
improve according to thy wish, when strength and a good 
habit of body are there. If however thou beset it with 
ten thousand diseases, then will there not be any bloom 
of complexion, nor good state of health. For thou wilt 
always be in low spirits. And you know that as when the 
air is smiling it makes a beautiful house look splendid, so 
cheerfulness of mind also when added to a fair countenance, 
makes it still better : but if [a woman] is in low spirits 
and in pain of any kind, she becomes more ill-looking. 
Low spirits however are produced by diseases and pains ; 
and diseases are produced from the body being made too 
delicate by your great luxury. So that even on this ac- 
count you will flee from luxury, if you take my advice. 

' But, you will say, luxurious living is attended with plea- 
' sure.' Yes, but not so great as the annoyances that attend 
it. And besides, the pleasure extends no further than the 
palate and the tongue. For when the table has been re- 
moved, or the food swallowed, thou wilt be like one that 
has not partaken [of it], or rather much worse, in that 
thou bearest thence heavy loads, and distention, and head- 
ache, and a sleep like death ; nay oftentimes too, sleepless- 
ness from repletion, and obstruction of the breathing, and 
, eructation. And thou heapest perhaps ten thousand im- 

precations on thy belly, when thou oughtest to curse thy 
immoderate eating. 

[7.] Let us not then fatten the body, but listen to Paul 

Rom. saying, Make not provision for the flesh, for lusts. Just as 

xiii. 14. if one should take food and throw it into a drain, so is he 

who throws it into his belly : or rather it is not so, but 

' 6>7oCe- much worse. For in the one case he uses ^ the drain with- 

'^"* out harm to himself: but in the latter the diseases which 

he generates besides are innumerable. For what nourishes 

is a sufficiency which also can be digested : whereas what 

is over and above our need, not only does not nourish, but 

even spoils the other. But no man sees these things, owing 

to a sort of prejudice a*id unseasonable pleasure. 

Dost thou wish to nourish thy body ? Take away what 
is superfluous ; give what is sufficient, and as much as can 

Excess in food, ruinous to body and soul. 347 i 

be digested. Do not load it, lest thou overwhelm it. A . I 

sufficiency is both nourishment and pleasure too. For ' 

nothing is so productive of pleasure^ as food well digested : 
nothing so [productive of] health : nothing [so productive of] | 

acuteness of the faculties, nothing tends so much to keep j 

away disease. For a sufficiency is both nourishment, and \ 

pleasure, and health ; but what is more than that is injury to 
the health, and unpleasantness and disease. For the same 
[evils] which famine produces, those also does repletion 
cause ; or rather, evils more grievous. For the former in- 
deed within a few days carries a man off and sets him free ; 
but the other eating into and putrefying the body, gives it 
over to long disease, and then to a most painful death. 
But we, while we account famine a thing greatly to be de- 
precated, yet run eagerly after repletion, which is more ' 
distressing than it. j 

Whence is this disease ? whence this madness ? I do not i 

say that we should waste ourselves away, but that we 
should take so much food as also gives us a pleasure, that \ 

is pleasure indeed ; and so much as can nourish the body, : 

and make it in good order for us, and well adapted for the 
energies of the soul, well joined and fitted together. But ^ ^ ] 

when it comes to be waterlogged ^ by luxury, it cannot ^^^J^""" ' 

when the flood-wave comes on, keep fast the very nails - ^ y6fi(povs ] 

themselves, as one may say, and joints which hold the | 

frame together. For the flood- wave coming in upon it j 

breaks up and scatters away the whole. \ 

Make not provision for the flesh (he says) /or lusts. He Rom. 
said well. For luxury is fuel for unreasonable lusts ; even '^"*' ^'^' \ 

should a luxurious person be the most philosophical of all i 

men, of necessity he must be somewhat affected by wine, ] 

by eating, he must needs be relaxed, he must needs make ^ 

the flame greater. Hence [come] fornications, hence adul- ; 

teries. For a hungry belly cannot generate lustful desire, I 

or rather that which has had just a sufficiency. But that , 

which generates unseemly lusts, is that which is relaxed ^ ^ yAa- ] 

by luxury. And just as land which is very moist and a^^g^and 
dung-hill which is thoroughly wetted and retains much soft" \ 

dampness, generates worms, while that which has been j 

freed from such moistness bears abundant fruits, when it \ 

348 Analogy of the earth when over-moist. 

HoM. 29. has nothing immoderate : even if it be not cultivated, it 
yields grass, and if it be cultivated, fruits : [so also do we.] 
Let us not then make our flesh useless, or unprofitable, 
or hurtful [to us], but let us plant in it useful fruits, and 
fruit-bearing trees ; let us not enfeeble them by luxury, for 
they too put forth worms instead of fruit when they are 
become rotten. So also implanted desire, if thou moisten 
it above measure, generates unreasonable pleasures, yea 
the most exceedingly unreasonable possible. Let us then 
by all means remove this pernicious evil, that we may be en- 
abled to attain to the good things which have been promised 
us in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the Father, to- 
gether with the Holy Spirit, be glory now and ever and 
world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xii. 11—13. 

No chastisement for the present seemeth to he joyous ^, but ^ofjoy 
grievous ^, 7ievertheless afterward it yieldeth the peace- ^ of grief 
able fruit of righteousness to them which have been exer- 
cised thereby. Wherefore lift up the hands which hang 
down, and the feeble knees : and make straight paths for 
your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the 
way, but let it rather be healed. 

They who drink bitter medicines, first submit to some 
unpleasantness, and afterwards feel the benefit. For of 
this character is virtue, of this is vice. In the latter there 
is first the pleasure, then the despondency: in the former 
first the despondency, and then the pleasure. But there is 
no equality between them. For it is not the same, to be 
first grieved and afterwards pleased, and to be first pleased 
and afterwards grieved. How so? because in the latter case 
the anticipation of the despondency that is to come makes 
the present pleasure less : but in the former the expectation 
of the pleasure to come cuts away the vehemency of the 
present despondency ; so that the result is that in the one 
instance we never have pleasure, in the latter we never 
have grief. And the difference does not lie in this respect 
only, but in others also. As how ? That the circumstances 
of duration are not equal, but the one is far greater and 
more ample [than the other]. And in this respect too, it 
is still more so in things spiritual. 

From this consideration then Paul attempts to console 
them ; and again takes up the universal judgment of men, 
for no one is able to stand against this ; nor to contend 

350 The fruits of chastisement sweet : encouragement therefrom. 

HoM. 30. with the common decision when one asserts that which is 
acknowledged by all. 

Ye are suffering, saith he. For such is chastisement; 
such is its beginning. For all chastisement for the present 
seemeth to be not of joy but of grief , Well said he, seemeth 
not. Chastisement he means is not grievous but seemeth so. 
All chastisement : not this and that, but all, both human 
and spiritual. Thou seest that he argues from our common 
notions ? seemeth (he saith) to he of grief , so that it is not 
[really so] . For what sort of grief is that which brings 
forth joy? Just as that is not pleasure which brings forth 

Nevertheless afterwards, it yieldeth the peaceable fruits 
of righteousness to them which have been exercised thereby. 

1 KapiTovs Not " fruit " but fruits ^, a great abundance. 

To them (saith he) which have been exercised thereby. 
What is to them which have been exercised thereby? to them 
that have endured for a long while, and been patient. And 

2 ev<p-i]fi<f he also made use of an expression of favourable sound ^. It 

follows that chastisement is exercise, making the athlete 
strong, and invincible in combats, irresistible in wars. 

If then all chastisement be of this character, this also 
will be such : so that we ought to look for good things, and 
for the end to be sweet and peaceful. And be not aston- 
ished if, being itself hard, it has sweet fruits ; since in trees 

3 ^.iroios also the bark is almost destitute of all quality ^, as it were, 

and rough ; but the fruits are sweet. But he took it from 
the common notion. If therefore we ought to look for such 
things, why do ye vex yourselves ? Why, after ye have 
endured the painful, are ye desponding as to the good ? The 
distasteful things which ye had to endure, ye endured : do 
not then be desponding as to the recompence. 

He speaks as to runners, and boxers, and warriors ^ 
Seest thou how 'he arms them, how he encourages them ? 
" Walk straight," saith he. Here he speaks with reference 
to their thoughts ; that is to say, not doubting. For if the 
chastisement be of love, if it begin from loving care, if it 

"These words refer to w. 13, lest that which is lame be turned out 

Wherefore lift up the hands which of the way, but let it rather be healed^ 

hang down, and the feeble knees, and which is inserted in the text of the 

make straight paths for your feet, common editions. 

Follow Peace with all men; holiness in marriage. 351 

end with a good result (and this he gives proof of, both by HE.xii.i4. 
facts and by words, and by all considerations), for what 
cause are ye dispirited ? For such are they who despair, 
who are not strengthened by the hope of the future. "Walk 
straight," saith he, that your lameness may not be increased, 
but brought back to its former condition. For he that runs 
when he is lame, galls the sore place. Thou seest that it is 
in our power to be thoroughly healed ? 

[2.] ver. 14!. Follow peace with all men, and holiness, luith- 
out which no man shall see the Lord. The very thing which 
be also said above. Not forsaking the assembling of yourselves supra x. 
together, this he hints at in this place also. For nothing 
so especially makes persons easily vanquished and subdued 
in temptations, as the being separated from each other. 
For, tell me. Separate a body of soldiers in war, and the 
enemy will not have need of any trouble at all, but will take 
them prisoners, coming on them separately, and so in this 
way the more helpless. 

Follow peace with all men, and holiness^ (saith he) [with nfication 
all men] . Therefore with the evil-doers as well ? If it be Rom. xii. 
possible, he says, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably luith 
all men. For thy part (he means) live peaceably, so long 
as thou dost no harm to religion : but in whatever respects 
thou art ill-treated, bear it nobly. For the bearing with 
evil is a great weapon in trials. Thus Christ also made 
His disciples strong by saying. Behold I send you forth S- Matt. 
as sheep in the midst of ivolves : be ye therefore wise as ser- 
pents, and harmless as doves. What dost Thou say ? are 
we among wolves, and dost Thou bid us to be as sheep, and 
as doves? Yea, saith He. For nothing so shames him that 
is doing us evil, as our bearing nobly the things which are 
brought upon us : and not avenging ourselves either by 
word or by deed. This both makes us ourselves more philo- 
sophical, and procures us a greater reward, and also benefits 
them [that wrong us]. But such an one has been insolent? 
Do thou bless [him]. See how much thou wilt gain from 
this : thou hast quenched the evil, thou hast procured to 
thyself a reward, thou hast made him ashamed, and thou 
hast thyself suffered nothing serious. 

[3.] Follow peace with all men, and holiness. What does 

352 All ought to try mutually to correct and edify each other, 

HoM. 30. he mean by holiness ^ ? chaste, and orderly living in mar- 

1 sanctifi- riage. If any person is unmarried (saith he) let him remain 
rxhes's^^ pure, let him marry: or if he be married, let him not com- 
iv. 3. &c. mit fornication, but let him live with his own wife : for 

this also is holiness. How ? Marriage is not holiness, but 
marriage preserves the holiness which [proceeds] from our 
Faith, not permitting a man to join himself to a harlot, 
infra xiii. For marriage is honourable, not holy. Marriage is pure : 
^- it does not however also give holiness, except by prevent- 

ing the defilement of that [holiness] which has been given 
by our Faith. 

Without ivhich (saith he) no man shall see the Lord. Which 
same thing he also says in the [epistle] to the Corinthians. 
\Cor.\\.Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor adulterers, nor 
^' ^^- idolaters, nor effeminate, nor defilers of themselves ivith man- 
kind, nor covetous persons, nor thieves, nor drunkards, nor 
revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God, 
For how shall he who has become the body of a harlot, 
how shall he be able to be the body of Christ ? 

2 imcKo. [4 J Looking diligently ^ lest any man come short of the 

grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble 

you, and thereby many be defiled: lest there be any fornicator 

or profane person. Dost thou see how every where he puts 

the common salvation into the hands of each individual? 

supra iii. l^ochorting one another daily (saith he) while it is called To- 

^^' day. Do not then cast all [the burden] on your teachers ; 

^ ' do not [cast] all upon them who have the rule over you : ye 

also (he means) are able to edify one another. Which also 

1 Thess. he said in writing to the Thessalonians, Edify ye one the 

Y' 11- other, even as also ye do. And again, Comfort one another 

* ivith these ivords. This advice we now also give to you. 

[5.] If ye be willing, ye will have more success with each 
other than we can have. For ye both are with one another 
for a longer time, and ye know more than we of each other^s 
affairs, and ye are not ignorant of each other's failings, and 
ye have more freedom of speech, and love, and intimacy ; 
and these are no smalK[advantages] for teaching, but great 
and opportune introductions for it: ye will be more able 
than we both to reprove and to exhort. And not this only. 

The having but one talent no excuse for not using it, 353 

but because I am but one, whereas ye are many ; and ye HE.xii.i6. 
will all be able, how many soever ye be, to be teachers. 
Wherefore I exhort you, do not neglect this gift. Each one i Tim. 
of you has a wife, has a friend, has a servant, has a neigh- ^^" * 
bour ; him let him reprove, him let him exhort. 

For how is it not absurd, with regard to [bodily] nourish- 
ment, to make associations for messing together, and for 
drinking together, and to have a set day whereon to club 
with one another, as they say, and to make up by means of 
the association what each person being alone by himself 
falls short of — as for instance, if it be necessary to go to a 
funeral, or to a dinner, or to assist a neighbour in any mat- 
ter — and not to do this for the purpose of instruction in 
virtue ? Yea, I entreat you, let no man neglect it. For 
great is the reward he receives from God. And that thou 
mayest understand^ he who had the five talents entrusted 
to him, is the teacher : and he who had the one [talent] is 
the learner. If the learner should say, I am a learner, I 
am in no risk, and should hide the reason ^, which he re- ' -rhv 
ceived of God, that common and simple [reason], and give in^u^'es 
no advice, should not speak plainly, should not rebuke, " word," 
should not admonish, if he is able, but should bury it in « Goe- 
the earth, for in very deed that heart is earth and ashes, trine." 
which hides the gift of God : if then he hides it either from 
indolence, or from wickedness, it will be no defence to him 
to say, ^ I had but one talent.' Thou hadst one talent. Thou 
oughtest then to have brought one besides, and to have 
doubled the talent. If thou hadst brought one in addition, 
thou wouldstnot have been blamed. For neither did He 
say to him who brought the two, Wherefore hast thou not 
brought five. But He accounted him worthy of the same 
[rewards] with him who brought the five. Why ? Because 
he gained as much as he had. And, because he had received 
fewer than he who had been entrusted with the five, he was 
not on this account negligent, nor did he use the smallness 
[of what was entrusted to him, as an excuse] for idleness. 
And thou oughtest not to have looked to him who had the 
two ; or rather, thou oughtest to have looked to him, and 
as he having two imitated him who had the five, so ought- 
est thou to have emulated him who had the two. For if 

VOL. VII. A a 

354 Keep thy brother from sin, by all means, 

HoM. 30. for him who has means and does not impart to others, there 
is punishment in store, how shall there not be the very 
greatest punishment for him who is able to advise and ex- 
hort in any way, aad does it not ? In the former case the 
body is nourished, in the latter the soul ; there thou pre- 
ventest the death that is temporal, here that which is 
(3) [6.] But I have no [skill of] speech ^, you say. But 

J x6yov there is no need of [skill of] speech nor of eloquence. If 
thou see thy friend about to be guilty of fornication, say 
to him. It is an evil thing which thou art going after ; art 
thou not ashamed? dost thou not blush? it is a wrong thing. 
'Why, does he not know (you say) that it is wrong ? ' Yes, 
[he knows it], but he is dragged on by his lust. They that 
are sick also know that it is bad to drink cold water, never- 
theless they need persons who shall hinder [them from it] . 
For he who is actually sufferingj will not easily be able to 
help himself in his sickness. There is need therefore of 
thee who art in health, in order to [forward] his cure. And 
if he be not persuaded by thy words, watch for him as he 
goes away, and hold him fast ; Peradventure he will be 

'And what advantage is it (you say), when he does this 
' for my sake, and because he has, been held back by me ? ' 
Do not be too minute in thy calculations. For a while, by 
whatever means thou canst, withdraw him from his evil 
practice ; let him be accustomed not to go off to that pit 
[of destruction], whether through thee, or by any other 
means whatever. When thou hast accustomed him. not to 
go, then by taking him after he has gained breath a little 
thou wilt be able to teach him, that he ought to do this 
for God^s sake, and not for man's. , Do not wish to make 
all right at once, since thou wilt not be able : but do it 
gently and by degrees. 

If thou see him going off to drinking, or to parties where 
there is nothing but drunkenness, in this instance [also] do 
the same ; and again on the other hand intreat him, if he 
observe that thou has^ any failing, to help thee and set 
thee right. For in this way, he will even of himself, bear 
reproof, when he sees both that thou needest reproofs as 

Gentleness of surgeons our ensample : pains of reproof , 355 

well, and that thou helpest him, not as one that had done HE.xii.i6. 
every thing right, nor as a master, but as a friend and a 
brother. Say to him, I have done thee a service, in remind- 
ing thee of things expedient [for thee] : do thou also, what- 
ever failing thou seest me have, pull me up \ set me right. ^ """xa^- 
If thou see me irritable, if avaricious, restrain me, bind me 
by exhortation. 

This is friendship ; thus brother aided by brother becomes Proy. 
a fortified city. For it is not eating and drinking which 
makes friendship : such friendshijD even robbers have and 
murderers. But if we are friends, if indeed we have a regard 
for one another, let us in these respects contribute to help 
one another. This leads us to a friendship that is profit- 
able : those things let us hinder which lead to Hell. 

[7.] Wherefore neither let him that is reproved be in- 
dignant : for we are men and we have failings ; nor let him 
who reproves do it as laughing over him and making a 
display, but privately, with gentleness. He that reproves 
has need of greater gentleness, that thus he may persuade 
[them] to bear the cutting. Do you not see surgeons, 
when they burn, when they cut, with how great gentleness 
do they apply their treatment? much more ought those 
who reprove others to act thus. For reproof is sharper 
even than fire and knife, and makes [men] start. On this 
account surgeons take great pains to make them bear the 
cutting quietly, and apply it as tenderly as possible, even 
giving in ^ a little, then giving time to take breath. s/''^'" 

So ought we also to offer reproofs, that they who are 
reproved may not start away. Even if then it be neces- 
sary to bear to be insulted, yea even to be struck, let us 
not decline it. For those also who are cut [by the sur- 
geons] utter numberless cries against those who are cutting 
them ; they however heed none of these things, but [look] 
merely to the health of the patients. So indeed in this 
case also we ought to do all things that our reproof may 
be effectual, to bear all things, looking to the reward which 
is in store. 

Bear- ye one another's burdens, saith he, and so fulfil the 
law of Christ, In this way then, both by reproving and 
bearing with one another, shall we be able to complete our 

A a 2 

356 Bear one another's burdens, help one another's salvation, 

Horn. 30. edifying [one another] . And thus will ye make the labour 
light for us, in all things taking a part with us, and stretch- 
ing out a hand, and becoming sharers and partakers, both 
in each other's salvation, and each one in his own. Let 
us then endure patiently, both in bearing one another's 
burdens, and in reproving : that we may attain to the good 
things promised in Christ Jesus our Lord, with Whom to 
the Father and also to the Holy Ghost, be glory might 
honour, now and for ever and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xii. 14. 

Follow peace with all men, and holiness'^ without which no ^ or, the 
one shall see the Lord. Tation' 

Many things there are which are characteristic of Chris- 
tianity : but more than all, and better than all. Love towards 
each other, and Peace. For this cause Christ also saith, 
My peace I give unto you. And again, By this shall all ^-^ohn 
men know that ye ay^e My disciples, if ye love one another. ^^^ xiii. 
For this cause Paul too saith. Follow peace with all men, 35. 
and holiness, that is, purity % without which no man shall 
see the Lord. 

Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace of God, 
Just as if they were travelling together on some long jour- 
ney, in a large company, he says. Take heed that no man 
be left behind: I do not seek this only, that ye should 
arrive yourselves, but also that ye should look diligently 
after the others. 

Lest any man (he saith) fail of the grace of God. (He 
means the good things to come, the faith of the gospel, 
the most excellent course of life : for they all are of the 
Grace of God.) Do not tell me, It is [but] one that 
perisheth. Even for one Christ died. Hast thou no care 
for him /or whom Christ died? ^.9^''- 

Looking diligently, he saith, that is, searching carefully, ^"'- ^^' 
considering, thoroughly ascertaining, as is done in the case 
of sick persons, and in all ways examining: thoroughly 

" (TefivSr-nra, properly a disposition other places) chastity, see Horn. xxx. 
and conduct which creates respect or [3.] , above p. 352. 
reverence : so specially (here as in i 

358 Root of bitterness. Profaneness of Esau. 

HoM. 31. ascertaining, lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble 

Deut. you (This [expression] is found in Deuteronomy; and 

XXIX. 18. j^g derived it from the metaphor of plants. Lest any root 

of bitterness, he saith) ; which he said also in another place 

1 Cor. V. when he writes, A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump, 

^' Not for his sake alone do I wish this, he means, but also 

on account of the harm arising therefrom. That is to say, 

even if there be a root of this kind, do not suffer any shoot 

to come up, but let it be cut off, that it may not bear its 

proper fruits, that so it may not defile and pollute the 

others also. For he saith. Lest any root of bitterness 

springing up trouble you ; and by it many be defiled. 

And with good reason did he call sin bitter : for in very 
deed nothing is more bitter than sin, and they know it, who 
after they have committed it pine away from [the working 
of] their conscience, who endure much bitterness. For 
being exceedingly bitter, it perverts even the very reason- 
ing faculty itself. Such is the nature of what is bitter : it 
is unprofitable. 

And well said he, root of bitterness. He said not, ^'bitter, ^^ 
but of bitterness. For it is possible that a bitter root 
might bear sweet fruits ; but it is not possible that a root 
and fountain and foundation of bitterness, should ever bear 
sweet fruit. For [in this case] all things are bitter, they 
have nothing sweet, all are bitter, all unpleasant, all full of 
hatred and abomination. 

And by this (he saith) many be defiled. That is, Cut 
away the lascivious persons. 

[2.] ver. 16. Lest there be any fornicator : or profane 
person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birth- 
^ irpwTo- rights^. 

1i^l^_ And wherein was Esau d^ fornicator ? He does not say 

right that Esau was a fornicator. Lest there be any fornicator 

^ges ^^ says, then, follow after holiness : lest there be any, as 

Esau, profane ; that is, gluttonous, without self-control, 

worldly, selling away things spiritual. 

Who for one morsel of meat sold his birthrights, that is, 
who on account of his own slothfulness sold this honour 
which he had from God, and for a little pleasure, lost the 
greatest honour and glory. This [he said] as exactly suit- 

The sorrow of Esau was not real repentance, 359 

able to their case. This [was the conduct] of an abominable, HE.xii.i7 « 

of an unclean person. So that not only is the fornicator 

unclean, but also the glutton, the slave of his belly. For 

he also is a slave [though] of a different pleasure. He is 

forced to be overreaching, he is forced to be rapacious, to 

behave himself unseemly in ten thousand ways, being the I 

slave of that passion. And oftentimes too does he blaspheme. ! 

In this" way he accounted his birthright privileges to be 

nothing worth. That is, providing for temporary refresh- i 

ment, he went even to the [sacrifice of his] birthrights, .j 

So henceforth the birthright belongs to us, not to the Jews. I 

And at the same time also this is added to their calamity, | 

that the first is become last, and the second, first : the one, j 

for courageous endurance ; this other last for indolence. . 

[3.] ver. 17. For ye know (saith he) how that afterwards^ ! 

when he would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected. 
For he found no place of repentance, though he sought it ! 

carefully with tears. What now is this ? doth he indeed ex- (2) ' 

elude repentance ? By no means. ^ But how, you say, was 
'it that he found no place of repentance?^ For if he con- 
demned himself, if he made a great wailing, why did he find \ 
noplace of repentance ? Because it was not really a case of ' 
repentance. For just as the grief of Cain was not of re- \ 
pentance, and the murder proved it ; so also in this case, his \ 
words were not those of repentance, and the murder after- 
wards proved it. For even he also in purpose of mind slew 
Jacob. For Let the days of mourning for my father, he saith. Gen. 
come, and Iiuill slay my brother Jacob, His tears had not ^^^"- ^^• 
power to give him repentance. And [the Apostle] did not 
say "by repentance^^ simply, but even with tears, he found 
noplace of repentance. Why now? Because he did not re- 
pent in the manner in which he ought, for this is repent- ] 
ance, he repented not as it behoved him. 

For how is it that he [the Apostle] came to say this ? how i 

did he exhort them again after they had become sluggish ? supra vi. j 

how, when they were become layne ; how, when they were g^pj.^ j 

paralysed^ ? how, when they were relaxed^? for this is the yen 13. ■ 

beginning of a fall. He seems to me to glance at some * * ; 

amongst them who were fornicators, but not to wish at \ 

*» [TTapaKvOivras . . . irapiifxivovs, as in ver. 12.] i 

360 Esau's sorrow. S. Peter^s Repentance, 

HoM. 31. that time openly to reprove them : but feigns ignorance 

that they might correct themselves. For it is right at first 

indeed to pretend ignorance : but afterwards^ when they 

continue [in sin], then to add reproof also, that so they may 

not become utterly shameless. Which very thing Moses 

also did in the case of Zimri and the daughter of Cosbi. 

^fidCova For he found (saith he) no place of repentance, he found 

mitted ^^^ repentance; or that he sinned beyond^ repentance. 

sins too There are then sins too great for repentance. His meaning 

Kpent-*'*^ is. Let us not fall by a fall that is incurable. So long as the 

aiice" matter is [one of] lameness, it is easy to become upright: 

but if we turn out of the way, what will be left ? For it is 

to those who have not yet fallen that he thus discourses, 

striking them with terror, and says that it is not possible 

for him who is fallen, to obtain consolation ; but to those 

who have fallen, that they may not fall into despair, he 

Gal. iv. says the contrary, speaking thus. My little children, of 

^^- ivhoni I again travail in hirth, until Christ be formed in you. 

ib. V. 4. And again. Whosoever of you are justified by the Law, are 

fallen from Grace. Lo ! he testifies that they had fallen 

away. For he that standeth, hearing that it is not possible 

to obtain pardon after having fallen, will be more earnest, 

and more cautious about his standing : if however thou use 

the same severity towards one also who is fallen, he will 

never rise again. For what hope will he have to shew forth 

the change ? 

But he not only wept'(you say), but also sought earnestly. 
He does not then exclude repentance; but makes them 
careful, that they may not fall. 

[4.] As many then as do not believe there is a Hell, let 
them call these things to mind : as many as think to sin 
without being punished, let them take account of these 
things. Why did Esau not obtain pardon ? Because he 
(3) repented not as he ought. Wouldest thou see perfect peni- 
tence ? Hear of the repentance of Peter after his denial. 
For the Evangelist in relating to us the things concerning 
S. Matt, him, says. And he went out and ivept bitterly. For this 
xxn. 75. cause even such a sin as that was forgiven him, because he 
repented in the manner he ought. Although the Victim 

Instances and signs of false and true Repentance, 361 

had not yet been offered, nor had The Sacrifice as yet been HE.xii.i7. 
made, nor was sin as yet taken away, it still had the rule 
and sovereignty. 

And that thou mayest learn, that this denial [arose] not 
so much from sloth, as from his being forsaken of God, who 
was teaching him to know the measures of human [power], 
and not to contradict what was said by his Master, nor to 
be more highminded than the rest, but to know that it is 
not possible that anything should be done without God, 
and that Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vain Ps. 
ivho build it : for on this account also Christ said to him 
alone, Satan desired to sift thee as laheat, and I allowed it s. Luke 
not, that thy faith may not fail. For inasmuch as it was 32" ' 
likely that he would be high-minded, as being conscious to 
himself that he loved Christ more than they all, for this 
cause he wept bitterly. And the rest that he did after his 
weeping is of the same character. For what did he not do ? 
After this he exposes himself to dangers innumerable, and 
by many means evinces his courage and presence of mind. 

Judas also rej^ented, but in an evil way : for he hanged 
himself. Esau too repented, as I said ; or rather, he did 
not even repent ; for his tears were not [tears] of repent- 
ance, but rather of pride and wrath. And this was proved 
by what followed. The blessed David repented, thus say- 
ing, Every night will I wash my bed: Twill water my couch Ps. vi. 6. 
with my tears. And the sin which had been committed 
long ago, after so many years, after so many generations he 
bewailed, as if it had recently occurred. 

[5.] For he who is penitent ought not to be angry, nor 
to be fierce, but to be contrite, as a condemned person, as 
not having boldness of speech, as one on whom sentence 
has been passed, as one who ought to be saved by mercy 
alone, as one who has shewn himself ungrateful toward 
his Benefactor, as unthankful, as reprobate, as worthy of 
punishments innumerable. If he considers these things, 
he will not be angry, he will not be indignant, but will 
mourn, will weep, will sigh, and will lament night and day. 

He that is penitent ought never at any time to hand over 
his sin to oblivion, but on the one hand to beseech God 
not to remember it, while on the other he himself never at 

362 Knowledge, Confession^remembrance of sins necessary , 

HoM. 31. any time forgets it. If we remember it, God will forget it. 
Let us exact punishment from our own selves ; let us accuse 
our own selves ; thus shall we propitiate the Judge. For 
sin when confessed becomes less, but not confessed [be- 
comes] worse. For if sin add to itself shamelessness and 
ingratitude, how will he be at all able to guard himself 
from again falling into the same [evils], who does not know 
that he "sinned the first time ? 

Let us then not deny [our sins], I beseech you, nor be 
shameless [about them], that we may not have to suffer 
punishment even against our will. Cain heard God say. 

Gen. iy. Where is Abel thy brother? And he saith^l know not; am 
I my brother's keeper ? Thou seest how this made his sin 
the more grievous ? But his father did not act thus. What 

ib. iii. 9. then ? When he heard, Adam, where art thou ? he saith, 

ib. 10. / heard Thy voice, and I ivas afraid, because I am naked, 
and I hid myself, A great good it is to acknowledge our 
sins, and to bear them in mind continually. Nothing so 
effectually cures a fault, as a continual remembrance of it. 
Nothing makes a man so slow to wickedness. 

[6.] I know that conscience starts back, and endures 
not to be scourged by the remembrance of evil deeds ; but 
do thou hold tight thy soul and place a halter on it. For 

' ^v(TT]vios just like a horse ill broken in \ so does it bear impatiently 
[what is put upon it], and is unwilling to persuade itself that 

2 ffaravi- it has sinncd : all this however is the work of Satan ^. But 
for ourselves let us persuade it that it has sinned ; let us 
persuade it that it has sinned, that it may also repent, in 
order that having repented it may escape torment. How 
dost thou claim to obtain pardon for thy sins, tell me, when 
thou hast not yet confessed them ? assuredly he is an object 
of compassion and kindness that hath sinned. But thou 
who hast not yet persuaded thyself [that thou hast sinned] ^ 
how dost thou claim to be pitied, when thou art thus with- 

3 e'TriTtVtj/ out shame for some things^? 

Let us persuade ourselves that we have sinned. Let us 

say it not with the tongue only, but also with the mind. 

Let us not call ourselves sinners, but also count over our 

kot' ei- sinful deeds, going over them each specifically *. I do not 

above p. Say to thee. Make a parade of thyself, nor accuse thyself 


Our sins will be exposed before all men at the Last Day, 363 

before others : but [I tell thee] to be persuaded by the pro- HE.xii.i7 . 
phet when he saith. Reveal thy ivay unto the Lord. Confess Ps.xxxvii. 
these things before God. Confess before the Judge thy ^' 
sins with prayer ; if not with tongue, at least in memory, 
and thus earnestly beg to find mercy. 

If thou keep thy sins continually in thy remembrance, 
thou wilt never bear in mind any wrongs done thee by thy 
neighbour. I do not say, if thou art persuaded that thou 
art thyself a sinner ; This does not avail so to humble the 
soul, as do our sins [taken] themselves by themselves, and 
examined specifically^. Thou wilt have no remembrance ^kot' 
of wrongs [done thee], if thou hast these things continually ^ 
in remembrance ; thou wilt feel no anger, thou wilt revile 
no man, thou Avilt have no high thoughts, thou wilt not be 
again involved in the same [sins], thou wilt be more vehe- 
ment towards what is good. 

[7.] Thou seest how many excellent [effects] are pro- (4) 
duced from the remembrance of our sins ? Let us then 
write them in our minds. I know that the soul does not 
endure a recollection which is so bitter : but let us con- 
strain and force it. It is better that it should be gnawed 
with the remembrance now, than at that time with the 

Now, if thou remember them, and continually present seep.210. 
them before God, and pray for them, thou wilt speedily 
blot them out; but if thou forget them now, thou wilt 
then be reminded of them even against thy will, when they 
are brought out publicly before the whole world, displayed 
before all, both friends and enemies, and Angels. For surely 
He did not say to David only. What thou didst secretly, /2 Sam. 
will make manifest to all, but even to us all. Thou wert 
afraid of men (saith he) and respected them more than 
God ; and when God was seeing thee thou caredst not, but 
wert ashamed before men. For it saith % " the eyes of men, 
^* this is their fear.^^ For this cause thou shalt suffer pun- 
ishment in that very point; for I will reprove thee, setting 
thy sins before the eyes of all. For that this is true, and 
that in that day the sins of us all are [to be] publicly dis- 

^ This seems to be alleged as a citation from Holy Scripture, but it does 
not appear what passage S. Chrysostom had in view. 

364 Virgins : talents. The hopeless misery of the condemned, 

HoM. 31. played, unless we now do them away by continual remem- 
brance, hear how cruelty and inhumanity are publicly ex- 

S. Matt, posed, I was an hungred (saith He) and ye gave Me no meat. 

I'JJira^a- ^^^^ ^^^ thcsc things said ? Is it in a corner ? Is it in a 

^lio-Tw secret place ^ ? By no means. When then ? When the Son 

lb. 31, 32. Qfj^j^d^ ig f.Q^^^ i^ jjig glory, and all the nations are gathered 
together, when He has separated the one from the other, 

ib. 33. then will He speak in the audience of all, and will set them 
on His right hand and on His left: I was an hungred and 
ye gave Me no meat. 

See again the five virgins also, hearing in the presence 

ib. 12. of all, / know you not. For the five and five do not inti- 
mate the number of five only, but those virgins who are 
wicked and cruel and inhuman, and those too who are not 
such. So also he that had buried his one talent, heard in 
the presence of all, even of those who had brought the 

ib. 26. five and the two. Thou wicked and slothful servant. But 
not by words alone but by deeds also does He then convict 

S. John them : even as the Evangelist also saith, They shall look 
on [Him'] whom they pierced. For the resurrection shall be 
of all at the same time, both of sinners and of the right- 
eous. At the same time shall He be present to all in the 

[8.] Consider therefore who they are who shall then be 
in dismay, who in grief, who dragged away to the fire, 

S. Matt, whilst the others are crowned. Come (He saith), ye blessed 
of My Father, inherit the kingdom which hath been pre- 
pared for you from the foundation of the world. And again, 

ib. 41. Depart from Me into the fire which hath been prepared for 
the devil and his angels. 

Let us not merely hear the words but depict them also 
before our sight, and let us imagine Him to be now present 
and saying these things, and that we are led away to that 
fire. What heart -shall we have? what consolation? And 
what, when we are cut asunder ? and what when we are 
accused of rapacity ? what excuse shall we have to utter? 
what specious argument? Not any: but of necessity 
bound with chains, bendijig down, must we be dragged to 
the mouths of the furnace, to the river of fire, to the dark- 
ness, to the never-dying punishments, and must not entreat 

None then to aid : now we may amend, 365 

any one [to help us]. For it is not, it is not possible, it HE.xii.17. 
saith, to pass across from this side to that : for there is a s. Luke 
great gulf betwixt us and you, and it is not possible even ^^^' ^^' 
for those who wish it to go across, and stretch out a helping 
hand : but we must needs burn continually, there being 
no one to aid us, even should it be father or mother, or 
any whosoever, yea though he have much boldness toward 
God. For, it says, A brother doth not redeem ; shall man Ps. xilx. 
redeem ? ^' 

Since then it is not possible to have one's hopes of sal- 
vation in another, but [it must be] in one's self after the 
loving kindness of God, let us do all things, I entreat you^ 
so that our conduct may be pure, and our course of life the 
best, and that we may not incur any stain even from the 
beginning. But if we have incurred it, at all events let 
us not sleep after the stain, but continue always washing 
away the pollution by penitence, by tears, by prayers, by ^ , 
works of mercy. avvw 

What then, you say, if I have it not in my power to do ^P^aCeo-- 
works of mercy ^ ? But thou hast a cup of cold water, s. Matt, 
however poor thou art. But thou hast two mites, in how- ^" f^* , 
ever deep poverty thou art ; but thou hast feet, so as to xii. 42. 
go to visit the sick, so as to enter into a prison ; but thou 
hast a roof, so as to receive strangers. For there is no 
pardon, no not any for him who does not perform works 
of mercy. 

These things we say to you continually, that we may 
effect if it be but a little by the continued repetition : these 
things we say, not caring so much for those who receive 
the benefits, as for yourselves. For ye give to them indeed 
things here, but in return you receive heavenly things : 
which may we all obtain, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with 
whom to the Father, together with the Holy Ghost, be 
glory, now and ever, and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xii. 18—24. 

1 that not 
a word 
should he 
spoken to 


cf. Deut. 
xxxiii. 2. 

For ye are not come unto a fire ^ that might be touched 
and that burned, and unto blackness, and darkness, and 
tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of 
ivords, which voice theij that heard entreated that the 
word should not be spoken to them any more ^. (For 
they could not endure that which was commanded. And 
if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be 
stoned. And, so terrible ivas the sight, that Moses said, 
I exceedingly fear and quake.) But ye are come unto 
Mount Sion, and unto the city of the Living God, the 
Heavenly Jerusalem ; and to myriads of Angels, in festive 
gathering^, and to the Church of the first-born which 
have been enrolled in Heaven; and to God the Judge of 
all; and to the spirits of just men made perfect : and to 
Jesus the Mediator of the New Covenant: and to the 
blood of sprinkling that speaketh better things than ^ Abel, 

Wonderful indeed were the things in the Temple, 
the Holy of Holies ; and again awful were these things also 
that were done at Mount Sina, the fire, the darkness, the 
blackness, the tempest. For, it says, God appeared in Sina, 
and long ago were all these things celebrated '^. The New 
Covenant however, was not given with any of these things, 
but has been givien in simple discourse by God ^. 

See then how he makes the comparison in these points 

"■ vp€i is omitted in Mr. Field's text millium angelorum frequentiam, et 

as by some critical editors of the New 
Test. It is not referred to by S. Chrys. 
^ iravriyvpei. See below p. 367. 
This word is connected with the pre- 
ceding jxvpiaa-iv ayyekwv by S. Chrys. 
as appears from his interpretation. So 
the Latin Vvilgate has et multorum 

ecclesiam primitivorum 8fc. 

'^ TJdero. e.g. Ps. xviii, Ixviii. Habak. 
iii. as well as Exod. xix. 

•* Trapo Oeou. The reading- of the 
common edition is Xpio-rov : which 
was that of Mutianus. 

Contrast as to the circumstances of giving the old Covenant. 367 

also. And with good reason has he put them after [the HE.xii.24 . 
other] . For when he had persuaded them by [arguments] 
innumerable^ when he had also shewn the wide difference 
between the covenants, then afterwards, the one having 
been already condemned, he easily enters on these points 

And what says he ? For ye are not come unto afire which 
might be touched, and that burned, and unto blackness, and 
darkness, and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and the 
voice of words ; which they that heard entreated that the 
word should not be spoken to them any more. 

These things, he means^ are terrible ; and so terrible that 
they could not even bear to hear them, that not even a 
beast dared to go up ; (But they are not such as the things 
that come hereafter ^. For what is Sina to Heaven ? And ^ '^^i^^'^«- 


what the fire ivhich might be touched to God who cannot 
be touched? for God is a consuming fire.) [They were '"q'*^ ^®^* 
terrible;] for it is said. Let not God speak, but let Moses Exod.xx. 
speak unto us. And so fearful was that which was com- 
inanded. Though even a beast touch the mountain, it shall be 
stoned ; Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake. What 
wonder as respects the people ? he himself who entered 
into the thick djurkness where God was, saith, / exceed- lb. 21. 
ingly fear and quake. 

[2.] But ye are come unto Mowit Sion and to the city 
of the Living God, the heavenly Jerusalem: and to myinads 
of angels in festive gathering, and to the Church of the first- 
born which have been enrolled in Heaven, and to God the 
Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, and 
to Jesus the Mediator of the Neiv Covenant, and to the blood 
of sprinkling, that speaketh better [things] than Abel. 

Instead of Moses, there is Jesus. Instead of the people, 
myriads of angels. 

Of what first-born does he speak ? Of the faithful. 

And to the spirits of just men made perfect. With these 
shall ye be, he means. 

And to Jesus the mediator of the New Covenant, and to 
the blood of sprinkling that speaketh better [things'] in com- 
parison of Abel. Did then the [blood] of Abel speak? 
Yea, he saith, and by it he being dead yet speaketh. And ^^P^^ xi. 


368 The Darkness, the Trumpet, the Smoke, the Tempest, 

HoM.32. again God saith, The voice of ihij brother^ s blood crieth unto 
Gen. iv. ^^^ Either this latter [is the meaning] or that [former] ; 
because it is still even now celebrated : but not in such 
way as that of Christ. For this has cleansed all men, and 
sends forth a voice more clear and more distinct, in pro- 
portion as the testimony it has is greater, namely that by 

ver. 25 — 29. Take heed that ye refuse not Him that speaks 
1 xpwo" eth. Fo7' if they escaped not, who refused him that spake ^ 
Vhatmade on earth, much more shall not we escape, if loe turn away 
a reveln- from Him that speaketh from Heaven. Whose voice then 

tion : see -t «/ 

above shook the earth: but now hath He promised, saying, Yet 
p. 264. Q^^^ more I shake not the Earth only, but also Heaven. 
And this ywordl, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of 
those things that are shaken, as of things which have been 
made, that those ivhich cannot be shaken may remain. 
Wherefore we receiving a Kingdom ivhich cannot be moved, 
let us have grace whereby we serve God acceptably ivith 
reverence and godly fear. For our God is a consuming 

[3.] Fearful were those other things, but far more ad- 
mirable and more glorious are these. For here there is not 
darkness, nor blackness, nor tempest. It seems to me that 
by those words he hints at the obscurity of the Old [Testa- 
^Tbcrwe- jjigj^^]^ and the overshadowed and veiled" character of the 
vovKoi Law. And besides, the Giver of the Law in fire appears 
Au^"Iw terrible, and apt to punish those who transgress. 

(2) But what are the sounds of the trumpet ? Probably it is 

as though some King were coming. This at all events will 

1 Cor. XV. also be at the Second Coming. At the last trump we 

must all be raised. But it is the trumpet of His voice 

which effects this. At that time then all [the things] 

were objects of sense, and sights, and sounds ; now all are 

objects of the understanding, and invisible, 

SeeExod. And, it says, there ivas much smoke. ■ For since God is 

xix. 18. grj^j(j ^Q ijg ^^.Q^ and thus appeared in the bush. He indicates 

the fire even by the smoke. And what is the blackness 

and the darkness ? ^e again expresses its fearfulness. 

Is. vi. 4. Thus Isaiah also says : And the house was filled with smoke. 

And what is the object of the tempest? The human kind 

Voice to them through darkness, to us through veil of flesh. 369 

were indolent. It was therefore needful that they should HE.xii.i9. 
be thoroughly aroused by these things. For no one [was] 
so dull as not to have had his thoughts [raised] up, when 
these thinsrs were done, and promulgated as the Law ^. vofxoB^. 

Moses spake, and God answered him by a Voice ® ; for it Exod. 
was necessary that the Voice of God should be uttered. ^^* 
Inasmuch as He was about to promulgate His Law through 
Moses, on this account He makes him worthy of confidence. 
They saw him not, because of the thick darkness: they heard 
him not, because of the weakness of his voice. What 
then ? God answered by a voice, [as it were] addressing an 
assembled multitude ^ : yea and his name shall be called K " ^-np-riyo- 

They entreated (he saith) that the iv or d should not bezu^atnot 
spoken to them any more ^. " ^^''^ 

From the first therefore they were themselves the cause should be 
of God's being manifested through the Flesh ^. Let Moses ff«^^'* ^« 

o o them. 

speak with us, it is said, and Let not God speak with us. ib.xx. 19. 
They who make comparisons elevate the one side the more, ^ ^^^^yai 
that they may shew the other to be far greater. In this 
respect also our [privileges] ^ are more gentle and more ad- ^ t^ vh-^- 
mirable. For they are great in a twofold respect : because '^^^"' 
while they are glorious and greater, they are more acces- 
sible. This he says also in the Epistle to the Corinthians : 
ivith unveiled countenance, and, not as Moses put a veil over 2 Cor. Ui. 
his face. They, he means, were not counted worthy of the ^i, '13^ 
[privileges] that we [are] . For of what were they thought 
worthy? They saw darkness, blackness; they heard a voice. 
But thou also hast heard a voice, not through darkness, but 
through flesh. Thou hast not been disturbed, neither hast 
thou been troubled, but thou hast stood and held discourse 
with the Mediator. 

And on another view, by the darkness he indicates the ^ '^^ °-^P'^- 
invisibleness ^ [of God] . And darkness (it saith) tvas under Ps. xviii. 
His feet. 

Then even Moses was afeard, but now no one is. 

e S. Chrys. says this referring to, tlie sense here given. The MSS have 

without expressly citing-, the ((yooufj KaXeaat and (excepting- one) not any 

pTIfxaTcov ofthe text. ' stop after it. S. Chrys. probably has 

f aAA' ovoixa avrov KaK^ffirai. Mr. in view the fact of Moses being called 

Field with hesitation adopts here the up to the top of the Mount, Exod. xix. 

reading of the Catena KaAeVeTOi, in 20. 
VOL. VII. B b 

370 The glorious yet fearful privileges of Christians. 

HoM. 32. As the people then stood below, so also do we. They 
were not below, but below Heaven. The son is near to 
God, but not as Moses °. 

There was a wilderness, here a city. 

[4.] And to myriads of angels in festive gathering. Here 
he indicates the joy, the delight, in place of the blackness 
and the darkness, and the tempest. 

And to the church of the first-horn which have been en- 
rolled in Heaven, and to Gob the Judge of all. They did 
not draw near, but stood afar off, even Moses : but ye are 
come near. 

Here he makes them fear, by saying. And to God the Judge 
of all ; not of the Jews alone, and the faithful, but even of 
the whole world. 

And unto the spirits of just men made perfect. He means 
the souls of those who are approved. 

And unto Jesus the Mediator of the New Covenant: and 
unto the blood of sprinkling, that is, of purification, which 
speaketh better things than Abel. And if the blood speaks, 
much more does He who was slain as a victim live. But 
Rom. viii. what does it speak? The Spirit also (saith he) speaketh 
with groanings unspeakable. How does He speak ? when- 
soever, it means, He falls into a sincere mind, He raises it 
up and makes it speak. 

[5.] See that ye refuse not Him that speaketh; that is, 
^ airoyvw- that yc reject^ [Him] not. For if they escaped not loho 
refused Him that spake ^' on earth. Whom does he mean ? 
Moses, I suppose [you say]. What he means,. however, 
is this : If they, having refused Him when He gave laws 
on earth, did not escape, how shall we refuse Him, when 

s This passage, INIr. Field observes, posed that there is some latent con- 
is difficult and probably corrupt. S. nection of thought, as, that in His 
Chrysostom seems to mean, that we nearness His people also are brought 
are like the people in that we are still near to the Father in a manner far 
here below, not in heaven : for they more intimate than was granted to 
were "beloW" only in the sense of be- Moses. 

ing below in reference to the mountain ^ xpvi^a.r{(ovTa. The word is used 
and heaven to which 3Ioses had been of God's speaking: See above, Hom. 
called up. At the same time as being xxiii. [1], p. 264. S. Chrysostom's ar- 
sons of God we are near to Him with gument seems to oblige us to under- 
a special nearness — a spiritual and so stand in the next clause something 
most intimate nearness — or the soul, equivalent to " you say," which words 
not like that bodily nearness with which have been inserted for clearness sake. 
Moses was called to di-aw near. The supposition that Moses was meant 

If, however, "the Son "be understood by rhi^ xRVj^ariCuuTa, is mentioned 

of the Only-Begotten, it may be sup- only to be rejected. 



Things present shaken and removed^ things future abide, 371 j 

He gives laws from Heaven ? He declares here not that HE.xii.27. | 
He [who gave the old Law] was a different [Being] ; God ; 
forbid. He does not set forth One and Another, but He jj^^'pp* ; 
is shewn to be terrible, when utterinoj His Voice from 330, 338. ; 
Heaven. It is He Himself then, both This [that speaks * * ; 
now], and That [that spake of old] : but This [that speaks I 
now] is terrible. For he expresses not a difference of Per- 
sons but of [the manner of] giving [the Law]. Whence - 
does this appear ? For if they escaped not who refused Him \ 
that spake on earth, much more shall not loe escape, if loe ^ 
turn away from Him [that speaketh] from Heaven. What j 
then? is this [last mentioned] another than the one [before ] 
named] ? [If so], how is it that he says, ivhose voice then j 
shook the earth ? For it was the voice of Him who then \ 
gave the Law, which shook the earth. But now hath He 
promised, saying. Yet again once for all I shake not the 
earth only, but also the heaven. And this ivord Yet again 
once for all, signifieth the removing of the things ivhich are 
shaken, as of things which have been made. All things 
therefore will be clean taken away, and will be compacted 
anew unto a better [state] . For this is what he intimates 
here. Why then dost thou grieve when thou sufferest in 
a world that abideth not ; when thou art afflicted in a world ' 
which will very shortly have passed away? If our Rest ] 
were [to be] in the latter period of the world, then one \ 
ought to be afflicted in looking to the end. 

That (saith he) the things which are not shaken may re- I 

main. But of what sort are the things which are not shaken? \ 

The things to come. ^ ■ 

[6.] Let us then do all with a view to this, that we may (3) . 

attain that [rest], that we may enjoy those good things. \ 

Yea, I pray and beseech you, let us labour earnestly for ! 

this. No one builds in a city which is going to fall down. \ 

Tell me, I pray you, if any one had said that after a year, ' 

this city would fall, but such a city would not [fall] at all, ; 

wouldst thou have built in that which was about to fall ? \ 

So I also now say this. Let us not build in this world ; it ! 
will fall a little while hence, and all things [here] will be 
destroyed. But why do I say, It will fall ? Before its fall 


372 Building for time and for eternity. 

HoM. 32. we ourselves shall be destroyed, and suffer what is fearful ; 
we shall be removed from them. 

Why build w^e upon the sand ? Let us build upon the 
rock: for whatsoever may come on, that building remains 
impregnable, nothing will be able to destroy it. With good 
reason. For to all such attacks that region is inaccessible, 
just as this is accessible. For earthquakes, and fires, and 
inroad of enemies, take it away from us even while we are 
alive : and oftentimes destroy us together with it. 

And in case it even remains, disease speedily removes us, 
or if we stay, suffers us not to enjoy it fairly.. For what 
pleasure [can there be], where there are sicknesses, and false 
accusations, and envy, and treacherous attacks? Or should 
there be none of these things^ yet oftentimes if we have no 
children, we are disquieted, we are impatient, not having 
any to whom we may leave our houses and all our other 
things ; and thenceforward we pine away as labouring for 
others. Yea oftentimes too our inheritance passes away 
to our enemies, not only after our death, but even while we 
are yet alive. What is more miserable then than to labour 
for our enemies, and ourselves to be gathering sins together 
in order that they may have rest ? And many are the in- 
stances of this that are to be seen in our cities. And yet 
[I say no more,] lest I should grieve those who have been 
deprived of their property. For I could have mentioned 
some of them even by name, and have had many histories 
to tell, and many houses to point out to you, which have 
received for owners the enemies of those who had laboured 
upon them : Nay not houses only, but slaves also and the 
whole inheritance have oftentimes devolved upon personal 
enemies. For such are things human. 

But in Heaven there is none of these things to fear ; lest 
[I mean] after a man is dead, his enemy should come, and 
succeed to his inheritance. For there there is neither death 
nor enmity; the tabernacles of the saints are permanent 
abodes; and among those saints is exultation, joy, mirth- 
Ps.cxviii. fulness. For the voice of joy (it is said) is iii the dwellings 
^^- of the righteous. They are eternal, having no end. They 

do not fall down through age, they do not change their 
owners, but stand continually in their best estate. With 

Mercifulness, like a gentle dove, prevails with God. 373 

good reason. For there there is nothing corruptible, no- HE.xii.27- 
thing perishable, but all is immortal, and such as cannot be 
impaired. On this building let us exhaust all our wealth. 
We have no need of carpenters nor of labourers. It is the 
hands of the poor that build houses of this kind ; the lame, 
the blind, the maimed; These build those houses. And 
wonder not ; seeing that they procure even a kingdom for 
us, and give us confidence towards God. 

[7.] For mercifulness ^ is as it were a most excellent art, ,./J[/ j^^. 
and a protector of those who labour at it. For it is dear -n^iioavvt) 
to God, and ever stands near Him, readily asking favour in p*^^3g5*^^^ 
behalf of whomsoever it will, if only it be not wronged by 
us ; And wronged it is, when we perform it by means of 295.^' 
ill-gotten gain. So, if it be pure, it gives great confidence (4) 
to those who offer it up. It intercedes even for those who 
have offended, so great is its power, even for those who 
have sinned. It breaks the chains, disperses the darkness, 
quenches the fire, kills the worm, drives away the gnashing 
of teeth. To it the gates of Heaven are opened with great 
security : And just as when a Queen is entering, no one of 
the guards stationed at the doors will be so bold as to inquire 
who she is, and whence [she comes], but all straightway 
receive her ; so also in truth [do they welcome] merciful- 
ness. For a queen indeed she is, making man like unto 
God. For, saith He, ye shall be merciful, as your Heavenly s. Luke 
Father is merciful. ^^' ^^' 

She is winged and buoyant, having golden pinions, with 
a flight which greatly delighteth the angels. There, it is 
said, are the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her back Ps. Ixviii. 
with the yelloivness of gold. Just as some dove golden and ' 
yet living, she flies, with gentle look, and mild eye. No- 
thing is better than that eye. The Peacock is beautiful, but 
in comparison of her, he is a jackdaw. So beautiful and 
worthy of admiration is this bird. She continually looks 
upwards ; she is surrounded abundantly with God's glory : 
she is a virgin with golden wings, decked out, with a fair 
and a mild countenance. She is winged, and buoyant, stand- 
ing by the royal throne. When we are being judged, she 
suddenly flies in, and shews herself, and rescues us from 
punishment, sheltering us with her own wings. 

374 Mercifulness and abundant almsgiving recommended. 

HoM. 32. Her, God would have, rather than sacrifices. Much does 

He discourse concerning her: in such wise does He love her. 

Ps. cxlvi. He ivill relieve (it saith) the ividow and the fatherless and 

?/ , the poor. God loves to be called from her. The Lord is 

lb . cxlv. 

8.* ' pitiful and merciful^ long-suffering, and of great mercy and 

see Ps. true. The mercy of God is over all the earth. She hath 
^^^^' ^' saved the race of mankind : For unless God had pitied us, 
see Rom. all things would have perished. When ive were enemies, she 
^' ^^' reconciled us, she gained the innumerable blessings [which 
Phil.ii. 7. we have] : she persuaded the Son of God to become a slave, 
i«6j/a)(rat and to empty Himself [of His glory]^. 

Her let us earnestly emulate, beloved, by whom we have 
been saved ; her let us love, her let us prize before wealth, 
and [if we are] without wealth let us have a merciful soul. 
Nothing is so characteristic of a Christian, as mercifulness. 
There is nothing which both unbelievers and all men so 
admire, as when we are merciful. For oftentimes we are 
Ps. li. 1. ourselves also in need of this mercy, and say to God Have 
mercy upon us, after Thy great goodness. Let us begin 
first ourselves : or rather it is not we that begin first. For 
He has Himself already shewn forth His mercy towards 
us : yet at least let us follow second. For if men pity a 
merciful man, even if he has done innumerable wrong 
things, much more does God. 
jb. m. 8. [8.] Hear thou the prophet saying, But I (his words are) 
am as it ivere an olive tree full of fruit in the house of God. 
Let us become such : let us become as an olive tree : let 
us be laden on every side with the commandments. For 
it is not enough to be as an olive tree, but to be also full 
of fruit. For there are persons who in doing alms give 
little, [only once] in the course of the whole year, or in 
each week, or who give away a mere chance matter. These 
are indeed olive trees, but not fruitful ones, but even wi- 
thered. For in that they shew compassion they are olive 
trees, but in that they do it not liberally, they are not 
fruitful olive trees. But let us be full of fruit. 
- iX€y]fj.o. J have often said and I say now also : the greatness of 

avyrjs . . 

the charity ^ is not sltewn by the measure of what is given, 
supra p. but by the disposition of the giver. You know Avhat hap- 

' [eAei7(Uw^, akin to iAeTjuoffuur}, which S. Chrysostom is here describing.] 

Almsgiving accepted according to that a man hath. 375 

pened in the case of the Widow. It is well continually to HE.xii.27 . 
bring this example [forward,] that not even the poor man 
may despair of himself, when he looks on her who threw 
in the two mites. Some contributed even hair in the fitting ex. 
up of the temple, and not even these were rejected. But x^^^- 23. 
if when they possessed Gold, they had brought hair, they 
[would have been] accursed : but if, having this only, they 
brought it, they were accepted. For this cause Cain also 
was blamed, not because he offered worthless things, but 
because they were the most worthless he had. Accursed ^i^xM. 
(it saith) is he ivliich hath a, male, and sacrificeth unto 
God a corrupt thing. He did not speak absolutely, but, 
he that hath (he says) and spareth [it]. If then a man 
have nothing, he is freed from blame, or rather he has a 
reward. For what is of less value than two farthings, or 
more utterly worthless than hair ? what than a pint of 
meal ? but nevertheless these were approved equally with 
the calves and the gold. For a man is accepted according 2 Cor. 
to that he hath, not according to that he hath not. And, it ^"^- ^^• 
saith, according as thy hand hath, do good. Prov. ill. 

Wherefore, I entreat you, let us readily empty out what 
we have for the poor. Even if it be little we shall receive 
the same reward with them who have cast the most ; or 
rather, more than those who cast in ten thousand talents. 
If we do these things we shall obtain the unspeakable trea- 
sures of God, if we not only hear, but practise also, if we 
do not praise [charity], but also exhibit [it] by our deeds. 
Which may we all attain to, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with 
Whom to the Father and also to the Holy Ghost, be glory 
might honour, now and for ever and world without end. 


Heb. xii. 28, 29. 

Wherefore we receiving a Kingdom that cannot be moved, 
us have grace [or gratitude\^,ivherehy ive serve^ Goto 
acceptably with reverence and godly fear. For our God 
is a consuming fire. 

2 Cor. iv. Just as in another place lie says, /br the things v;hich 
are seen are temporal, but the things ivhich are not seen 
are eternal ; and from this frames his exhortation with re- 
gard to the evils which we endure in this present life, the 
very same he does in this place also, and says, let us con- 
tinue steadfast ; let us have thankfulness, i. e. let us give 
thanks unto God. For we ought not only not to be vexed 
and desponding on account of our present condition, but 
even to feel very great gratitude to Him, on account of the 
things to come. 

Whereby we serve God acceptably, that is to say, ^for 
^thus is it possible to serve God acceptably,' [viz.] by 

Phil. ii. giving thanks in all things. Do all things (he saith) ivith- 

^^- out murmuring s and disputings. For whatever work a man 

performs with murmuring, he cuts away and loses his re- 
ward ; just as the Israelites — how great a penalty they paid 

1 Cor. X. foj. their murmurings. Wherefore he saith, Neither mur- 
mur ye [&c.] It is not therefore possible to serve Him 
acceptably without a sense of gratitude towards Him for 
all things, both for our trials, and the alleviations of them. 
That is, let us utter nothing hasty, nothing disrespectful, 

* Xa-piv ix^l^^^- S- Chrys. under- ^ Xan-p^vofxcv is the readings of all 

stands the expression in this sense : the MSS., the common texts have 

wliich it has elsewhere : as in S. Luc. Xarp^vujx^v. 
xvu. 9 : 2 Tim. i. 3. 

Hospitality; honour ableness of Marriage. 377 

but let us be subdued that we may be reverential. For HE.xiii.5. 
this is ivith reverence and godly fear. 

Chap. xiii. 1, 2. Let brotherly love continue. Be not for- 
getful of hospitality ^,for hereby some have entertained anqels ^ '}>'^''^^- 
o( 1 1 • . 1 '''"s see 

unawares . bee how he enjoins them to preserve what below 

they had : he does not add other things thereto. He did ^^'^ 
not say/^Be loving as brethren," but, Let brotherly love con- 
tinue. And again, he did not say, "Be hospitable/^ as though 
they were not so, but, Be not forgetful of hospitality, for 
this was likely to happen owing to their afflictions. 

For for this cause ^ (he says) some have entertained angels ^ 5^ rov- 
unaivares. Thou seest how great w^as the honour, how '["aiTj^ 
great the gain ! thereby 

What is unawares^? They entertained them without ^ e^a^oj/ 
knowing it. On this account his reward also was great, 
because he entertained them, not knowing that they were 
Angels. For, if he had known it, it would have been no- 
thing wonderful. Some say that he here alludes to Lot 

[2.] ver. 3 — 5. Remember them that are in bonds, as bound 
with them, them that suffer affliction as being yourselves 
also in the body. Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed 
undefiled; but fornicators and adulterers God ivill judge. 
Let your conversation be without covetousness : being content 
with such things as ye have. 

See how large is his discourse concerning chastity. Fol- supra xii. 
low peace, he said, and holiness ; Lest there be any fornicator ^u\ct 
or profane person ; and again. Fornicators and adulterers 
God ivill judge. In every case, the prohibition is [accom- 
panied] with a penalty. ^ Follow peace with all men, he says, 
and holiness without ivhich no man shall see the Lord : But 
fornicators and adulterers God ivill judge. 

And having first set down Marriage is honourable in all 
jnen, and the bed undefiled, he shews that it is with reason 
that he added what follows. For if marriage has been con- 
ceded, justly is the fornicator punished, justly does the 
adulterer suffer vengeance. 

In these words he prepares himself to combat * with the 4 avroSu- 
heretics. He did not say again, Let no one be a fornica- ^'^"' "^P^^ 
tor ; but having said it once for all, he then went on as 

378 Contentment, Duties toivards Church-Rule^^s ; Christ ever 

HoM. 33. with a general exhortation, and not as directing himself 
against them. 

Let your conversatioyi be without covetousness, he says. 
He did not say, Possess nothing, but. Let your conversa- 
tion be ivithout covetousness : that is, let it shew forth the 
philosophical character of your mind. And it will shew it, 
if we do not seek superfluities, if we keep only to what is 
necessary. For he says above also. And ye took joyfully 
the spoiling of your goods. He gives these exhortations, 
that they might not be covetous. 

Being content (he says) ivith such things as ye have. And 
then here also is the consolation ; For He Himself (saith he) 
hath said, I ivill never leave thee nor forsake thee; (ver. 6) 
so that we may boldly say, the Lord is my helper, and I will 
not be afraid what man shall do unto me. Again consoling 
encouragement in their trials. 

[3.] ver. 7. Hemember them that have the rule over you. 
This he was labouring to say above : for this cause he said, 

supra xii. Follow peace with all men. He gave this exhortation also to 

1 Tliess. ^^^ Thessalonians, to hold them in honour very exceedingly. 
v-^ 13. ^ Hemember (saith he) them that have the rule over you ^, 
vZvT^^ ly/io have spoken unto you the ivord of God, ivhose faith 
spiritual imitate, considering the end of their conversation. What 
and kind of consequence is this ? Nay truly it is a very excel- 
guides lent one : for he saith, beholding their life, imitate their 

faith. For from a pure life [cometh] faith. 

Or else hy faith, he means stedfastness. How so? Be- 
cause they believe in the things to come. For they would 
not have shewn forth a pure life, if they had questioned 
about the things to come, if they had doubted. So that 

2 rb avj), here also he is applying a remedy to the same [evil] ^. 
•''iinchas- ^^^' ^? ^- Jesus Christ the samc- yesterday and to-day 
tity-" and for ever. Be not carried aside ivith diverse and strange 

doctrines. For it is good that the heart be established with 
grace, not with meats, ivhich have not profited them that have 
walked therein. 
(2) In these words, Jesus Christ the same yesterday and to- 

day and for ever, yesierday, means all the time that is 
past : to-day, the [time] present : for ever, that also which 
is to come and which has no limit. That is to say : Ye 

the Same. Our Altar and Sacrifices, and duties. 379 

have heard of an High Priest^ but not an High Priest who HE.xm.i5. 
ceases [to be one]. He is always the same. As though i 

there were some who said, • He is not [any longer in being], I 

' another will come,' he says this, that He that was ijester- \ 

day and to-day, is the same also for ever. For even now | 

the Jews say, that another will come ; and having deprived j 

themselves of the true [Christ] will fall into the hands of ■ 

Antichrist. \ 

Be not carried aside (saith he) luith diverse and strange • 

doctrines. Not ivith strange doctrines only, but not even 
with diverse ones. | 

For it is a good thing that the heart be established with j 

grace, not with meats which have not profited them that have | 

been occupied ^ therein. Here he gently hints at those who \ 

introduce the observance of meats. For by Faith all things ! 

are pure. Of Faith then there is need, not of meats. \ 

For (ver. 10) lue have an altar lohereof they have no right 
to eat ivhich serve ^ the Tabernacle. Not as the Jewish [or- ^perform 
dinances], are those among us, as it is not lawful even for ^i^e of 
the High Priest to partake of them. So that since he had 
said, "Do not observe^ [such and such things]," and this ^ irapa- 
seemed to be [the language] of one who is throwing down see c4?. 
his own building, he again turns it round. What, have not iv. 10. ; 

we then observances as well (saith he) ? Yea we have, and ; 

we observe them very earnestly too, not allowing even to ,, 

the priests themselves to partake of them. \ 

[4.] (ver. 11, 12) For the bodies of those beasts ivhose blood i 

is brought into the Holy Place by the High Priest for sin, 
are burned ivithout the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that ' 

He might sanctify the people ivith His own blood, suffered (he ' 

saith) ivithout the gate. Thou seest the type shining forth ? I 

For sin, he saith, and suffered ivithout the gate. ver. 13. , 

Let us therefore go forth to Him without the camp bearing \ 

His reproach, that is, suffering the same things ; having 
communion with Him in His sufferings. He was crucified 
without as a condemned person : neither let us then be 
ashamed to go forth out [of the world]. ' 

ver, 14, 15. For we have here no continuing city (saith he) \ 

« ol TrcpiTraT-fia-avTes, i. e. " that have walked in them :" " lived in the ob- i 

servance of rules respecting them." 

380 Thankfulness; love for Strangers ; Marriage pure. 

HoM. 33. hut loe seek that which is to co7ne. By Him therefore let 
n^nN^" ^^ ^ff^'^ unto God the sacrifice of praise continually, that 
ture. is, the fruit of lips giving thanks to His Name. 

By Him, as by an High-Priest, according to the flesh ^. 

seep.376. Giving thanks (saith he) to His Name. Let us utter nothing 

blasphemous, nothing hasty, nothing overbold, nothing 

supra xii. presumptuous, nothing desperate. This is ivith reverence 

and godly fear. For a soul in tribulations becomes des- 

'aTTomi- ponding, and reckless^. But let not us [be such]. See 

"loses re- bere he again says the very same thing which he said 

spect" before, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, 

for so shall we be able to do all things with reverence. 

For oftentimes even out of respect for men, we refrain 

from doing many evil things. 

(ver. 16) But to do good and to communicate forget not. 
(3) " It is not [merely] with reference to the brethren that are 
'^present, but to those also who are absent that I speak. 
" But if others have plundered your property, display your 
'^ hospitality out of such things as ye have.^^ What excuse 
then shall we have henceforward, when they, even after 
the spoiling of their goods, were thus admonished ? 

[5.] And he did not say. Be not forgetful of the enter- 

3Z/oveo/taining of strangers "^j but of hospitality^: that is, do not 

stranger, merely entertain strangers, but [do it] with love for the 

<^tAo|e- strangers. Moreover he did not speak of the recompence 

that is future, and is in store for us, lest he should make 

them more supine, but of that which has been already given. 

For thereby some have entertained angels unawares. 

But let us see in what sense Marriage is honourable in 

all and the bed undefiled. Because (he means) it preserves 

the believer in chastity. In this place he also alludes to 

the Jews, because they accounted the woman after child- 

ei^'-^Edd bii'th * polluted : and also whosoever comes from the bed, 

TTjv Koi- it is said, is not clean ^. Those things are not polluted ^ 

s^SeeLev which arise from nature, O thou ungrateful and senseless 

XV. 18. Jew, but those which arise from our own will''^. For if 

xvpt mai^riage is honourable and pure, why forsooth dost thou 

7 TTjs npo- think that one is poll\Jted even by it ? 


•* S. Chrys. here reverts to v. 2. and goes over again the portion on which 

he has aheady commented. 

God's Promise unfailing : if He our Friend, all. 381 

Let your conversation (saith he) be ivithout covetousness : HE.xiii.8 . 
inasmuch as many after having exhausted ® their property, 
afterwards wish to recover it again under the name of 
alms, for this cause he says. Let your conversation be loith- 
out covetousness, that is, that we should be [desirous] of 
what is necessary^ and indispensable. What then (you ^"^^/xpe^- 
say) ? supposing we should not have a supply even of these ? ^^ 
This is hot possible ; indeed it is not. For He hath Him- 
self said, and He doth not lie, / loill never leave thee, 
neither ivill I ever forsake thee. So that we confidently 
say, The Lord is my Helper, and I will not be afraid what 
man shall do unto me. Thou hast the promise from 
Himself: do not doubt henceforward. He has Himself 
promised ; make no question. But this, / ivill never leave 
thee [&c.] he says not concerning money only, but con- 
cerning all other things also. The Lord is my Helper, and 
I will not be afraid what man shall do unto me ; With 
good reason. 

This then let us also say in all our temptations ; let us 
smile with contempt on human things, so long as we have 
God favourable to us. For just as, when He is our enemy, 
it is no gain, even if all men should be friends to us, so 
when He is our friend, even if all men together war against 
us, there is no harm. / will not be afraid what man shall 
do unto me. 

[6.] Remember them that have the rule over you, who 

have spoken unto you. the word of God. In this place I 

think that he is speakiner about assistance also ^. For this /'^'««"- 
^ ° pia : see 

is- [implied in the words] ivho have spoken unto you the iTxm.y. 
word of God. ^^ ^^• 

Whose faith folloiv considering the end of their coyiver- 
sation. What is, considering'^ ? Continually revolving, ^ ^''«^^- 
examining it by yourselves, reasoning [on it], investigating 
accurately, testing it as you choose. The end of their con- 
versation, that is, their conversation to the end : for their 
conversation had a good end. 

Jesus Christ the same yesterday and to-day and for ever. 
Do not think that then indeed He wrought wonders, but 

^ Keuwa-ai. This word is used commonly by S. Clirys. for g'iving- away 
one's whole property in charity, and probably that is its meaning here. 

382 Christ still the same: sty^angedoctrmes; legalohservayices, 

HoM. 33. now works no wonders. He is [still] the same. This is, 
Remeiyiber them that have the rule over yoii^. 

Be not carried aside ivith diverse and strajige doctrines. 

Strange, that is, different from those ye heard from us ; 

1 or " in- ipiverse'] that is of all sorts : for they have no stability, but 

tricate ^^,g different Tone from another] . For manifold ^ is the 

and com- '- -■ 

plicated," subject of meats especially. 

TToKvTvKo- p^^ ^Y is good that the heart be established ivith grace, not 
^-foreign With meats. These are the diverse ; these the strange ^ 
S^ Matt [doctrines] : especially as Christ has said, not that ivhich 
XV. 11. enter eth into the mouth defileth the man, but that ivhich 
Cometh out. And observe that he does not make bold to 

3 eV alviy- g^y this Openly, but as it were by a hint ^. For it is ivell 
^" that the heart be established ivith grace, not with meats. 

Faith is all. If that establishes [it], the heart stands in 
security. It follows that Faith establishes : consequently 
reasonings shake. For Faith is contrary to reasoning. 

By which they (saith he) have not been profited, who have 
walked therein. For what is the gain (he means) from the 
observance » [of them] , tell me. Does it not rather des- 
troy ? Does it not make such an one to be under sin ? If 
it be of obligation to observe [them], it is necessary to 
observe ourselves^. 

By ivhich (saith he) they have not been profited ivhich 
have walked therein. That is, who have always diligently 
kept them. 

There is one observance, abstaining from sin. For what 
profit is it, when there are some so polluted, as not to be 
able to partake of the sacrifices ? So that it did not save 
them at all ; and yet they were very earnest about the ob- 
servances. But because they had not faith, not even thus 
were they in any wise profited. 

4 avaip^i [7.] In the next place he takes away ^ the sacrifice from 

the type, and directs his discourse to the prototype, say- 
ing. The bodies of those beasts whose blood is brought into 
the sanctuary by the High Priest, are burned without the 
camp [&c]. It follows that those former things were a 

i That is, Remember them'^ecause observe (Trapar-npelaOe) days &c. 
of the continual presence and working ^ ^cttl TrapaT7]pe7a6ai, potius sibi ca- 

of Cl)rist in His Cliurch. vendum est : is Mr. Field's transla- 

^ irapaT7]pif](Tis : see Gal. iv. 10, Ye tion ; " to be guarded," as we say. 

Christ suffering out side the city. Oar sacrifice of thanksgiving. 383 

type of these latter, and thus Christ fulfilled all by suffer- HE.xiii.i6. 
ing without [the city] . 

In this place too he shews plainly that He suffered of His 
own accord, by intimating ^ that those things were not ac- 
cidental, but even the [Divine] arrangement itself was of a 
suffering luithout. [He suffered] without, but His Blood 
was borne up into Heaven. Thou seest then that we par- (4) 
take of Blood which has been carried into the Holy Place, 
the True Holy Place ; of the Sacrifice of which the High 
Priest alone had the privilege. We therefore partake of 
the Truth [the Reality] . If then we partake not of reproach 
[only] but of sanctification ^, the reproach is the cause of 
the sanctification. For just as He was reproached, so also 
are we. If we go forth ivithout therefore, we have fellow- 
ship with Him. 

But what is, Let us go forth to Him? Let us have fellow- 
ship with Him in His sufferings ; let us bear His reproach. 
For He did not simply bid us dwell outside the gate, but 
as He was reproached as a condemned person, so also we. 

And by Him let us offer a sacrifice to God. Of what kind 
of sacrifice is he speaking? The fruit of lips giving thanks 
to His Name. They [the Jews] brought sheep, and calves, 
and gave them to the Priest : let us bring none of these 
things, but [let us bring] thanksgiving. This fruit let our 
lips put forth. 

For with such sacrifices God is ivell pleased. Let us give 
such a sacrifice to Him, that He may offer [it] to The Father. 
For in no other way it is offered except through the Son, 
or rather also through a contrite mind. All these things 
are said for the sake of those that are weak. For that the 
thanks belong to the Son is evident : for otherwise, how is 
there equal honour [to Him with the Father] ? that all men S. John 
(He saith) should honour the Son eveii as they honour the ^* 
Father. Wherein is the honour equal ? The fruit of lips 
giving thanks to His Name ^. "T^^V^' 

Name of 
[8.] Let us bear all things thankfully, be it poverty, be *^^^ ^^"•" 
it disease, be it any thing else whatever : for He alone knows 

^ ZiiKvvs on ovK eK^Lva cnrXcos ^v, ^ a7£ceo'^ou. The effect of the sprink- 

aWa KoX avTj] r] oiKouofxia e|w nddous ling with Blood, see ch. ix. 12, 13 &C. 
^y. X. 10, U. 

384 Thankfulness. Need of affliction; its spiritual benefits, 

HoM. 33. the things that are expedient for us. For we know not lohat 

Rom.viii. ^^ should pray for as we ought. We then who do not know 

even how to ask for what is fitting, unless we have received 

1 eViAa- of ^ the Spirit, let us take care to offer up thanksgiving for 
taken"' ^ things, and let us bear all things nobly. Are we in 
hold of poverty ? let us give thanks. Are we in sickness ? let us 

give thanks. Are we falsely accused ? let us give thanks : 
when we are suffering affliction, let us give thanks. 

This makes us to be near to God : then we even have 
God for our debtor. But when we are in prosperity, it is 
we who are debtors and liable to be called to account. For 
when we are in prosperity, we are debtors to God : and 
oftentimes these [prosperous circumstances] result in being 
a judgment upon us, while those other are a payment of the 

2 iKTiffis penalty " of sin. Those [afflictions] draw down mercy, they 
Horn. V. draw down kindness upon us : while these on the other hand 
[6.]p.71. lift up even to an insane pride, and lead also to slothful- 

ness, and make a man fancy great things concerning him- 

3 or hum- gg^f . they puff up. On this account the prophet also said, 
Ps. cxix, It is good for me, Lord, that Thou hast afflicted^ me, that I 
^^- may learn Thy judgments. When Hezekiah had received 

blessings and been freed from calamities, his heart was lifted 
■* &pepiCov ^^p Qj^ high ; when he fell sick^ then was he humbled, then 
Ps. he became near to God. When He slew them, it saith, then 

if/^"** ^^^y sought Him diligently, and turned, and ivere early in 
Deut. coming to * God. And again. When the beloved waxed gross 
PsTx 16 ^^^df^lf t^^^^ ^^ kicked. For the Lord is known when He 

executeth judgments. 
S. Matt. [9.] Affliction is a great good. Narrow is the ivay, so 
vii. 14. \\i^\^ affliction [by compression] ^ thrusts us into the narrow 

[way] . He who is not pressed by affliction will not be able 
5 iuirxa. to enter in. For he who presses himself by affliction in 
rfvoiv ^i^g narrow [way], is he who also enjoys ease ; but he that 
e 0At)3eTat spreads himself out^, does not enter in, and also suffers 
(x<pr]vov- fj,Qj^-^ being so to say wedged in ^. See how Paul enters 
1 Cor. ix. into this narrow way. He keeps under his body, so as to be 
^'^' able to enter. On this account, in all his afflictions, he 

still continued givingXhanks unto God. Hast thou been 

1 ex7\pis, literally " pressing :" probably S. Clirys. had in.mind a word of the 
text which he does not cite. Ted\i/j.ix4v7} ?? 6d6s. 

Thankfulness in all. Peril of riches. 385 

deprived of thy property ? this hath lightened thee of the HE.Yiii ifi. 
most of thy wideness. Hast thou fallen from glory ? this 
is another sort of wideness. Hast thou been falsely ac- 
cused ? have the things been believed that have been said ^ 
against thee, of which thou art nowise conscious to thyself? ' 
Rejoice and leap for joy. For blessed are ye (saith He) ivhen S. M?)(t 
men reproach you, and say all manner of evil against you, 
falsely, for My sake. Rejoice and be exceeding glad, for \ 
great is your reivard in Heaven. ] 

Why marvellest thou, if thou art grieved, and wishest to ; 

be set free from temptations ? Paul wished to be set free, ' 

and oftentimes entreated God, and did not obtain [his I 

prayer]. For the thrice for this I besought the Lord, is 2 Cor. | 

oftentimes ; and He said unto me. My grace is sufficient for ^^^' ' * | 

thee, for My strength is made perfect imveakness. ^y weak- 
ness, he here means " afflictions." What then ? As soon 
as he heard this he received it with thankfulness, and 
says, Wherefore I take pleasure in itifirjyiities ; that is, I am ib. lo. i 

pleased, I rest in my afflictions. For all things then let . 

us give thanks, both for comfort, and for affliction °^. Let j 

us not murmur : let us not be unthankful. Naked came / Jobi.2l. \ 

out of my mother's womb, naked also shall I depart. Thou 
didst not come forth glorious, do not seek glory. Thou , 

wast brought into life naked, not of money alone, but also 
of glory, and good character. 

Consider how great evils have oftentimes arisen from ^ 

wealth. For It is easier (it is said) for a camel to go through s. Matt. \ 

the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the ^^^' ^^' \ 

kingdom of Heaven. Thou seest to how many good things 
wealth is a hindrance, and dost thou seek to be rich ? dost i 

thou not rejoice that the hindrance has been overthrown ? ] 

So narrow is the way which leadeth into the Kingdom. So 
broad is wealth, and full of bulk and swelling out. For this \ 

cause He saith. Sell that thou hast, that that way may re- ib. 21. | 

ceive thee. Why dost thou regret thy wealth ? For this : 

cause He took it away from thee, that He might set thee ] 

•" [see above, pp. 197, 239, 241, 384. " Amen." Dr. Bright Hist, of Church i 

S.Chrysostom in his bitter banishment between A.D. 313 and 451 chapter ix. { 

finished his last prayer " with his usual end, p. 255 and Dr. Bright's note b. ! 

" thanksgiving, ' Glory to God for all on the same page.] \ 

" ' things,' and sealed it with a final j 

VOL. VII. C C j 

386 God the One Good. 

HoM. 33. free from slavery. For true fathers also, when a son is cor- 
rupted by an attachment to some mistress, and after having 
given him much exhortation, they do not persuade him to 
part from her, send the mistress into banishment. Of the 
same kind also is abundance of wealth. It is then because 
the Lord hath care for us, and to deliver us from the harm 
[which arises] therefrom, that He takes away the wealth 
from us. 

Let us not then esteem poverty to be an evil : sin is the 
only evil. For neither is wealth a good thing by itself : to 
be well-pleasing to God is the only Good. Poverty then 
let us seek, this let us pursue : so shall we lay hold on 
Heaven, so shall we attain to all the other good things. 
Which may we all attain by the grace and loving-kindness 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father and 
also to the Holy Ghost be glory power honour, now and 
ever and world without end. Amen. 


Heb. xiii. 17. 

Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit your- 
selves. For they watch for your souls, as they that must 
give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with 

grief ^, for this is unprofitable for you. ^ lament- 

ing, (rre^ 


Anarchy [the having no ruler] ^ is an evil, and the occa- 
sion of many calamities, and the source of disorder and 
confusion. For just as, if from a chorus thou take away 
the leader, the chorus will not be in tune and in order ; and 
if from a division of an army thou remove the commander, 
the movements of the host will no longer be made in time 
and order, and if from a ship thou take away the steersman, 
thou wilt sink the vessel; so too if from a flock thou remove 
the shepherd, thou hast overthrown and destroyed all. 

Well then, the having no ruler is an evil, and a cause of 
ruin. But no less an evil also is the disobedience of those 
that are under rule. For it comes again to the same. For 
a people which does not obey a ruler, is like one which 
has none : and perhaps even worse. For in the former 
case they have at least an excuse for their disorderliness, 
but in this latter [they have it] no longer, but are even 

But perhaps some one will say, that there is also a third 
evil, when the Ruler is a bad one. I myself too know it, 
and no small evil it is, but even a far worse evil than anar- 
chy. For it is better to be led by no one, than to be led 
by one who is evil. For the former indeed are oftentimes 

" It will be observed that S. Chrysostom uses " rulers" {^pxaurei) and the 
cognate words, of spiritual rulers. 

C C 2 

388 Obey Church Rulers: even if of evil life, if Faith right. 

ver. 7. 

S. Matt, 
xxiii. 2. 

ib. 2, 3. 

HoM. 84. saved, and oftentimes are in peril \ but the latter will be 

1 ''suffer" altogether in peril, being led into the pit [of destruction]. 

aev How is it then that Paul says, Obey them that have the 

rule over you, and submit yourselves ? Having said above, 
whose faith follow , considering the end of their conversation, 
he then said, Obey them that have the rule over you and 
submit yourselves. 

What then (you say), when he is wicked should we obey 
him ? 

Wicked ? in what sense dost thou use the word ? If in 
regard to Faith indeed, flee and avoid him ; not only if he 
be a man, but even if he be an angel come down from Hea- 
ven. But if it be in regard to life, be not over-curious. 
And this instance I do not allege from my own mind, but 
from the Divine Scripture. For listen to Christ saying. 
The Scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses' seat. Having 
previously spoken many fearful things concerning them. 
He then says, They sit on Moses' seat : all therefore what- 
soever they tell you to do, do; but do not ye after their works. 
They have (He means) the dignity of office, but they are 
of unclean life. Do thou however attend, not to their life, 
but to their words. 

For as regards their characters, no one would be harmed 
[thereby] . How is this ? Both because their characters 
are manifest to all, and also because not even if he be ten 
thousand times as wicked, will he ever himself teach what 
is wicked. But as respects Faith, [the evil] is not manifest 
to all men, and the wicked [ruler] will not shrink from 
teaching it. 
ib. vil. 1. For further, the [warning]. Judge not that ye be not 
judged concerns life, not faith : At all events what follows 

ib. 3. makes this evident. Forivhy (saith He) beholdest thou the 
mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the 
beam that is in thine own eye? 

All things therefore (saith He) ivhich they bid you to do, 

do ye (But to do belongs to works not to Faith) but do not 

ye after their works. Thou seest that [the discourse] is not 

concerning doctrines, l^ut concerning life and works ? 

2 i.e. the [2.] Paul however previously commended them^, and then 

ver. 7. says, Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit 

Ruler's heavy account : if he be unheeded, he must weep. 389 

yourselves, for they watch for your souls, as they that shall HE.xiii.i7 . 
give account. 

Let those who rule also hear, and not only those who 
are under then* rule; that just as the subjects ought to be 
obediently disposed, so also the rulers also ought to be 
watchful and sober. What sayest thou ? He watches ; he 
imperils his own head ; he is subject to the punishments 
of thy sins, and for thy sake is amenable to what is so fear- 
ful, and art thou slothful, and affectedly indifferent, and at 
ease ? For this cause he says, That they may do this ivith 
joy, and not with lamentation^ : for this is unprofitable for 

Seest thou that the ruler, when he is despised, ought not 
to avenge himself, but his great revenge is to weep and to 
lament ? For neither is it possible for the physician, if he 
be despised by his patient, to avenge himself, but to weep 
and lament. But if [the ruler] lament (he means), God 
inflicts vengeance on thee. For if when we lament for our 
own sins we draw God to us, shall we not much more [do 
this], when we lament for the arrogance and scornfulness 
of others ? Thou seest that he does not suffer him to be 
led on to reproaches ? Thou seest how great is his philo- 
sophy ? He ought to lament, even he that is despised, that 
is trodden under foot, that is spit upon. 

Be not thou confident on the notion that he does not 
avenge himself on thee, for this lamenting is worse than 
any revenge. For when of himself he profits nothing by 
his lamenting, he calls on the Lord : And just as in the 
case of a teacher and tender of children, when the child 
does not listen to him, one is called in who will treat him 
more severely, so also in this case. 

[3.] Oh ! how great is the danger ! what should one say 
to those wretched men, who throw themselves upon so great 
an abyss of punishments ? Thou hast to give an account of 
all over whom thou rulest, women and children and men ; 
into so great a fire dost thou put thy head. I marvel if it 
be possible that any of the rulers should ever be saved, 

^ (TTevdCovT^s. It will be observed "dothis"of" watching- for souls;" not 
that S. Chrys. dwells much on this as the English version might lead us to 
word : and alsothat he understands the understand it, of the "giving account.*" 

390 Episcopate not to he sought, nor yet refused. Tender 

HoM. 34. when in the face of^ so great a threat, and of the present 
1 irphs indifference, I see some still even running on, and throwing 
themselves upon so great a burden of authority. 

For if they who are dragged by force ^ have no refuge or 
defence, if they discharge their duty ill and are negligent ; 
since even Aaron was dragged by force, and yet was im- 
perilled*^; and Moses again was imperilled, although he 
had oftentimes declined ; and Saul having been entrusted 
with another kind of rule, after he had declined it, was in 
peril, because he had managed it amiss ; how much more 
they who take so great pains to obtain it, and throw them- 
selves upon it ? Such an one much more deprives himself 
of all excuse and pardon. For men ought to fear and to 
tremble, both because of their own conscience, and because 
of the burden of the office ; and neither v/hen dragged to 
it should they once for all decline, nor, when not dragged 
throw themselves upon it, but should even flee, foreseeing 
the greatness of the dignity, and when they have been 
seized, again shew their godly fear ^. Let there be nothing 
out of measure. If thou hast perceived it beforehand, re- 
tire ; convince thyself that thou art unworthy of the office. 
8 have a Again, if thou hast been seized, in like manner be thou 
godly reverential^, in all circumstances displaying rightminded- 
^fhyvu'fjLo- ness . 

fTvu-nv ^ [4.] (ver. 18) Pray also for us (he saith) ', for ive trust 

see bo. that loe have a good conscience towards all^, wishing to 
live honestly. 

(2) Thou seest that he used these expressions of apology, as 

writing to persons who had been grieved with regard to 
him, as to those who turned away from him, who were dis- 
posed towards him as towards a transgressor, not enduring 
even to hear his name ? Inasmuch then as he was asking 
from those who hated him, this, which all others ask from 
those who love them [their prayers for him], on that ac- 
count he here introduces this ; saying, We trust that we 
have a good conscience. For do not tell me of the accusa- 

•= Those who are ordained against suffering as well as danger ; so in this 

their will by actual force ; as frequent- discourse. [1,] 

ly occurred in the age of ^ Chrysos- « euXajSemv. That is by submitting 

torn. to the will of God thus manifested, 

^ KivSwevQ} seems here as elsewhere and receiving ordination, 
in writers of this age to imply actual 


delicacy of the Apostle, his deep love for them. 391 

tions [against us]. Our conscience, he says, in nothing HE.xm.22, 
hurts ^ us ; nor are we conscious to ourselves that we have ^f""^"' 

. pAairrei 

plotted against you. For ive are persuaded, saith he, that 
we have a good conscience toiuards all, not towards the 
Gentiles only, but also towards vou. We have done no- ^ ""Jl^^^'" 

•' •' « ^ ^ . "^ see &. 

thing with deceitfulness ^ nothing with hypocrisy: for it Chrys.on 

was probable that these calumnies were reported respecting .j :^j' 

him. For they have been infoj^med concerning thee (it is Acts xxi. 

said) that thou teachest apostacy. Not as an enemy, he 

means, nor as an adversary do I write these things, but as 

a friend. And this he shews also by what follows. 

(ver. 19) But I beseech you the more earnestly to do this, 
that I may be restored to you the sooner. This was [the 
language] of one who loved them exceedingly, his thus 
praying, and that not simply, but with all earnestness, that 
so, he says, I may come to you speedily. It is [the mark] 
of one who is conscious to himself of nothing [wrong], to 
be earnestly desirous to come to them, and to entreat them 
to pray for him. 

For this cause, having first asked their prayers, he then 
himself also prays for all good things on them. (ver. 20) 
But the God of peace, he saith (be ye not therefore at 
variance one with another). Who brought again from the 
earth the Shepherd of the sheep (this is said concerning the 
resurrection) the Great [Shepherd'] (another addition : In 
this place again, he confirms even to the end, his discourse 
concerning the Resurrection to them) in the blood of the 
everlasting covenant, our Lord Jesus Christ, (ver. 21) make 
you perfect in every good work, to do His ivill, working in 
you that ivhich is ivell-pleasing in His sight. 

Again he bears high testimony to them. For that is 
made perfect which having a beginning is afterwards com- 
pleted. And he prays for [blessings] on them which is 
the act of one who tenderly loves them. And while in the 
other Epistles, he utters his prayer in the prefaces, here 
he does it at the end. Working in you, he saith, that which 
is well-pleasing in His sight through Jesus Christ, to whom 
be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

[5.] ver. 22. And I beseech you, brethren, suffer the ivord 
of exhortation for indeed I have written my letter to you in 

392 Timothy. Virtue comes of God, and of om^selves, 

HoM. 34. few icords. Thou seest that what he wrote to no one [else], 
this he writes to them ? For (he means) I do not even 
trouble you with long discourse. 

I suppose that they were not at all unfriendly disposed 
towards Timothy : and that for this cause he also put him 
prominently forward^. For (ver. 23) ye know, saith he, 
leased' ^^^^ ^^^ brother Timothy is set at liberty ^, with whom, if 
gone or he come shortly, I tvill see you. Set at liberty, he says, 
o'wau from whence ? I suppose that he had been cast into prison : 
avroAe- or if not this, that he was released [and gone] from Athens. 
s^SetT'"' -^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ i^ mentioned in the Acts ^. 
Actsxvii. ver. 24, 25. Salute all them that have the rule over you, 
5 ' " and all the saints. They of Italy salute you, Grace be with 

you all. Amen. 
" '^^7'' [6.1 Thou seest ^ how he shews that virtue arises ^ neither 
in wholly from God, nor yet from ourselves alone ? First ^ 

by saying, [may He] make you perfect in every good work ; 
Ye have virtue indeed, he means, but need to be made 
complete. What is good work and word [or doctri7ie~\ ^? 
So as to have both life and doctrines right. According to 
His Will, working in you that which is well-pleasing in His 

In His sight, he says. For this is the highest virtue, to 
do that which is well-pleasing in the sight of God, accord- 
Ps. xviii. ing as the Prophet also says. And according to the clean- 
ness of my hands in His eye-sight. 

And having written thus much, he said this was little, 
in comparison with what he was going to say. Accord- 
Epli. iii. ing as he says also in another place, As I wrote to you in 
' ' ' brief: whereby when ye read, ye may understand my know- 
ledge in the mystery of Christ. 

And observe his wisdom. He says not, / beseech you, 

' '^I"^°"i ^^ff^^^ ^^^ word a/" admonition, but the word of exhortation ^ 

that is, of consolation, of encouragement. No one, he 

^ By saying that he would come but after treatingthe remaining- verses 

with Timothy, as if Timotliy were his recurs to the subject in speaking on 

superior ; see the further comment, the words " Grace be with you :" and 

in the next section. ^ there indicates a second evidence. 

^ S. Chrys. here recurs to verse 21. > See 2 Thess. ii. \7. Stablishyou 

»• Here as elsewhere S. Chrys. does in every good word and work. Pro- 

not expressly mention any "secondly," bably S. Chrys. had this in his mind. 

The effect of grace depends on our not resisting it. 393 

means, can be wearied out at the length of what has been HE.xiii.2 
said (Was it this then which made them turn away from 
him? By no means: he does not however wish to express 
this to them) : that is, even if ye be of little spirit, for it is 
the special property of such persons not to endure a long 

Ye know that our brother Timothy is set at liberty, with 
whom if he come shortly I will see you. This is sufficient 
to persuade them to submit themselves, if he is ready to 
come with his disciple. 

Salute them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. 
See how he honoured them, in that he wrote his Epistle 
to them [the people], and not to those [their rulers]. 

They of Italy salute you. Grace be ivith you all. Amen. 
Which was for them all in common. 

But how does Grace come to be with us ? If we do not 
do despite to the benefit bestow^ed on us, if we do not be- 
come indolent in regard to the Gift. And what is the 
Grace? Remission of sins. Cleansing: this is ivith us. For 
who (he means) that has done despite [to it] can keep the 
Grace, and does not destroy it ? For instance ; He freelj 
forgave thee thy sins. How then shall the Grace be with 
thee, whether it be the good favour, or the effectual w^ork- 
ing, of the Spirit ? If thou draw it to thee by thy good 
actions. For the cause of all good things is this, the con- 
tinual abiding with us of the grace of the Spirit. For this 
guides us to all [good things], just as when it flies away 
from us, it ruins us, and leaves us desolate. 

[7.] Let us not then drive it from us. For on ourselves (3) 
depends, both its remaining, and its departing : For the 
one results, when we mind heavenly things, the other, when 
[we mind] the things of this life. Which the world (saith S. John 
He) cannot receive, because it seeth It not, neither knoweth ^^^' 
It. Thou seest that it is not in the power of a worldly soul 
to have It ? Great then is the earnestness we need, that so 
It may be held fast by us, that so It may direct all our 
concerns, and do them in security, and in much peace. 

For just as a ship sailing with favourable winds, cannot 
be hindered nor sunk, so long as it enjoys a prosperous and 

394 Analogy of a ship, with sails stretched to catch the ivind. 

HoM. 34. steady breeze, but also after the coming on [of the wind] 
it causes great admiration on account of its progress, both 
to the mariners, and to the passengers, giving rest to the 
one, and not letting them toil on at their oars, and setting 
the others free from all fear, and affording to them the most 
delightful spectacle of her own course, so too a soul fortified 
by the Divine -Spirit, is far above all the billows of this 
life, and more vehemently than such a ship, cuts its way 
along the course which leads to Heaven, inasmuch as it is 
not sent along by wind, but having all its clean sails filled 
by the Paraclete Himself: and He casts out of our minds 
all that is slackened and relaxed. 

For just as the wind if it fall upon a slackened sail, would 
not have any effect ; so neither does the Spirit endure to 
continue in a soul that is remiss ; but there is need of much 
tension, [yea] of much vehemence, so that our mind may 
be inflamed, and our conduct under all circumstances on 
the stretch, braced up. For instance when we pray, we 

^ tension ought to do it with much intentness ^, stretching forth the 
soul toward Heaven, not with cords, but with vehement 
earnestness. Again when we do works of mercy, we have 
need of intentness, lest by any means, thought for our 
household, and the care for children, and anxiety about 
one's wife, and fear of poverty, entering in, should slacken 
our sail. For if we put it on the stretch on all sides by 

2 dfipyu- tj^e hope of the things to come, it receives well the impulse^ 

of the Spirit ; and none of those perishable and wretched 
things will fall upon it, yea, and if any of them should, it 
in no respect harms it, but is speedly thrown back by the 
tightness, and is shaken off and falls down. 

For this cause then we have need of much intentness. 
For we too are sailing over a great and a wide sea, full of 
many monsters, and of many rocks, and producing for us 
many storms, and from the midst of serene weather raising 
up against us a most violent tempest. It is necessary then 
if we would sail with ease, and without danger, that we 
stretch our sails, that is, our will and resolution : for this 
is sufficient for us. For Abraham also, when he had stretch- 
ed forth his affections towards God and set before Him his 

3 [irpoal. completed resolution ^^ w^hat else had he need of? Nothing : 

Need of intense earnestness. Its effects on the Christian. 395 

but he believed God, anditiuas counted unto him for right- HE.xiii.25. 
eousness. But Faith [comes] of a sincere will ^ He offered ^^^' ^^' 
up his son, and though he did not slay him, he received a ^ [wpoai- 
recompence as if he had slain him, and though the work P^^^^^^ 
was not done the reward was given. 

Let our sails then be in good order ^, not worn out with - KaBaph 
age (for every thing that is decayed and ivaxen old is nigh supraviii. 
to destruction^), not pierced through with holes, that so 
they may bear the impulses of the Spirit. For the natural 1 Cor ii. 
ma7i^, it is said, receiveth not the things of the Spirit. For l^: v^ 
just as the webs of spiders could not receive a blast of wind, o.<pavi- 
so neither will the soul devoted to this life, nor the natural fj^^^^^j^y 
man ever be able to receive the grace of the Spirit : for our 
reasonings differ nothing from them ^, preserving a connec- ^ the cob- 
tion in appearance only but being destitute of all power. 

[8.] Our condition, however, is not such, if we are sober 
and watchful : but whatever may fall upon [the Christian], 
he bears all, and is raised above all, stronger than any 
whirlpool ^. For suppose there be a spiritual man, and that ^ ^^'77os 
innumerable calamities befal him, yet is he overcome by 
none of them. And what do I say ? suppose that poverty 
come upon him, disease, reproaches, revilings, mockings, 
stripes, every sort of infliction, every sort of mocking, and 
slanders, and revilings : yet, just as though he were outside 
the world, and set free from the feelings of the body, so 
will he laugh all to scorn. 

And in proof that my words are not mere boasting, I 
think that many [such] exist even now ; for instance, of 
those who have embraced the life of the desert. This how- 
ever, you say, is nothing wonderful. But I say that of those 
also who live in cities, there are such men who are unsus- 
pected. If thou wish however, I shall be able to exhibit 
some among those of old. And that thou mayest learn, 
consider Paul I pray thee. What is there fearful that he 
did not suffer, and that he did not submit to? But he bore 
all nobly. Him let us imitate, for so shall we be able to 
land in the tranquil havens with much merchandise. 

Let us then stretch our mind to Heaven, let us be held 
fast by that desire, let us clothe ourselves with the spiri- 
tual fire, let us gird ourselves round with its flame. No man 

396 Bear about us fire ivhich none may withstand, 

HoM. 34 . who bears flame on him fears those who meet him. Be it 
wild beast, be it man, be it snares innumerable, so long as 
he is armed with fire, all things stand out of his way, all 
things retire. The flame is intolerable, the fire cannot be 
endured, it consumes all. 

With this fire let us clothe ourselves, and offer up glory- 
to our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom to the Father, to- 
gether with the Holy Ghost, be glory might honour, now 
and ever and world without end. Amen. 

C]^anfe;g %t to (§ot>. 


Abraham how received not the pro- 
mises, having patiently endured 
received the promise, 139. his pa- 
tience, 139. and great-heartedness, 
139, 278, 285 sqq. and intense re- 
solve of his affection Godward, 394, 
395. learn from his hospitality, 
149. exceeding superiority of Mel- 
chisedek to, and thus to the Jewish 
polity too, 154, 160 sqq. fortitude of 
manifested by God to all men, 287. 
his faith to the end, 288. enjoyed 
things of the world, with affliction, 
297. and affliction made him bright, 

Affliction, [^see suffering, pain, pun- 
ishment,] afflicting ourselves here 
benefit of, 197. came to Abraham 
and must come to every righteous 
person, 279, 340, 341. a great good, 
301, 327, 384. wipes out sins, makes 
people firm and steady, 327. makes 
God our debtor, 384. casts out sloth 
and ill desire and collects the soul, 
343. brings forth joy, 350. for a 
time, 371. helps to pay the penalty 
of our sins, 71, 384. thrusts into the 
narrow way, 384. 

Age full, 109. how to be attained, 109. 
him of, who holds the Faith and a 
right life, 117. 

Aid each can others in the way of 
salvation, 352 — 356, and not seek 
for himself only, 357. 

Almsgiving, 124, 136, 137. can ex- 
haust Hell-fires, 16. saves from, 373. 
of the very poor yea of the beggar 
surpasses that of rich, 17, 29, 30. 
in, God estimates will, 17, the 
most essential ingredient in medi- 
cine of Repentance, 123. causes 
our prayer to be heard, 144. God 
looks at our purpose, 149, 374, 375. 
not worthiness of recipients, 149. 
cleanses after sins, 158, 159, 365. 
blessing of, 225. hand withered that 

is without, 292. guilt of giving and 
receiving from ill-gotten gains, 295, 
373. what is, 329. we ought to give 
superfluities in, 329. the oil for our 
lamps, 337. cf. 374. gives earthly, 
receives heavenly, 365. Heaven's 
gates open to, 373. might of, 374. 
some do it but scantly, 374. some 
their all, 381 and note e., in doing, we 
must be intent, lest anxiety for wife 
and children intervene, 394. false 
receiving of, 381. see Poor, Poverty. 
Alphabet, 117,317. 
Angels minister to our salvation, 35, 
36. the Son's servants, our fellow- 
servants, 36. great the interval be- 
twixt us and, 36. manifold examples 
of ministry of, 36. their ministry 
to us an encouragement, 36. Law 
given through, how, 38, 39. en- 
trusted with charge of nation, 39. 
with care of us mourn over our 
badness, 272. are by us in the night, 
186. in Church especially, 196. and 
in fear when Christians pray, 317. 
were our enemies, reconciled by 
Christ, 208. Cherubim dwell on 
earth, 202. despise us their fellow- 
citizens if enslaved to gold, 291. do 
not need attendants when they go 
through the world, 330. the Theatre 
of Christians, 332. with, is that 
soul, whose Lover God is, 336. 
Angelic work yea Christ's work to 
do all for salvation of brethren, 35. 
Anger how guarded against, 74. a 
fire a flame ; forbearance quenches 
it as iron red-hot dipped in water is 
quenched, 262. 
Animals do not readily attack their 

fellows of the same species, 292. 
Antichrist the Jews having rejected 

Christ will fall into hands of, 379. 
Apostles received nothing in writing, 
179. tombs of but four known (see 
Tombs), 299. 
Arians, 33, 110. their formula there 
was when He was not, 11. as by an 



instrument, 21. God needed not an 
Helper, 34. 

Arius, 20, 21, 34. 

Armour some parts of Christian, ex- 
plained, 74. shield of faith, 262. 
girdle of truth, 216. 

Article definite, force of, 34. 

Athlete example of an, 72, 232, 246, 
247, 267. Christ's, 287. chastisement 
strengthens, 350. 


Babylonians of less understanding 
than they of Lystra, 308. 

Baptism sins forgiven in, 67. cleanses 
the soul, 228. repentance after, is 
of grace, 93. after comes repent- 
ance, 183. necessar}', 118. one, 118, 
119, 120, 121, 122, 124, 127, 234. 
if not so, how careless we should 
get, 120. if more than one, an end- 
less number, 121. a Cross, 119. our 
death and rising, 120. gifts in, 121. 
a grace once for all, 120. the whole 
is Grace, 119. called "the Seal," 
169. enlightening, 169. peril of de- 
laying to the end of life, 169. they 
who do so alluded to, 234, 294 note, 
great loss thence even if one does 
receive Baptism, 170 sqq. shame 
that accrues to these when they 
behold others' sweats and Rewards, 
171. bears sons, 176. our Lord's Pas- 
sion, 200. if without fruit, punish- 
ment, 233. makes Brotherhood, be- 
cause God then our Father, 293. 

Baptized the, called Enlightened, 172. 

Bastards not worth punishing, 341. 

Beatitudes, 98. 

Begging a disgrace, 147. 

Beginning' value of, 122, 124. and 
hardness, 124. 

Bitterness root of, difference between 
and a bitter root, 3.58. 

Brother in S.Paul meant not a monk 
but a believer, 233, 294. 

Cain, what S. Chrysostom thought 
the fault of his sacrifice, 375. 

Carnal tempers what, 221. 

Catechumens, 169, 172. know Christ 
and the Faith, 172. not a brMher 
in S. Paul's sense, even if he be a 
Monk, 293. 

Chance they who attribute all to, 
are not pleasing to God, 259. 

Charity praise of, 44 — 46. his work 
on referred to, 45. loves not in order 
to be loved in turn but for God, 45. 
wears itself out for Jews heathen 
heretics, 46. pitying those who have 
done not well but wrong, 135. 

C/ia^/i^emenns exercise, bearing sweet 
fi-uit, 350. 

Children in a passion if they strike 
us we do but laugh, 262. if ourselves 
in a passion we become, 263. an 
intelligent, will sometimes decline 
playthings longing for what is high- 
er, 268. playthings kept back if too 
eagerly longed for, given freely if 
not so, 289. 

Christ His Sufferings, 65, QQ. from 
the Jews, 325. from disciples, 326. 
in babyhood, 326. from scorning, 
325, 327. an aid to patience, 6, 327. 
an honour, 52. a glory, 339. far far 
greater than creation, 52. we are 
to have felk)wship Avith, 379, 383. 
calls His Cross glory, 5 1 , cf. 53 : His 
Death called a taste because it held 
Him not long, 51. smote the devil, 
54. and death, 56: His Resurrection, 
6, 25, 51, 120, 391. to prove, one 
aim of S. Paul in Epistle, 6, 7, 391. 
known to those of old, 296 : His 
appointment as Priest, 102 : His 
weeping at prayer not told in Gos- 
pels, 102: sometimes spoken of from 
the Divine, sometimes from the 
Human, 13, in Spirit and flesh, 13 
init., not avapxos or alien from God 
(according to some), 20. acts of His 
own authority, 316, 317, calls His 
own coming in the flesli Exodus, 
S. Paul Eisodos(comingin)31,.4/)05- 
tle as sent, 69. became Priest when 
He took flesh, 162, 163, 175, One 
Priest because undying, 166. one act 
of, 168, 209, 212. Godhead and Man- 
hood in, 167, 175, our One Sacrifice, 
169, 176, 189. [see Sacrifice] : all 
heavenly, 176, died once, 209. died 
for all even though all accepted not, 
210. suffered because He willed, 324, 
383. and gladly, 324. His enemies are 
Jews, unbelievers, carnal, 221. Jews' 
contumelies to, 325. many of His 
words already come to pass, 249. 
gives His Gifts in ways contrary to 
natural course, 290. because nature's 
Maker, 290. His Death our Safe- 
guard, 310. why He chose death of 
the Cross, 324. prayed, not needing 
prayer but to teach us, 317. if we 
suffer we must loOk to, 325, 326, 
327. has implanted in us of His 



Beauty and Comeliness, 13. we one 
with, 79. we read not that He 
laughed, 195. to be looked to as 
a Master that we may learn how 
to do, 323, 324. gave us the Faith, 
324. gave the beginning, will put 
on the end, 324. 

Christ's Blood, 340. mixed up with 
the very substance of peoples' souls, 
rendering them vigorous and pure, 
201. sprinkled in our souls, 309. we 
have 310. partake of, 383. has 
cleansed all, 368. purifies us, 192, 
200, 201, flowed from the Body 
which had been framed by the 
Spirit 201, carried into Heaven, 

Christ's Body framed by the Holy 
Spirit, 191, 201. 

Christ God, 23, 65, 67, 167, 175, 
though Priest sits, stands not, 25, 
168, 174, 175,220,226. 

Christian shines out most brightly 
in poverty, 29. the crucified, has 
Charity, 45. the crucified, the 
mourner, 195, how to fight, bravely, 
not inviting war, not interfering, 

73. to be ready to pour out his blood 
as though it were water, 73. his 
constant daily warfare, 73, 74. dif- 
ferent parts of his armour explained, 

74, 75. mercifulness his special cha- 
racteristic, 374. his super-human 
might 395. should arm himself with 
desire of Heaven a fire which none 
may withstand, 395, 396. 

Christianity, danger of fulfilling as 
a custom, 128. 

S. Chrysostom rejoices that things 
will not always abide as they are, 
34. thought that miraculous gifts 
were less at the date of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews 41. refers to an al- 
ready-published writing of his on 
charity, 45. speaks from necessity, 
would from pleasure too if he knew 
his hearers were earnest, 47. would 
fain have been silent lest he increase 
their peril but fears to be silent, 283. 
will examine the careless ones, will 
not tell them when, 47, 48. prays 
and exhorts others to pray that 
no untimely deaths may befal 59. 
threatens to punish hired mourners 
brought into Christian funerals and 
to suspend those who bring then), 
59. cannot preach the Resurrection 
while Christians thus contradict, 56, 
59. calls himself a good-for-nothing, 
yet must use his authority, 60, 61. 
begs them to bear with him if se- 

vere 60. would fain only loose, yea 
not need power of loosing, 61. longs 
to praise, 62, 273. speaks of the want 
of Bible-knowledge among his peo- 
ple, 110 sqq. the discouragement in 
his teaching from their inattention, 
47, 114. and risk through repetition 
of making the account of some hea- 
vier at the Judgement, 1 15. expects 
that his people will bring forth fruit 
suddenly, 137. thought that the sky 
did not move and is not spherical, 
175, 316. addresses not Christians 
only but even heathen if any present 
on the truth of Christ's words 248, 
249. thought that Pharisee spake 
his prayer in no man's hearing, 251. 
elsewhere thought otherwise 318. 
apologizes for wliat he says, as con- 
strained to say it, 273. calls himself a 
father, 273. attests his inmost grief, 
273, 274. always has to repeat same 
things, 283. knew not how to re- 
buke owing to the sin of alms out 
of ill-gotten gains, 295. wants his 
people to help him by helping each 
other on, 352 sqq. 356, 357. 

Church bonds of, if any despise, put 
on by authority, the Day of Judge- 
ment will teach him, 61. if any 
burst, he answers it to Christ 61. 
liaws of, see Laws. Church, Heaven 
177. [see service.] 

Clergy who are over us we must obey, 
387, 388. even if bad, so their faith 
be sound, 388. must be sober and 
watchful ; if despised must weep, 
God punishes, 389. their terrible re- 
sponsibility, 389. and account, 389. 
peril in throwing themselves upon 
dignity, they ought to flee ; then 
if seized, to submit, 390. 

Club the, in S.Chrysostom's time, 353. 

Comfort the duty of giving, 83. 

Commands easiness of God's, 172, 173. 
see Will. 

Compunction God's gift 113, to prayer 
23S. Publican filled with when 
Pharisees words came to him, 318. 

Confession, the Faith 69, 91, 118. of 
sins 3 19, ^eesins. Priest, Repentance. 

Conscience must be compelled to own 
sins, that it may repent and escape 
torment, 362. 

Consulate its transitoriness 125. 

Contrition, an ingredient of Repent- 
ance, 123. what, 123. 

Cornelius the centurion his oiFerina-, 

Covenants both of God though not 
in like manner, 37. 



Covetous 355. they who overreach ruin 
themselves not others, 239. sin of 
g-oing to their entertainments, 293, 
295. a poor man wlio refused to go 
for Ids own soul's sake would shame, 

Covetousness worse than mire, 293. 

Creation a less thing then preserva- 
tion, 24. transfiguration of, so easy, 
34. fulfills its appointed course, 315. 
reverenced Joshua for the name he 
bore, 315. 

Credibility, those who handed to us 
Gospel Truth accredited as not for- 
gers, 40, 41 . what has already come 
to pass accredit those yet to come, 
248, 249. 

Creed, see confession. 

Cross our Master calls glory, b\. why 
He chose, 324. fruit of how great, 
51. our, 327. 

Crowning, time of, one ; of conflict of 
each, manifold, 322. 


Danger to run needlessly into, 
tempting God, 303. 

Daniel why he did not refuse the 
oblation and sweet odours, 305 sqq. 
he was humble, 305—307. 

Deacon's warning and searching cry 
at Holy Communion, 214, 215. after 
the whole sacrifice is completed, 215. 
meaning of, 216. 

Death of Christ, smote the devil, 54. 
death's death, i^Q. once only, 120, 
209. our purification, 201 . how death 
undone to us, 209. its terror, 55. 
untimely, S. Chrysostom prays and 
exhorts prelates and all to pray that 
no, may befal, 59. day of each per- 
son's, nearer than end of all things, 
249. death's death hope given of in 
Enoch's translation, 259. 

Desire implanted, 28. but capjible of 
most grievous abuse, 348. evil, cast 
out by chastisement, 343. hides 
sight of God, 260. see Lust. 

Despair we may not, 83. even after 
deepest wickedness, 158. 

Devil smitten in Christ's death, 54. 
and brought to nought, 55, 56. aims 
to make us speak against God, 240. 
overthrow of, hope given in Enoch's 
translation, 259. if he wound not, 
wounded, 262. wounded in hi^j^ at- 
tack on Job, wounded in his attack 
on S. Paul, 262. his dart concupi- 
scence, 262. glories at om* evil state, 

Disobedience peril of, 38. 

Dives received (air^Xafies received not 
as a gift but in return) here the 
reward of his good deeds, 71. 

Docetae alluded to, 54. 

Doctrines which concern the soul must 
be contended for, 73. cf. 388. 

Dress, a lady sometimes had a precious 
garment inwoven with gold, 237, 
238. beautiful and costly, belong to 
the stage, 332. by, S. Paul set at 
nought in the very Church itself, 
334. see Lady, lace, silk. 

Drunkards, we go to their houses 
though S. Paul forbids us, 294. 

Drunkenness sin of, 318. 


Enoch not discouraged by what had 
befallen Abel, 257. and knew that 
he had received a Recompence, 258. 

Envy no one envies himself, 230. He- 
brews obnoxious to, 255. we give 
way to, 318. 

Eucharist, 261. the Sacrifice, 169. 
daily, 213. therein the purifying 
Blood entereth the soul springing 
up like a fountain in our souls, 201. 
many partake once or twice a year, 
many often, the solitaries yearly or 
after two years, 213 cf. 214. Lent 
the preparation for the Easter- 
Eucharist, 214. frequent receiving 
right if prepared, seldom receiving 
too frequent if unprepared, 214. peril 
of unworthy receiving, 214, 235, 
236. the Deacon's warning cry at, 
214, 215, 216. the beauty of orna- 
ment that fits to approach, 216. the 
beauty of Eunuchs who stand by 
the Majesty, 216, 217. may be a 
cause of disease, even as food when 
the system is disordered, 214. a 
Royal Table, sweet Ointment, 214. 
forty days' preparation, one week's 
care after, 214. in, a person becomes 
the Body of Christ, 235. unworthy 
partaking of, 318. 

Eunuchs spiritual, to stand before 
King, 216, 217. 

Evil-speaking earns praise to the re- 
ceiver if he requite it not, more 
abundant disgrace to the giver, 15. 
terrible harm we do by, 250, 251. 
rife, 274. vain prayer uttered by one 
while repeating gossip, 2.t0. if Pha- 
risee condemned though he spake 
truth, what we when we utter lies, 



Ezra gathered the scattered Scrip- 
tures, 111. 

Ei/es what we see with, more readily- 
retained tlian what we hear, 177. 
sometimes injured from a bad habit 
of body, 214. of the soul, how to 
make beautiful and keen of sig-ht, 
217. evil desires passions affairs of 
this Ufe darken, 260. 

Faintheartedness, 249, 253. some- 
times produces unbelief, 134. springs 
from unbelief, 229. hinders a pro- 
raise of its fruit, 139. makes one 
no ready- hearer, 151. loss from at 
the last, '2H2. at last came on tlie 
Hebrews, 300. danger of to soul in 
tribulation, 380. 

Faith to need absolute proof of God's 
Providence or care, want of, 84. 
insufficient without a right Life, 87. 
necessary to salvation, 87. cf. 228, 
382. must be very sure, 228. in it 
we trust the Holy Ghost, 228. con- 
trary to reasoning, 382. the very 
essence of things of hope, 247, 248. 
conies of a sincere will, 395. needs 
a generous soul, 2.")3. saves, 253. its 
might 310, 312, 313, 314. can do 
all, 3 1 1 . is all, 382. a pure life springs 
of, 378. makes all things pure, 379. 
mutual aid from, 254. accused by 
some as being without proof and 
defended by S. Paul, 254. knowledge 
concerning God belongs to 254, 255. 
of Abel, 256, 257. of Enoch, 264. 
of them of old, 298. of Joseph, 298, 
299. manifoldly, 298. in retribution 
necessary, 258. holds nothing more 
to be relied on than God's words, 

Faith the, 69, 89, 91, 92, 116, 117, 
118, 1.42, 172, 245. handed down 
that we may not have to engage 
with every heresy, 110. known to 
Catechumens, 172. Christ gave, 
324. imparts holiness, 352. the, and 
right life make of full age, 117. we 
are to endure so long as the, is not 
touched, 351. cf. 72. who misteach, 
we must shun, 388. cf. on Galatians, 
p. 16. 

Father his desire to remit punishment 
seen in God also, 259. as he lets ap- 
proved children wait for the others, 
so God orders that the saints wait 
for us, 322. sends away from a son 

an evil companion, if the son per- 
sist after he is warned, 386. 

Filth, like a Host who gives a splen- 
did entertainment and sits down 
with his hands well smeared with 
the veriest, such is thecovetous Host, 

Fire no longer consumes but bears to 
Heaven Cliristian sacrifices, 144. of 
Spirit to burn up desire of wealth, 
144. the ardent desire for Heaven 
the Christian's, 395. 

Flesh taken of us sits on high and is 
worshipped by Angels Archangels 
Cherubin Seraphin, 64. 

Food, mischief of immoderate eaters, 
346 — 348. what can be digested 
nourishes, 346,347. repletion worse 
than famine 347. 

Forerunner impliestheuj who follow, 

Foreg;iveness of others ingredient of 
Repentance, 123, 124. 

Form of a slave, man ; form of God, 
God, 23. 

Freewill its proneness to ill, 155. its 
reality, 155. it is aided by God, 156, 

Friends favour of must be risked to 
obtain his salvation, 272. real, help 
one anothers' souls 354, 355. 

Funerals Hymns and psalmody at 
proclaim Triumph, 57. unseemly 
grief at, 57. those who tear their 
hair and beliave unseemly ought to 
be long while shut out of Church, 

57, 58. the part of madmen, 58. 
harmful, 58. a scandal and makes 
Resurrection disbelieved 56, 59. 
psalms cxvi, xxiii, xxxii, sung at, 

58. hired mourners if admitted to 
Christian funeral shall be punished, 
those who admit them treated as 
idolaters, 59. daily, hourly, 157. 


Garden unfilled part of, 345. 

Garments precious laid among per- 
fume and spices to preserve from 
moths, 238. 

Gifts, some receive not because of 
impure life, some lest it should harm 
their souls, 41, 43. diversity of 42. 
if householder knows to whom to 
entrust, God more, 42, 43. how to 
comfort ourselves that we have not, 
42, 44. must use thankfully the little 
ones we have, 43. the greatest, Cha- 
rity, offered to all, 44, 45. 



Glory, from men we must account as 
nothing,324. obtained by simplicity, 

Glutton overreaching, 359. 

God His Peace surpasses mind much 
more does He, 18. Reverence and 
faith needed to hear or speak of, 18. 
when our human language fails, 
then we must praise Him for His 
Greatness, 18. of, we know some- 
what yet understand not, 18, 19. 
or conceive and cannot utter, 19. 
not enclosed by space, 25. spoken of 
as though man, 69. wonderful in 
His works, in His Love to man 
more wonderful, 46. through uncer- 
tainty would keep us watchful, 48. 
teaches patience, 138. His condescen- 
sion in swearing Who ought to be 
believed without, 140, 141. cf. 165. 
everywhere present, 173. by re- 
membering we forget wickedness, 

184, 185. we must remember speci- 
ally at night and at day-break, 184, 

185. and so have Him our helper, 
185. remembrance of Him uplifts us 
to endure and be brave, 303. and 
makes hard things easy, 304. several 
result of His remembering us, and 
we Him, 304. commands nothing 
impossible, 205. what philosophers 
knew of His Being, belonged to 
Faith, not to reason, 254, 255. Be- 
ing of. Faith assures ; truths of His 
Essence neither Faith nor reasoning 
may attain, 258. inflicted punish- 
ment of death, as He threatened, as 
a Parent shewed mercy immediate- 
ly in translating Enoch undj-ing, 
259. they who attribute all to chance 
are not pleasing to, 259. a Rewarder, 
259, 260. how to be sought, 260. 
evil desires, passions, cares obstruct 
sight, 260. how to lift ourselves to- 
wards, 261. His manifold gifts at 
creation, 270, His Gift of His Son, 
270, 271. the God and Friend of 
holy people, 279, 280. will be ours if 
we will be strangers to the world, 
281. obedience makes us friends of, 
283. gives not fulh rest here but 
some refreshment, 267. wished to 
seeni a Debtor even in giving up 
His own Son, 288. a glory to, to be 
called God of the good ; a shame to, 
to be called God of the wicked, 280, 
281. gives earthly things if our 
hearts be not set on them, 28?K with 
fear of Him bitter things not pain- 
ful, 305. the friend of, besought God 
his Friend and the creatures yielded. 

315. if we hold fast to, we shall 
stand against the foe and tempta- 
tion, 327, 328. the Lover of holy 
souls, 336. chastens as sons tenderly 
beloved, 342. gave Law gives too 
the Gospel, 371. our example in 
mercifulness, 374. if our friend, tem- 
poral things matter not, 381. alone 
knows what is good for us, 384. 

God the Father angry for dishonour 
done to His Son, 35. 

God the Father and the Son Each 
subsist, 19. 

God the Father God the Son God 
the Holy Ghost unity of, 22. 

God the Son from the Father, 19, 21. 
absolutely Equal to th6 Father, 20, 
36. has absolute Power, 21, Equal 
Honour, 383. gift of Redemption en- 
hanced by being through, 25. what 
means sitting, 25, 26. Who disdain- 
ed not to become Man neither dis- 
dained He the lowly expi'essions, 
26. teaches us thereby lowliness, 27. 
marked off from creatures, 33. sent 
i. e. made flesh, 36. no minister 36. 
assumed what is of us and united it 
to Himself, 49. sufi'ered though God 
is incapable of sufi'ering, 65, Q<o. why 
called a sword, 88. passes through 
inner heart, to judge, 89. severity of, 
90. tender aid given by, 91. sympathy 
of, 66, 91, 92. appointed Priest, 
102. His obedience, 103. His learn- 
ing it, 141. prayed yet raised Him- 
self from the dead, 103. prayed for 
us, 103. emptied Himself and glori- 
fied Him.self, 104. mediated by an 
oath, 140. and all the power of the 
Spirit dwell in His Flesh, 191. 

God the Son God, 24. who is wor- 
shipped, 32. who beholds all, 91. who 
stands not as High Priest but is on 
theTlirone, 93. Who in the Gospels 
swears by Himself, 139. see also 
Christ God. 

God the Holy Ghost, 144. argument 
against objectors to His Godhead, 9, 
10. God Who reveals, 264. grace 
of, shews Its might as It will, 11. 
mighty, 261,309, 393. see Grace. 
His inspiration of and care for pre- 
servation of . Scriptures, 110, 111. 
received in Baptism, 118. S. Paul's 
words words of, 127. might of in 
Body of the Word, 191. whose Body 
of (e'/c), 1 91 . framed by, 201 . His Pre- 
sence hallows men, 216. we trust to 
in matters of failh, 228. somewhat 
that S. Chrysostom said, the words 
of, 213. waters us, Christ having 



planted us, 233. we know not how 
to pray save by, 384. 

Go Wis but dirt, 291. 

Go/rf-embroidered linen, 293. orna- 
ments, 331, 332, 333,334. we must 
part with for others' need that we 
may enjoy His Beauty, 337. 

Gossip grievous sins of, 250, 251. 
idle excuse that it was another that 
told us, 250, 251. if we must, to 
speak- of our sins to God and our 
friends, 251, 252. 

Grace Throne of, now will then be 
Throne of Doom, 93. Repentance 
after Baptism is of, 93. of the Spirit, 
261, 309, 343, 393, 394, 395. com- 
pared to wind filling- sails and waft- 
ing ship, 393, 394. ev en of old time 
wrought through the unworthy, 

282. prevents, our diligence follows, 

283. fills up our work, 392. poured 
on Moses in his baby-hood, wrought 
in Pharaoh's daughter, 300. surpasses 
the Law in that it can bring to 
Heaven, 315. 


Hair see Temple. 

Hand withered that doth not alms, 
292. filthy that grasps beyond its 
due, 293. 

Heaven, 84 — 86. not to be reached 
negligently, 87. we lose by seeking 
first things of time, 112, 113. the 
glory beyond words, 126. through 
hope we now there, 141. offerings 
presented by Christians borne un- 
consumed to, 144. who wishes may 
be in, may be heaven, 202, 203. 
as S. Paul and others did, 204. 
there calm, 203. there good things 
abide, 372, 373. the Patriarchs alive 
to, dead to the world, we alive to the 
world, dead to Heaven, 275, 276. 
Theatre of, 332. Beauty of; how 
much more His Beauty, 337. the 
homes that are there the Poor build 
us, 373. 

Hebrews Epistle to, written to Jews 
(he thought) in Palestine and Jeru- 
salem, 3. mode in, compared to that 
in Epistle to Romans, 101, 105, 
153, 154, 247. Galatians, 105, 108, 
130, 131. 1 Corinthians, 107, 369, 
2 Corinthians, 376, Thessalonians, 
378," others, 391. and his discourse 
at Athens, 106: had been Christians 
long time, 7, 106. babes, 109. had 
been better once, 105, 107, 108, 300. 


their Faith and Patience,300. S. Paul 
apologizes to them, 390. place of his 
prayer here at end, in other Epistles 
at beginning, 391. 
Hell, 82, 101, 145, 169, 170, 230, 
233, 243, 265, 271, 281, 295, 318. 
terror of, 15, 16. none afraid of, 273. 
some believe not that there is, 

360. we must often think of lest 
we suffer it, 16. alms-giving will 
quench, 16. everlasting, 83, 216, 
329. terrible beyond thought, 329, 
364, 365. due punishment for evil- 
speaking, 250. we must hinder in 
friends what leads to, 355. there 
none may aid. 365. 

Heretics, 103, 109, 164, 377. the 
Faith handed down to us our pre- 
servative against, 110, see Arius, 
Manichaeus, Marcellus, Marcion, 
Paul, Novatians &c. 

Highmindedness to no purpose, 27. 
danger of, 41, 43, 156, 157. S. 
Peter's special danger of, as knowing 
that he loved Christ more than all, 

361 . prosperity sometimes produces, 
384. constant memory of our sins 
does away with, 363. 

Hoije, its stay, 70, 7Q, 132, 141, 142, 
165. that of each covenant con- 
trasted, 1 78. of future bears through 
despondency, 349. 

Human things their transitoriness, 
125. a shadow, 304. nought if God 
our friend, 381. hope a help even 
in, 142. the whole of virtue to be 
loose from , 275 , see Temporal things. 

Hmnility aid from listening to our 
Lord's words on, 115. not true, to 
call ourselves sinners and be angry 
when so called, 318,319. what, 319. 

L J. 

Jacob faith of, 278, 298. gain through 
affliction, 343, 344. 

Jesus in the form of Man, 315. 

Jews had power in their own land 
to act independently of their rulers, 
4, 5. their priests ceasing to be 
priests, 101. S. Paul proves that far 
superior to, and to their polity is 
times of, under Ezra and Malachi 
referred to, 181. their law, old, 182. 
Jewish captives glorious even in 
captivity, 304. having deprived 
themselves of Christ will fall into 
hands of Anti-christ, 379. Jews, 




heathens, heretics, true charity 
wears itself out for, 46. 

Jeivs Christian, how well-nigh worn 
out when S. Paul wrote to them, 5, 
6, 8,9. cf. 377. had long believed and 
borne, 7. compared to Elijah in their 
troubles, 321. exhorted to persever- 
ance in that whereunto they had 
attained, 377. their enemies Christ's 
enemies, 35. 

/// we are apt to suspect, good not 
so, 148. our will readily inclines to 
side of, 155. we often abstain from 
out of respect to men, 380. 

/mflg-e and Express Image contrasted, 

Indolence the reason why the bad 
become not better, 277. why we 
imitate not the Saints, 230. 

Injure they who, injure themselves, 

Injuries remembrance of, a great sin, 
123, 124, 318. will go if we ever 
remember our sins, 363. bearing 
will help us and the injuring party 
too, 351. 

Insult who, insult themselves, 290, 

Joshua reverenced, as a very special 
type of Christ, 315. availed more 
than did Moses, 315. even while 
Moses was living, 316. 

Joy never unmixed here, 197. the 
true, how to be attained, 197. en- 
durance wilh, Apostolical, 245. fruit 
of grief, of chastisement, 350. 

Isaac only-begotten in respect to the 
promise, 288. praise of, 278, 297. 
his toils and gain therefrom, 343. 

Judge the Judge of words as well 
as of actions, 186. propitiated if we 
accuse ourselves for our sins, 362. 
confess to, 363. 

Judgement, 95. the Throne of grace 
now, becomes then Throne of, 93. 
day of, 144, 272. near, 249. the 
Judge will be there, 364. sins of all 
publicly displayed then except we 
do them away by continual remem- 
brance of them, 363, 364. in that 
Day the poor man will deliver thee, 
145. proof that end of world is nigh, 
248, 249. end of all at hand, day of 
each person's death yet nearer, 249. 
we shudder at end, as if going to 
Judgement, 279. special account 
then taken of purity, 283. Judge- 
ments mentioned in his day>272. 

Judgement common of all indisputable, 
349, 350. 

Jugglers' sleights, 204. 

Lace a superfluity, 331. 

Lady walking with few attendants 
attracts less notice, 330, 331. to 
dress simply, 331 sqq. such an one 
has her Husband's respect, 334, 

Lamb paschal, type of our deliverance, 
309, 310. 

Laughing evil habit of, in Church 
and at prayers, 195 — 197. Sarah 
rebuked for, 196. her denial of it 
was from her faith, 269. right use 
of and misuse of, 197. women do 
not laugh, save in times of relaxa- 
tion, in presence of their husbands, 
196. we laugh at children who strike 
us in a passion, 262, 263. when we 
ought to mourn bitterly, 271, 272. 

Law has less might than grace, 315. 
superiority of Christian things over 
those of, 369, 370. the Same who 
gave gave the Gospel, 371. 

Lau's Ecclesiastical, 60. written in 
hearts belong not to Jews but to 
Christians, 179 sqq. 

Lent forty days' preparation for Easter 
Communion, 214. loss if insufficient, 

LongsK^ering tames anger, 262. 

Lose not to, of less toil than after- 
ward to recover the let-go, 246. 

Lost a thing, with what earnestness 
sought, 260. 

Love the perfect thing, 229. from, 
all good things, 230. nought good 
which is not from, 230. assembling 
ourselves inci-eases, 228, 229, 230. 
a natural path leading to virtue, 
230. as self what, 230. of enemies 
and the bad, praise of, 231. 

Lungs, reason given why they be 
placed under the heart, 74. 

Lust, not pleasure, a mere shadow of 
pleasure, 74. he who is possessed by, 
worse than one in a fever, 193. evil 
desire hinders our seeing when we 
would find God, 260. generated by 
over-eating, 347. 

LuAury brings to an ill end, 344. en- 
feebles body and soul, 345, 346. 
produces low spirits, 346. food for 
lusts, 347. 


Man spoken of sometimes from the 
lower, sometimes the higher part, 
so Christ, 13. Image of God, 23. 

Man young-, old ; see young, old. 



Manichaeans, 109, 115. the modern- 

est heresy, 110. 
Marcellus, 19,21, 22, 33. taught as 

did Sabellius, 110. 
Marcion, 22,33, 115. the first heresy, 

Marriage, 380. not it, but want of 

moderation in, hurts, 98, 99. 
Martyrs whole-burnt-ofFering-s, body 

and soul, 143. 
Mary Virgin some deemed that God 
the Son had His beginning from, 
110 [see S. Cyril Alex, de recta 
fide 11a, 20 fin. 21a, 44 e. Quod 
Unus est Christus 717 b, contra 
Nest. i. 4 (p. 21, O.T.), Apol. contra 
Theod. cap. i. 206 e.] . the heresy of 
Paul of Samosata, 110. 
Matter self-existent some people say 

that it is, 258. 
Mediator not the owner of that in 

regard to which he mediates, 199. 
Medicine of Repentance, what its in- 
gredients, 122, 123. a, if removes 
disease utterlyat once, has strength ; 
if needed continually is weak, 211. 
not needed where no stroke, 213. 
bitter, gives first unpleasantness 
then benefits, 349. 
Mercifulness untold beauty of, 373. 
might of, 374. specially belongs to 
a Christian, 374. God first shewed 
forth, 374. see Almsgiving. 
Milk the lowlier doctrines, 104, 107, 

108. cf. 89. 
Mind how the grace of the Spirit 
gives it wings, 261. winged it soars 
above the devil's darts, 261, 2Q2. 
Miracles they who wrought and pro 
phesied and were denied : it was 
probably the want of perseverance, 
281. perhaps too they were wicked 
while they wrought, 282. 
Money, the degradation of those who 
give themselves to, 193, 194. peril 
of love of, 237, 238, 240, 242, 282. 
and slavery to care of choice trea- 
sures, 237, 238. address to Mam- 
mon, 195. value for, a worse than 
Egyptian bondage, 238. gold mere 
dirt, 291. angels woul despise them 
who love, 291. 
Monks or solitaries, not for them alone 
Christ's precepts but for people 
living in the world, 57, 98. saints 
in life and in faith, 134. might of 
their life, 395. some wanted to aid 
only, 135. when beggars, called im- 
postors, 148. sometimes communi- 
cate yearly or at intervals of two 
years, 213. 

Moses compared with Christ, Q7, 68. 
a part of the house, 68. his faithful- 
ness, 69. grace poured on in his very 
babyhood, 300. cared not for Palace 
of Egypt when Heaven is before 
him, 301. his flight was of faith, 
303. less than Joshua, 315, 316. 
fled from dignity yet imperilled in 
discharge of it, 390. 

Mourners hired forbidden even to 
come to a Christian funeral and 
threatened, 59. see Funerals. 


Night some spend in prayer some in 

deeds of evil, 186. prayer at, 317. 
JVovatians alluded to, 234. 


Obedience makes friends of God, 
283. aids others too, 294. lack of, 
worse than anarchy, 387. punish- 
ment follows, 389. 

0/(f'|) the Father, 19, 21, 26, 54. 

Oil for lamps is kindness, 337 cf. 374. 

95 sqq. depends not on years but on 
virtue, 97. of sin, repentance frees 
from, 119, 183. impairs not beauty 
of soul, 336. man, an Emperor if he 
have all his in subjection, 97. 

Olympic games interest excited by, 
184, herald's cry at, 215, 216. 

T^ ojxoioi/ Kara irdvTa (similarity in all 
respects), 22. 

Oppression deeds of and of defrauding 
so great that many would gladly 
have parted with life, 271. see 292. 

Orator his special pains at the end of 
his speech, 281. 


Pain here, 72, 286, 363. 

Painting, the outline a shadow, with 
the colours an image, 210, 211. 

Passion patience disarms, '26'2, 263. 
if in a, we become very children, 

Passions some are useful, 28. 

Patience, 133, 140 note, 237. Christ's 
Suiferings an aid to, 6, 50. needed 
while things are still in process of 
being subjected to our King, 50. of 
fisherman and husbandman, 137. of 
Abraham, 139. why God teaches it 
us, 138. lost at very end when com- 



bat even over, 246, 247. disarms 
passion, 262, 263. of the Hebrews, 
300. need of much, 318. 

Patriarchs strangers to the vrhole 
world, 268, 275, 277, 278. and lived 
as foreigners, 278. their faith very 
persevering, 300. 

Paul S. Apostle of Gentiles, 1. Jews 
ill-disposed to, 1. why not sent to 
Jews, 2. once a Jew himself and 
holding with them, has greater force 
thereby, 2. why he wrote to them, 
3, 4, 6. his love for them, 3, 4, 5. 
for each, 133. his history after close 
of Acts, 3. his trade alluded to, 11. 
(like his Master) leads up by little 
steps, then down, 11, 12, 20 cf. 6, 
174. his way of speaking of the Son 
compared with S. John's 24, 25. 
(like his Master) does not utter all 
but leaves to conscience of hearers, 
38. is not particular in use of his 
phrases, 39. cites Holy Scripture 
anonymously to those who were 
familiar with it, 49. his example 
as an athlete, 72. transposes his 
thoughts, 79. [cf. S. Iremeus iii. 7. 
2 p. 217, O.T.] his mode here and 
in the Epistle to the Romans com- 
pared, 101, 105, 153, 154, 247. here 
and in Epistle to the Galatians, 105, 
108, 130, 131, 246. and in Epistles 
to Corinthians, 107, 369, 376, to 
Thessalonians 378. and discourse 
to Athenians, 106. leads his hearers 
on even to the very hard, 105. 
by little and little, 150, 165. mixes 
praise and blame, 130, 131, 132, 
133, 138, 243, 244. his praise of 
them, 134. passes not away, 126. 
words of, words of the Holy Ghost, 
of Christ, 127. his fear of failing, 
128. mixes lowly and lofty, 174. 
expands Prophet Jeremiah, 182. and 
others lived in Heaven while here, 
204. praises of, 230, 231. his travail- 
pangs, 273. did not call himself a 
stranger only but dead to the world, 
275. allows not to eat with the cov- 
etous, 293, 294. nor drunkards yet 
we disobey, 294. his- use of term 
brother, 293, 294. not a trace of 
monastic life in his time, 294. his 
great wealth of thought, 309. his 
absolute uncare for troubles when 
now in twentieth year of preach- 
ing, 328. commanding simplicity of 
attire utterly disobeyed in the'Very 
Church, 333, 334. ever gave thanks 
in all his afflictions, 384, 385. his 
apology to the Hebrews, 390, 391. 

his deep love for them and prayers 
and asking their prayers, 390, 391. 
we must imitate in his surmounting 
all suffering and trial for Heaven's 
love, 395. 

Paul of Samosata, 21, 33, 34, 110. 
taught that God the Son had His 
beginning from the holy Virg-in, 
110. his followei*s called Jews, 33 
and note. 

Peacock beauty of, 373. 

Perseverance need of when near the 
goal, 89, 94 sqq. need of, 90, 282, 
318. from examples, 281 , 282. want 
of probably cost those who had pro- 
phesied and cast out devils, their 
crown 281. 

S. Peter, a common person may be as, 
224. praise of, 230. his tomb known, 
299. his penitence perfect, 360. God 
left that he might learn not to con- 
tradict the Master, 361. his special 
temptation to be high-minded, 361. 
his courage afterwards, 361. 

Phothms, 19. taught same with Sa- 
bellius, 110. 

Physicians taste food for the sick man 
first, 52. why they say that the lungs 
are placed under the heart, 74. parts 
of bodies that have grown callous 
yield not to hands of, 78. mix up 
medicines of many ingredients, one 
the essence of the medicine, 123. 
after deep incisions use gentle re- 
medies, 243. if he go not forward 
to the end, his early success but loss, 
282. if despised cannot avenge him- 
self on his patient, 389. 

Playthings sometimes offered to an 
intelligent child, to shew how he 
cares for higher things, 268. with- 
held if too eagerly desired, 289. 

Pleasure diminished if disappointment 
be expected to follow, 349, that 
brings forth despondency no plea- 
sure, 350. 

Poor the, a fellow freeman, 145. will 
stand by thee in the Day of Doom 
thy Advocate, 145. neglected while 
a dead body without feeling is rich- 
ly adorned, 145. if he beg, called 
Impostor, 146 — 148. ought to be 
helped, for we always eat, our chil- 
dren constantly beg of us, 147. 
ought to be helped withovit enquiry 
forwetoo ^^y Remember not my sins, 
147, 148. the Saints of old poor yet 
very mighty, 222, 224. who feed feed 
Christ, 225. many of, bitterly de- 
frauded and oppressed, 271, 292. the 
rich most tnily, 291. if a Poor man 



asked to an entertainment by one 
who overreached therefore refused, 
the other would feel shame, 294. 
none too, to give the cup of cold 
water, the ttvo mites, to visit sick, 
prisoners, 365. build us our houses 
in Heaven, 373. offerings of, accept- 
ed equally with that of Gold, 375. 
yea of ten thousand talents, 375. 

Poverty not, but caring to be despised 
for, renders us despicable, 29. the 
Christian shines out more in than 
in riches, 29. it affords too more 
pleasure, 29. we may not be im- 
patient of, 30. very many blessings 
of, 222, 239. makes bold, 223. leads 
by the hand to Heaven, 223. gi-eat 
independence of, 223. Christ called 
perfection of virtue, 223, 224. its 
ill-omened sound, 224. if voluntary, 
gives great might, 224, 225. and 
trust towards God, 225. every one 
afraid of, 273. not painful with the 
fear of God, 305. luxurious habits 
make, hated, 335. to be sought, 386. 

Praise to repudiate, one form of pride, 

Prayer intense, one ingredient of Re- 
pentance, 123, 124. heard through 
alms, 144. no marvel if not heard, 
when we neglect those who beg of 
us, 147. night-long {Travvvxh) 186. 
a great weapon, 185. special need 
of night and morning, 185, 261. a 
certain uttered in the act of tale- 
telling, 250. intense, 261,317,394. 
we sin-stained, if not heard at our 
first, draw back, 305. watching in, 
what, 317. a mighty weapon, 317. 
made worthy one unworthy, 317. 
some yawn and scratch themselves 
at, 317. laugh during, 195, 196. 
prevents sins, heals misdeeds, 318. 
cf. 365. need of, 318. ordinarily 
asked of them who love us, 399. 

Priest our, not visible, under old 
Covenant not visible, 227. in offer- 
ings of Christians, each his own, 
143, 144. 

Priests, their aid towards forgive- 
ness, 123. the, offer up the prayer 
of all, 196. if a man call himself a, 
enquire as not giving but receiving 
from him, 148, 149. wicked, grace 
works through , for sake of their flock, 
themselves condemned, 282, 283. 
may not be silent, 283. grave re- 
sponsibility of, 389 sqq. see Clergy. 

Promises in what respect they of old 
received, in what sense received 
them not, 267, 296, 297. received 

by trusting thoroughIy,268. Christ's 
not that we shall have power to stay 
the sun and moon but that He and 
the Father will dwell in us, 316. 

Proo/" continued after a person is satis- 
fied wearies him, 312. 

Proverb a, 291. 

Psalm xxiii, xxxii, cxvi. sung at fune- 
rals, 58. vi. said every day, 196. 

Punishments, 101. there not here, 70, 
236, 274. given with blessing here 
that there may be no account, 71. 
instances, 71. evil of being without 
alluded to, 29. in store for the wicked, 
83. to the soul too, 88 Isee Soul] . 
much spared us, 122. use of, 157. we 
must exact from ourselves, 362. 
greater to those who have enjoyed 
good things here without becoming 
better, 241. will come, 248. as in 
dread of, we grieve at leaving this 
life, 279. if we deny our sins, 362. 
if clergy are disobeyed and weep, we 
incur, 389. 

Purity of itself admits to the kingdom, 
its absence takes to destruction, 283. 


Race foot-, S. Paul uses as his simile 
as being the easiest of the contests, 

Reasoning faith opposed to, 254,382. 
our reasonings differ not from spi- 
ders' webs, 395. reasoning-power 
given to each is a talent, 353. 

Repentance, 124. after Baptism yet 
remains to us, 234. a propitiation, 
234. after Baptism is of grace, 93. 
sets free from old age of sin, and 
makes strong, restores not to the 
former briglitness, 119. if usedaright 
will blot out ail sins, 122. in deepest 
peril can establish in safety, 122. 
medicine of, contains about nine in- 
gredients, almsgiving the most es- 
sential, 122, 123. necessity of strict, 
158, 318. its might, 159. restores 
lost beauty so as even the King may 
desire it, 183, 184. even from deep- 
est deformity, 1 83. ours a weak, 21 6. 
here of use, there oi none avail, 249, 
250. why unavailing Esau's, 359 
sqq. Cain's, 359. Judas, 361 . sins too 
great for, 360. S. Peter's, 360. King 
David's, 361, 363. does not forget 
sins, 361, 362, see sins. 

Repetition use of, 115, 365. 

Reproach, apt to pervert ihe soul and 
darken the judgement, 244. deep 
trial of when in presence of many, 



244. Christ endured 302. we must 
accept, thus we put away, 318. 
makes our sins lighter for us, 319. 
S. Paul does not allow the Clerg-y if 
despised to use, but to weep, 389. 

Reproof profitable to endure, 60, 61. 
bitterer than fire and knife ; we 
must take lessons from surgeon in 
using, 355. patience in giving, 356. 
looking to the reward in store, 355. 
not always immediate, 360. 

Rest God gives not full here, 267. not 
here, 371. 

Resurrection preaching to heathen of 
no avail while Christians by un- 
seemly grief at funerals contradict, 
56, 61 . they believe it not who give 
way to mad sorrow at loss of theirs, 
58. some believe that some rise that 
others do not, 228. aids to those 
who believe not, 70. a deceit not to 
believe, 83. disbelief of, 110. that 
there is, a part of our Confession, 
91. though not yet here hope gives 
it an existence in our soul, 248. 
at the doors, 248, Abel and those of 
his time knew not of a, 258. yet of 
old the hope of it given, 2'S7. of all 
together, 364. 

Resurrection Christ's, 6, 25, 51, 120, 

Rewards, there, Qd, 70, 237, 248, 314. 
cf. 302. to receive here an insult, 
314. if we are god only for, we 
shall never be good, 170. differences 
of, 172. given to thankfulness, 239, 
241. who believe not in, please not 
God, 259. we may not despond of, 


Sabbath-rests three, 77. the first, 
God's; the second, Palestine: 77. 
the third, Heaven, 78, 84, 91. the 
proof of this, 81, 82. 

Sabbath-day meet occupations for, 
what, 82. 

Sabellius, 20, 21, 22. taught that 
Father Son Spirit are but one, 110. 

Sacrifice the Cross the Gne, 189, 213. 
cf. 169,176,202,221,234,309,310, 
361. ours the memorial of that One, 
213. our, 383. Deacon's cry Holy 
things for the holy uttered after 
completion of, 215. see Eucharist. 

Sacrifices shewed weakness by need- 
ing repetition, 212, 219. the -s^ak- 
ness of shewn, and they abolished, 
ere Christ came, 218. 219. 

Sacrifices of Christians, 143. all their 

rites heavenly, 176. their own souls, 
143. shadowed out in Old Testa- 
ment too, 143. the Martyrs body 
and sou!, 143. voluntary poverty is 
also a whole-burnt-offering, 144. 
those of Cornelius, 144. 
Saint every Christian a, in faith, 134. 
Saints if put in scale against whole 
world avail more, 280, 314 sqq. 
some say "we cannot be as the" 
310. friends of God, 279 sqq., 314, 
315. how great their virtue, 316. 
gladly wait for us, 321, 322. made 
to shine by means of affliction, 343, 
Salvation each can aid others in the 
way of, 352 — 356. has even more 
advantage thereto than the teacher 
has, 352. 
Saul declined the Kingdom yet escaped 
not peril for managing it amiss, 390. 
Scripture Holy Old and New Testa- 
ment of One and the Same, 10. uses 
human expressions of God, 69. food, 
108. experience of makes of full 
age, 109, 110. no one attends to, 
110. some do not know existence 
of, 110, 111. Holy Ghost provided 
for preservation of, 110, 111. Scrip- 
ture testimonies to, 111. may not 
beknown without learning,! 11,112. 
people's ignorance of, 112. what the 
Reader in Church gives out when 
he goes to the desk to read, 112. 
when dispersed God inspired Ezra 
to gather them, 111. to be heard 
witli fear, 127. Old Testament sha- 
dows out Christian sacrifices, 143. 
say no more than is needed, 259. 
Scripture Holy texts commented on 
or explained. 

Ps. vi. 7 217 

XXV. 7 95 

xxxii. 4 129 

xl. 1 144 

xlv. 10 (forget) . . . 184 

11 (desire thv beautv) 183, 


13 332 

lii. 8 374 

Ixviii. 13 373 

Ixxvii. 2 ...... 260 

ciii. 5 . 119 

Prov. xiv. 29 .... 232, 263 

xxiv. 11 ...... 136 

Isa. i. 16-18 . . . . . 158 

Mai. i. 14 . . . , . . 375 

S. Matt. V. 42 147 

vii. 7 ...... . 260 

14 ...... 344 

22 281 



X. 38 327 lower motive, by degrees leading up 

xviii. 18 60 to a higher, 354. abstaining from, 

xxiii. 2, 3 388 a due observance, 382. 

XXV. 2 364 Sins the lesser not even a spot or 

8 337 w;rmAr/e but far worse, 15. not small, 

15 353 318. recoil on the doer, 14, 15. pa- 
S.Mark xii. 44 329 rent of unbelief, 79. notwithstand- 

S. Lukevi.36 148 ing, hope remains so long as ^o-rfay 

X. 30 sqq. . . . 135 sqq. lasts, 82. we may not despair after, 

xvi. 9^ 16 83, 158, 159. he who would look 

• 25 71 for pardon for sins of youth must 

S.Johnviii.35 295 not go on in them when old, 95. 

xvi. 33 93 those who have grown old through, 

Rom. xii. 1 143 repentance frees, 119. all can be 

xiii. 14 346, 347 blotted out by a right repentance, 

1 Cor. V. 11 293, 294 122. must be confessed one by one, 

vi. 9, 10 352 124, 362. affliction wipes out, 327. 

vii. 23 294 confession lessens, 362. we must re- 

ix. 26 94 member our, 124, 184, 361, 362, 

x. 13 340 364. if we remember, God forgets, 

2 Cor. iv. 17 (light affliction) . 328 362. remembering helps cure, 362. 

xi. 2 337 great help of remembering, 274, 362, 

xii. 9 385 364. punishment if we deny, 362. 

Gal. vi. 2 355,356 pity if we confess, 362. called ^//orn*, 

p:ph. vi. 14, 17 74,75 128—130. not enough to remove, 

Phil. ii. 6, 7 (form of slave, form of treatment also needed, 129. if we 

God) 23 cut out, we may enjov the good 

Col. i. 20 208 things innumerable, 13.' difficulty of 

lTim.ii.9 .... 331,333,334 cleansing away, 158. but almsgiving 

Servants two are enough, 329, 330. a and standing up for the wi'onged do 

Lady walking out should not be at- it, 158, 159, cf. 123. if we begin, 

tended by many, 330. Angels do not God cleanses, 158. from of ignor- 

have, 330. ance none is free, 189. we ought to 

Sepulchres see Tombs. mourn over others', 196. and keep 

Sermons applause at, 115. silence as to them, 252. to tell oiu* 

Service in Church every day, 215. in- own to God and our friends, 251, 

creases love, 228, 229, 230. benefit 252. prevented or healed by prayer, 

of being together, 351, 380. 318. one enough to cast us out of 

Seventij tlie, translated (by ordering the kingdom and they are many, 

of the Holy Ghost) Scriptures into 318. to acknowledge, not humility 

Greek, 111. but candour, 319. some too great 

Shame in the wicked their own wit- for Repentance, 360. remembering 

ness against themselves, 277. before always our, does away remembrance 

men not before God, 363. of others' wrongs, 363. we must 

*S'/iee/? treatment of unsound, 215. ofter to God, 210, 363. penitence 

Silence peril of to ministers of the tears prayers deeds of mercy wash 

word, 283. away, 365. by mourning our, we 

Silk a superfluity, 331. draw God to us, 389. 

Sin a very plague, 193. in Heb. xi. 25 Sins putting- away, w^hat, 212. 

holding back from affliction, 301. Sinners, if others call us we must not 

to, belongs ease, 302. causes some be angry, 319, 320, cf. 361. 

to pine awayfrom its bitterness, 358. Slave-dealers, 330. 

easily overcome if we have the will, Slaves good the Master sometimes 

323. the sole disgrace though no called after, 280, 281, two suffice 

one thinks so, 331. the sole evil, for a family who are willing to part 

386. it is a duty to keep another with superfluities, 329, 330. 

from grave sin even if need be by Sleep some indulge in the day, we 

force, after in other ways and by spiritually, 276. 

begging his help for oneself, 354, Son force of word, 12, 13, 26, 32, 54, 

355. King David long bewailed his, 68, 169. the Son and sons contrast- 

361. may be hindered even from a ed, 52, 53, 54. 



Soul punished, 88, 238. suffers, 83. 
in its vig-our when a person is in 
old ag-e, 94. when one is young it is 
attacked by fevers, 95. purified by 
Blood of Christ, 192. its eye how 
to make quick and beautiful, 217. 
ming-led with soul increases love, 
229. might of a great, 232. in ca- 
lamity more apt to become impa- 
tient, 240, reproach a severe trial of 
the, 244. and scorning and jests, 
325. covetousness pollutes, 293. eat- 
ing at the banquets of the over- 
reaching destroys, 293. and defiles, 
294. stretched out in prayer to God, 
317. wrestles in Theatre of Heaven, 
332. the well-adorned, has God for 
its Lover, her place with the choirs 
of Angels, 336. virgin if pure even 
though married, 332, 336, 337. it 
the Lord seeks after, 338. exhausted, 
how refreshed, 339, 340. made col- 
lected through affliction, 343. en- 
ervated through luxury, 345. if body 
effeminate soul shares it, 345. must 
be forced to the remembrance of its 
sins, 363. in tribulation liable to 
despondency, 380. must be braced 
to receive the abidance of the Spi- 
rit, 394, 395. 

Spirit Holy, see God the Holy 

Starvation no one died of, except of 
his own will, 148. 

Strangers Patriarchs to this world, 
268, 275, 277, 278, 280. King Da- 
vid, 280. we to our own country, 
275, 279. if we to the world God 
would be called our God, 280, 281. 

Substance no word will express, even 
of Angel or man, far less of God, 23. 

Suffering perfects, 52, 72, 104. and is 
a cause of salvation, 52. cf. 104. 
we are to rejoice in our own, as 
paying the penalty of our sins here, 
71. helps to wipe them out, 327. use 
of, 157, 327. it is only our own 
which moves us, 157. amid, we may 
be calm within, as is the sky when 
outwardly overcast, 203. of Abel 
preaches beyond all speech, 257. in 
which they of old passed their whole 
lives we have no dream of, 320, 326. 
all can be borne if so be we be ap- 
proved in Heaven, 338, 329. 

Suicide, some oppressed long for death 
and only the fear of God holds them 
from, 271. V 

Surgeons their mingled gentleness 
and unflinchingness, 355. 

Suspect we are apt to, 148. 

Swearing, 284. 


Talents teacher has five, learner has 
one, 353. the earth wherein single 
talent is buried, the bad heart, 353. 

Teacher of grammar must make the 
boy master the things to be learnt, 
115. if he say over the alphabet, it 
is not to teach himself, 317. 

Teacher has five talents but learner 
has one, 353. if he teaches a child 
and the child listens not, one is 
called in who punishes the child, 

Tears aid to wash away sins, 197, 365. 
one ingredient in medicine of repen- 
tance, 123, 124, 158. not of, but of 
wailing and mourning are they 
worthy who of choice fail of the 
things to come, 270, 271. S. Chry- 
sostom calls to, 273. of Christ, 19*6. 

Temple its magnificence, 207. its won- 
ders, 366. and from being One, 207. 
as the Jewish, was for the whole 
world, so is Christ oitr Priest in the 
Temple of Heaven, 208. offering 
even of hair accepted for, 375. 

Temporal thmgs we seek first and lose 
both them and Heaven, 112, 113. 
God gives when He sees us prefer 
spiritual, not when rivetted to these 
241, 289, 290. given as a refresh- 
ment, 267. often possessed not as 
His gift but from overreaching, 241. 
Patriarchs of old loved their Home 
cared not for these, 268. so magni- 
ficent, 269. who seek lose them and 
Divine ; who prefer Divine obtain 
both, 308. soon go, 371 sqq. when 
we mind, the grace of the Spirit 
goes, 393. see Human things. 

Temptation different species of con- 
duct under, 72. terrible onslaught of, 
on the young man to be met by as- 
cetic practises, 98. the noblest had 
to pass through, 133. stronger in 
time of calamity, 240. shall be as 
chaff if we hold fast to God, 328. 

Thanksgiving we must bear all with, 
that we may attain the true joy, 
197, 383, 384, 385. as S. Paul did, 
384, 385. thank God both for comfort 
and afflictions, 385. brings untold 
blessings, 239, 241. without we can- 
not serve God, 376. our offering, 
383. offered through a contrite mind, 
383. due to God the Son, 383. 

Thoughts some beyond power of ex- 
pression, 19, 23. 



Through or by (hik) not limited to the 
Son but used of the Father too, 52. 
of. on Galatians, pp. 4,5. 

To-dny, 26, 79, 80, 82, 90, 378, 379. 

Toynbs why they of old cared for their, 

298, 299. of SS. Peter, Paul, John, 
Thomas known , of the rest unknown , 

299. where'er any one's may be the 
earth is the Lord's, 299. 

Tongue why given us, 14. 

Trial without, we cannot know our- 
selves, 42, 43. life full of people who 
cause, and thus strengthen, 232. 
God exercises His own athletes with , 
287. in, bearing with evil a great 
weapon, 351. 

Trinity see God the Father God 
the Son God the Holy Ghost. 

Truth our girdle, 216. 

U. V. 

Vain-glory mother of evils, 319. we 
act for, 331. 

Virgin souls, uncorrupt even though 
married, 332, 336, 337. earthly vir- 
ginity a mere shadow of that, 337. 
the True, 338. 

Virtue like bitter medicine, 349. 

Virtues to be practised one by one, 
taking care in acquiring new to not 
let go the former, 283, 284. 

Unbelief, 265, 269. arises sometimes 
from faintheartedness, 134. 


Wants who has few, to be preferred, 
28, 330 sqq. 

Water taken lessens not fountain ; so 
works remain to doer, 15. a fevered 
person drinking much, need not be 
highminded, 27. quenches red-hot 
iron, so forbearance anger, 262. 

Wealth peril of love of, 282. peril of, 
385, 386. 5ee Money, Poor, Poverty, 

Wicked sometimes receives here the 
reward of his few good deeds, there 
utter punishment, 71. instances 

hereof, 71. God wills that His chil- 
dren shew pity and compassion to 
the, 136. laugh at and condemn 
those like themselves, 276. and 
thereby judge themselves, 277. 
Wickedness, by remembering God we 
forget, 184, 185. of alms from ill- 
gotten gains, 295. 
Wife a great good and great evil, 240. 
Will with, nothing difficult, 173. not 
even to overcome sin, 323. inclines 
readily to ill, 155. immense power 
of, not apart from action, 204, 205. 
two kinds of, 219, 220. alone needed, 
284. of it comes Faith, 395. 
Wine need of moderation in, 99. 
Women race of in towns weakened 
through delicate habits, 345. living 
in country stronger than men in 
towns, 345. 
Words when human fail to express 
of God, Him must we praise, 18. 
thoughts that may not be expressed 
by, 19, 23. our, bare: God's not so, 
Works good or ill, the doer first reaps 
fruit of, 15, who holds the Faith and 
does right, of full age, 117. dead, a 
grievous pollution, 193. our work 
and God's act combine 229. God's 
grace preceding, our work following, 
283. good, need of, 233. aid from, 
210. the wealth of, 216. of teachers, 
their power, 229. ill, 234. 
World to be one day transfigured, 34. 
avails not weighedagainst the saints, 
280, 314 sqq. nor against the soul's 
beauty, 336. 

Yawning at prayers, 317. 

Yonder, Heaven, 69, 86, 88, 112, 202, 
278, 291, 316. are the Rewards, the 
punishments, 70. the Rewards, 69. 
the Rest, 286. 

Young man has excuse only in things 
that need experience, not effort and 
and striving, 97, ascetic practices 
his safeguard against violent temp- 
tation, 98. 



i. 3 23 

iii. 9 362 

10 362 

16 84 

18, 19 84 

iv. 4 256 

7 256 

9 362 

10 368 

vi. 2 344 

5(?) 69 

9 343 

xii. 1 285 

7 266,285 

xiii. 15 66 

XV. 5 269 

6 395 

xviii. 15 .269 

21 69 

xxi. 12 285 

xxii. 1 287 

xxvii. 41 359 

xxviii. 20 222 

xlvii. 9 297, 344 


ii. 14 302 

iii. 6 281 

vi. 9 151 

xix. 18 368 

19 369 

20 39 

XX. 19 367, 369 

21 367 

XXXV. 23 375 


xi. 12 ....'.. . 43 

xvii. 12 272 


vi. 7 Ill 

xxviii. 23 180 

cf.xxix. 18 >358 

xxxii. 9 10 

15 384 

cf.xxxiii. 2 366 


X. 12 



xii. 8 , . 241 

12 363 

xvi. 11, 12 319 

xxiv. 17 . 231 


xviii. 18 



i. 21 . . , . . 240, 385 

ii.4 55 

5 240 

9 240 

10 240 

xxxiv. 3 109 


i. 2 Ill 

ii. 4, 5 35 

8 10 

11 127 

iv. 4 ....... 185 

5 .143 

vi. 5 249 

6 . . 123,124,196,361 

7 217 

vii. 12 88 

ix. 16 384 

X. 13 79 

xi. 5 290 

xii. 4 79 

xiv. 1 ...... . 79 

2 ...... . 69 

xvi. 2 ....... 342 

4 . 184 

xvii. 3, 4 ...... 184 

xviii. 9 369 

24 . 392 

xix. 5 ....... 182 

xxiii. 1 ...... . 239 

4 58 



xxiv. 1 . . . 
XXV. 7 . . . 

. . 298, 299 
. . . 95 

18 . . . 

19 . . . 
xxxii. 4 . . . 

. . . . 71 
. . . . 71 
. . . . 129 

5 . . . 
7 . . . 

. 122, 252 

. . . . 58 

xxxiv. 11 . 

. . 112 

12 . . . 

. ... 112 

13 . . . 

. . . . 14 

13, 14 . 
xxxvi. 1, 2 . . 
xxxvii. 5 . . . 

. ... 112 
. . . . 79 
. . . 363 

xxxviii. 7 . . . 

. . . . 74 

xxxix. 12 . . . 
xl. 1 . . . 

. . 277,280 
. ... 144 

6,7. . . 

. ... 143 

xlii. 6 . . . 

. . . . 304 

10 . . . 

. ... 244 

xlv. 10, 11 . 

11 . . . 

13 . . . 
xlix. 6- . . . 

7 . . . 

8 . . . 

. ... 183 
. . 183, 335 
. ... 332 
. ... 242 
. . 16,249 
. ... 365 

1.3 . . . 

. ... 2/2 

14 . . . 

. ... 143 

20 . . . 

. . . . 250 

23 . . . 

li. 1 . . . 

. ... 143 
. ... 374 

10 . . 
16 . . . 

. . 23, 158 
. ... 219 

17 . . . 
lu. 8 . . . 

. . .123,143 
. . . . 374 

Iv. 12 . . . 
Ixiii. 6 . . . 

. ... 244 
. ... 184 

Ixv. 9 . . . 

. ... 128 

Ixviii. 13 . . . 

Ixxvii. 2 . . . 

Ixxviii. 34 . . . 

Ixxxii. 8 . . . 

xc. 2 ... 

10 . . . 

. ... 373 
. ... 260 
. ... 384 

... 93 
. . . . 24 

... 249 

xciv. 7 . . . 
xcv. 2 . . . 

. . . . 79 
. ... 249 

xcvii. 3 . . . 
cii. 9 . . . 

. ... 272 
. . . . 123 

ciii. 5 . . . 

. ... 119 

ex. 1 . . . 

. . . . 93 

cxii. 2 

. ... 261 

9 . . . 

. ... 224 

cxvi. 7 . . . 

cxviii. 15 . . . 

cxix. 71 . . . 

103 . . 

cxxi. 3 . . . 

. . . . 58 
. . . . 372 
. ... 384 
. ... Ill 
... 155 

4 . . 

. ... 155 

cxxvii. 1 . . . 

... 361 

cxxviii. 1 242 

cxxxii. 12 312 

cxlv. 8 374 

cxlvi. 9 374 


iii. 21 38 

27 375 

viii. 22 32 

X. 4 222 

xii. 28 318 

xiv. 29 232, 263 

xvi. 6 123 

xviii. 3 79 

17 122 

19 229,355 

xxi. 13 144 

xxiv. 11 136 

xxvii. 17 229 

XXX. 8 222 


i. 2 197 

ii. 4 197 

6, 7 197 

ix. 16 222 

xii. 8 197 


i. 2 69, 272 

12 219 

16 158 

16, 17 112 

17 159 

17, 18 158 

iv. 6 322 

V. 2 129 

6 128 

vi. 4 368 

xi. 9 b 182 

xxvi. 12 71 

XXXV. 10 84,274 

xl. 2 71 

xliii. 25 184 

26 122, 184 

cf.xlviii. 10 222 

liii. 9 167 

Ivii. 17, 18 124 

Ixv. 17 181 


iii. 3 194 

iv. 14 158 

vi. 20 143 

vu. 4 207 

a See the same form of citation in " The reference Hab. ii. 14 in page 182 
S. Chrysostom on Romans p. 459. ! is an error for this. 



viii. 4 

ix. 1 

xxvii. 6 


xvi. 49 
xxviii. 3 
Kxxiii. 11 


iv. 8 
V. 17 


iv. 2 

vi. 6 
xii. 10 


V. 23 . 

vi. 6 . 

viii. 11 . 


vi. 2 , 

8 , 
vii. 1,2 


i. 14 
iv. 1 


iv. 8, 9 



305, 307 
, . 304 
, . 308 
, . 306 



. 143 

. 136 

108, 128 




6 . 306 


i. 22 28, 74 

ii. 12 229 

18 236 

iii.30 ....... 123 

V. 6 236 

ix. 15 Ill 

X. 28 291 

xvi. 3 280,315 

xix. 10 250 

11 250 

XX. 29 >K 224 

xxviii. 3 123 

25 251 

xxxiv. 22 292 1 




38 ..... . 




i. 20 191 

21 . 66 

iv. 6 303 

V. 3 222 

11, 12 385 

20 108, 231 

22 ... . 14, 28, 318 

42 147 

44 . 231 

vi. 24 195 

33 112,267 

vii. 1 . . . . 134, 251, 388 

3 388 

6 236 

7 260 

14 344,384 

22 281 

23 282 

24 141 

viii. 20 222, 321 

X. 9, 10 222 

16 . . . . . . . 351 

18 286 

24 323 

25 323 

36 286 

38 286,327 

42 365 

xi. 8 344 

xii. 24 325 

xiii. 3 31 

6 . 
17 . 
22 . 
55 . 

19 . 
26, 27 

XVI. i» 
xviii. 15 





xix. 21 223, 385 

23 223 

24 ....... 385 

29 267, 290 

XX. 18, 19 103 

26 290 

xxi. 40 38 

43 35 

44 35 

xxii. 29 Ill 

xxui.-2, 3 388 

12 290 

xxiv. 14 249 

21 249 

XXV. 8 337 

12 337,364 

26 364 

31,32 364 

33 364 

34 364 

34-36 225 

40 14 

41 364 

42 364 

45 14 

xxvi. 28 201 

38, 39 103 

41 72 

68 325 

75 360 

xxvu. 39 302 

40 302, 325 

63 325 

xxviii. 19 Ql 


ii. 5 ^1 

vi. 18 222 

xi. 25 123 

xii. 42 365,375 

44 329 


i. 2 40 

ii. 26 264 

vi. 25 196 

36 148,373 

x. 20 224 

30 135 

34 135 

35 135 

37 135 

xi. 8 317 

15 41 

.41 123 

xii. 42 42 

xiii. 34, 35 35 

xiv. 27 286 

xvi. 9 16, 86 

11 42 

25 71 

26 365 

xvii. 10 27, 305 

26,27 264 

xviii. 6 317 

11 251,318 

13 318 

xix. 27 35 

xxi. 2 17 

xxii. 19 213 

31, 32 361 


i. 1 24 

3 24 

4 24 

10 32 

11 302 

15 13 

17 39 

ii. 19 103 

iii. 20 79 

34 33, 191 

iv. 24 143 

V. 21 166 

22 21, 166 

23 383 

vi. 42 325 

m 326 

vii. 12 325 

42 325 

52 325 

viii. 12 22 

18 199 

35 294 

42 101 

48 325, 326 

ix. 4 276 

X. 18 103,324 

20 325 

xi. 5 51 

26 139 

xii. 23 51 

25 286 

49 101 

xiii. 16 6 

34 45, 199 

35 45,357 

xiv. 2 6,295 

15 283 

17 393 

23 203,316 

26 180 

27 357 

28 101, 104 

30 52,324 

XV. 14 271,283 



XV. 16 324 

22 128 

26 199 

27 (?) 199 

xvi. 20 344 

28 31 

33 . 93,249,286,326,344 

xvii. 11 228 

19 210 

20 , . 198 

21 45 

24 198,217 

xviii. 23 325 

xix.37 364 

XX. 23 176 


i. 11 36 

ii. 5, 9, 10 207 

36 11,32 

46 41 

iii. 6 222, 225 

26 66 

iv. 32 228 

V. 20 36 

41 245 

vii. 5 285 

34 317 

51 218 

53 . 38 

X. 4 144 

xi. 29 321 

xii. 5 228 

22, 23 307 

xiii. 26 66 

41 196 

xiv. 12 307 

15 305 

XV. 10 182 

xvii. 30, 31 106 

xviii. 17 4 

xix. 6 118 

XX. 24 56 

xxi. 20 3 

20, 21 1 

21 3,391 

xxii. 18 2 

19,20 2 

21 . . . . . . .1,2 

xxiii. 5 ...*.... 5 


i. 12 254 

18 128, 272 

27 ^. 39 

iii. 8 .170 

31 117 

V. 10 374 

14 48 

15 51 

20 8, 209 

vi. 1,2 ...... 120 

4 119 

5 ; 119 

6 119 

9 120 

viii.3 . . . . 92, 164, 182 

7 221 

15 56 

18 . 328 

24 70 

25 70 

26 370,384 

32 51 

34 166 

35 ....:.. 204 

37 . . . . . . . 328 

38, 39 204 

ix. 3 3 

15 156 

16 155, 156 

19 ...... . 156 

xi. 4 264 

13, 14 1 

xii. 1 143 

5 ...... . 79 

18 351 

20 289 

xiii. 10 230 

11 ... . 9, 228, 247 

14 . . 98, 173,346,347 

xiv. 10 274 

XV. 4 Ill 

25 . 4 


i. 17 3 

ii. 9 ... 18, 86, 270, 329 

11 215 

14 395 

iii. 2 . 108 

3 .107 

10 116 

12 116 

22 36 

iv. 7 274 

10 327 

11 328 

11-13 326 

13 . 328 

V. 5 ...... . 71 

6 ....... 358 

II .... . 293, 294 
vi. 7 239, 290 

9, 10 . . . . . . 352 

vii. 7 205,219 

14 134 

23 . . . . . . . 294 

29 ... . 30, 99, 228 



vii. 31 

. 30, 99 

viii. 6 

. . 53 


. . 357 

ix. 15 

. . 328 


. 72, 94 


128, 384 

X. 4 

. . 302 


. . 376 


. . Ill 


. . 128 

13 .... 72 

, 327, 340 


. . 294 

xi. 30 . . . . . 

. . 71 


. 41, 42 


. . 41 


. 28, 44 

xiii. 1, 2 .... 

. . 44 


. . 45 


. . 230 


. . 324 

XV. 32 

. . 197 


. . 240 


. . 368 


. . 155 

xvi. 4 

. . 4 


i. 22 

. . 119 

iii. 13 

. . 369 


. 369 

iv. 17 

. 328 


204, 376 

V. 4 

. 279 

vi. 2 

. 93 

4,5 .... 

. . 326 


. 326 


222, 326 


. 201 

viii. 5 

. 134 


. 375 

X. 5 ..... 

. 39 

xi. 2 

. 337 


. 326 

26 .... . 

. 328 

xii. 2 

. 328 

8, 9 

. 385 


. 326 


. 340 


. 385 


i. 4 

. 104 


108, 131 


. 328 

ii. 8 






iii. 4 

10.j, 131 


. 38 



iv. 18 28 

19 . . 122, 246, 273, 360 

20 108 

V. 4 360